Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Mustelidae > Neovison > Neovison vison
 

Neovison vison (American Mink)

Synonyms: Mustela vison

Wikipedia Abstract

The American mink (Neovison vison) is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to North America, though human intervention has expanded its range to many parts of Europe and South America. Because of range expansion, the American mink is classed as a least-concern species by the IUCN. Since the extinction of the sea mink, the American mink is the only extant member of the genus Neovison. The American mink is a carnivore which feeds on rodents, fish, crustaceans, frogs, and birds. In its introduced range in Europe it has been classified as an invasive species linked to declines in European mink, Pyrenean desman, and water vole populations. It is the most frequently farmed animal for its fur, exceeding the silver fox, sable, marten, and skunk in economic importance.
View Wikipedia Record: Neovison vison

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
4
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
24
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 9.14
EDGE Score: 2.32

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  2.17 lbs (985 g)
Birth Weight [3]  9 grams
Female Weight [2]  1.57 lbs (714 g)
Male Weight [2]  2.77 lbs (1.26 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  75.9 %
Female Maturity [3]  11 months 4 days
Male Maturity [3]  1 year
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Ectothermic [4]  20 %
Diet - Endothermic [4]  50 %
Diet - Fish [4]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  10 %
Forages - Ground [4]  100 %
Gestation [3]  42 days
Litter Size [3]  5
Litters / Year [3]  1
Maximum Longevity [3]  11 years
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams, Coastal
Weaning [3]  49 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alaska & Canada Pacific Coastal Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Barents Sea Drainages Finland, Norway, Russia, Svalbard Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cantabric Coast - Languedoc France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Laurentian Great Lakes Canada, United States Nearctic Large Lakes    
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeast US & Southeast Canada Atlantic Drainages Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Norwegian Sea Drainages Norway, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Oregon & Northern California Coastal United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Baltic Lowlands Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
St. Lawrence Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Teays - Old Ohio United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Grand Teton National Park II 231724 Wyoming, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lago Puelo National Park II 47607 Chubut, Argentina
Lake Chelan National Recreation Area II 606367 Washington, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Lanín National Park II 536819 Neuquen, Argentina
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Lazovsky Zapovednik Ia 299030 Primorsky Krai, Russia
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Los Alerces National Park II 463045 Chubut, Argentina  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserve de la Biosphere de Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve 1383790 Canada  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Tierra Del Fuego National Park II 172861 Argentina
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Visimskiy Zapovednik Biosphere Reserve 443816 Russia  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Yosemite National Park II 95209 California, United States

Prey / Diet

Actitis macularius (Spotted sandpiper)[5]
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)[5]
Anas cyanoptera (Cinnamon Teal)[5]
Anas fulvigula (Mottled Duck)[5]
Arvicola amphibius (European water vole)[5]
Chrysemys picta (Painted Turtle)[5]
Lithobates palustris (Pickerel Frog)[6]
Microtus townsendii (Townsend's vole)[7]
Myodes glareolus (Bank vole)[5]
Myotis sodalis (Indiana bat)[8]
Napaeozapus insignis (woodland jumping mouse)[9]
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)[5]
Oryzomys palustris (marsh rice rat)[10]
Poliocitellus franklinii (Franklin's ground squirrel)[11]
Pseudacris triseriata (Western Chorus Frog)[5]
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)[5]
Sylvilagus audubonii (Desert Cottontail)[12]
Thomomys mazama (western pocket gopher)[5]
Urocitellus beldingi (Belding's ground squirrel)[13]
Urocitellus richardsonii (Richardson's ground squirrel)[14]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter cooperii (Cooper's Hawk)1
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)1
Agkistrodon piscivorus (conanti)1
Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)2
Bubo scandiacus (Snowy Owl)1
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)2
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)2
Buteo regalis (Ferruginous Hawk)2
Buteo swainsoni (Swainson's Hawk)2
Canis latrans (Coyote)5
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)2
Crotalus atrox (Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake)1
Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake (atricaudatus))1
Falco mexicanus (Prairie Falcon)1
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)2
Lynx rufus (Bobcat)3
Martes americana (American Marten)1
Megascops asio (Eastern Screech-Owl)2
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)6
Mustela erminea (Ermine)1
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)3
Nucifraga columbiana (Clark's Nutcracker)1
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)1
Pituophis catenifer (Gopher Snake)1
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)2
Strix varia (Barred Owl)1
Taxidea taxus (American Badger)4
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)3
Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Gray Fox)2
Vulpes macrotis (Kit Fox)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)4

