The arid Horn of Africa has been a renowned source of biological resources for thousands of years. One of only two hotspots that is entirely arid, the area is home to a number of endemic and threatened antelope, notably threatened species like the beira, the dibatag, and Spekes gazelle. This hotspot also holds more endemic reptiles than any other region in Africa. Other distinctive endemics include the Somali wild ass and the sacred baboon.
Unfortunately, The Horn of Africa is also one of the most degraded hotspots in the world, with only about 5 percent of its original habitat remaining. Overgrazing is the most destructive force, but charcoal harvesting along with unstable government control have also been major problems.