Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Hyaenidae > Hyaena > Hyaena brunnea

Hyaena brunnea (Brown Hyena)

Synonyms: Parahyaena brunnea

Wikipedia Abstract

The brown hyena (Hyaena brunnea, formerly Parahyaena brunnea), also called strandwolf, is a species of hyena found in Namibia, Botswana, western and southern Zimbabwe, southern Mozambique and South Africa. It is currently the rarest species of hyena. The largest remaining brown hyena population is located in the southern Kalahari Desert and coastal areas in Southwest Africa.
View Wikipedia Record: Hyaena brunnea

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 21.17
EDGE Score: 3.79


Adult Weight [1]  93.15 lbs (42.25 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  1.52 lbs (688 g)
Female Maturity [1]  2 years 9 months
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Frugivore
Diet - Endothermic [2]  10 %
Diet - Fruit [2]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  10 %
Diet - Scavenger [2]  70 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  3 months 2 days
Litter Size [1]  3
Litters / Year [1]  0
Maximum Longevity [1]  32 years
Weaning [1]  11 months 12 days


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Etosha Pan halophytics Namibia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Highveld grasslands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kalahari xeric savanna Botswana, Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kaokoveld desert Namibia, Angola Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nama Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Namib desert Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Namibian savanna woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian halophytics Mozambique, Botswana Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Itala Game Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve II 72822 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve   Mpumalanga, South Africa  
Malolotja Nature Reserve IV 42044 Swaziland  
Namib-Naukluft National Park II 12585619 Namibia  
Richtersveld National Park II 399195 Northern Cape, South Africa
Skeleton Coast Game Park II 4168395 Namibia  
Weenen Nature Reserve   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  


Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No

Prey / Diet

Antidorcas marsupialis (springbok)[3]
Arctocephalus pusillus (Brown Fur Seal)[4]
Canis mesomelas (Black-backed Jackal)[4]
Desmodillus auricularis (Cape short-eared gerbil)[4]
Raphicerus campestris (steenbok)[5]
Raphicerus sharpei (Sharpe's grysbok)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acinonyx jubatus (Cheetah)1
Aquila rapax (Tawny Eagle)1
Aquila verreauxii (Verreaux's Eagle)1
Canis mesomelas (Black-backed Jackal)2
Caracal caracal (Caracal)1
Crocuta crocuta (Spotted Hyena)1
Lycaon pictus (African wild dog)1
Panthera leo (Lion)1
Panthera pardus (Leopard)1
Polemaetus bellicosus (Martial Eagle)1


Parasitized by 
Echidnophaga larina[6]
Taenia crocutae <Unverified Name>[7]
Taenia hyaenae <Unverified Name>[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Opel-Zoo von Opel HessischeZoostiftung
Port Lympne Wild Animal Park
San Diego Zoo
Taipei Zoo
The Anne van Dyk Cheetah Centre
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbH
Zoological Garden Prague

Range Map



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Antidorcas marsupialis, James W. Cain III, Paul R. Krausman, and Heather L. Germaine, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 753, pp. 1–7 (2004)
4The Namib: Detritus and Fog Dependence Scott Christy March 1st, 2006
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6International Flea Database
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access