Predators

Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake (atricaudatus))[15]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Aelurostrongylus pridhami <Unverified Name>[16]
Alaria alata <Unverified Name>[16]
Alaria craterum <Unverified Name>[16]
Amphipsylla marikovskii ewingi[17]
Aonchotheca putorii <Unverified Name>[16]
Apophallus donicus[16]
Ascaris devosi <Unverified Name>[16]
Baylisascaris devosi <Unverified Name>[16]
Brachylaima virginianum <Unverified Name>[16]
Brevibacillus laterosporus[18]
Brucella melitensis (Brucella / Brucellosis)[18]
Brugia beaveri <Unverified Name>[16]
Capillaria mucronata <Unverified Name>[16]
Capillaria mustelorum <Unverified Name>[16]
Capillaria putorii <Unverified Name>[16]
Centrorhynchus conspectus[16]
Centrorhynchus ninnii[16]
Ceratophyllus ciliatus protinus[17]
Ceratophyllus vison[17]
Chaetopsylla floridensis[17]
Corynosoma magdaleni[16]
Corynosoma semerme[16]
Corynosoma strumosum[16]
Corynosoma wegeneri[16]
Crenosoma hermani <Unverified Name>[16]
Crenosoma melesi <Unverified Name>[16]
Crenosoma taiga <Unverified Name>[16]
Ctenocephalides felis felis[17]
Dioctophyme renale[16]
Diphyllobothrium tetrapterum[16]
Dirofilaria immitis (Heartworm)[16]
Dolichopsyllus stylosus[17]
Dracunculus insignis <Unverified Name>[16]
Enhydridiplostomum alarioides <Unverified Name>[16]
Escherichia coli (E. coli)[18]
Euparyphium beaveri <Unverified Name>[16]
Euparyphium inerme <Unverified Name>[16]
Euparyphium melis <Unverified Name>[16]
Euryhelmis pacificus <Unverified Name>[16]
Fibricola cratera <Unverified Name>[16]
Fibricola lucida <Unverified Name>[16]
Filaroides martis[16]
Hoplopsyllus anomalus (rodent flea)[17]
Hystrichopsylla dippiei spinata[17]
Hystrichopsylla occidentalis occidentalis[17]
Hystrichopsylla schefferi[17]
Ixodes canisuga (Dog tick)[18]
Ixodes gregsoni[18]
Ixodes hexagonus (European dog tick)[18]
Megabothris atrox[17]
Metorchis albidus[16]
Metorchis bilis[16]
Molineus patens <Unverified Name>[16]
Mustelivingylus skrjabini <Unverified Name>[16]
Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine tuberculosis)[18]
Nanophyetus salmincola <Unverified Name>[16]
Nearctopsylla brooksi[17]
Nearctopsylla hyrtaci[17]
Opisthorchis felineus[16]
Orchopeas caedens caedens[17]
Orchopeas caedens durus[17]
Orchopeas howardi[17]
Orchopeas nepos[17]
Orchopeas sexdentatus agilis[17]
Paragonimus rudis <Unverified Name>[16]
Paralecithodendrium naviculum <Unverified Name>[16]
Parametorchis canadensis <Unverified Name>[16]
Paratyphloceras oregonensis[17]
Pearsonema mucronata <Unverified Name>[16]
Peromyscopsylla hamifer hamifer[17]
Polygenis gwyni[17]
Pseudamphistomum truncatum[16]
Sellacotyle vitellosa <Unverified Name>[16]
Skrjabingylus nasicola[16]
Spirometra erinacei <Unverified Name>[16]
Staphylococcus aureus (Golden staph)[18]
Strongyloides martis <Unverified Name>[16]
Taenia martis <Unverified Name>[16]
Taenia mustelae[16]
Taenia tenuicollis <Unverified Name>[16]
Tarsopsylla octodecimdentata coloradensis[17]
Thrassis acamantis acamantis[17]
Trichinella spiralis (pork worm)[16]
Trichopsylloides oregonensis[17]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Domaine Zoologique de Pescheray
Kaliningrad Zoo
Novosibirsk Zoological Park
Ranua Wildlife Park
Riga Zoo
Skansen Foundation, Zool. Dept.
Taipei Zoo
Zoo of Acadianamink
Zoological Garden of Polish Fauna
ZooMontana

Range Map

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
2Mustela vison, Serge Larivière, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 608, pp. –9 (1999)
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6Anurans as prey: an exploratory analysis and size relationships between predators and their prey, L. F. Toledo, R. S. Ribeiro & C. F. B. Haddad, Journal of Zoology 271 (2007) 170–177
7Microtus townsendii, John E. Cornely and B. J. Verts, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 325, pp. 1-9 (1988)
8Myotis sodalis, Christine E. Thomson, Mammalian Species No. 163, pp. 1-5 (1982)
9Napaeozapus insignis, John O. Whitaker, Jr., and Robert E. Wrigley, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 14, pp. 1-6 (1972)
10Oryzomys palustris, James L. Wolfe, Mammalian Species No. 176, pp. 1-5 (1982)
11Spermophilus franklinii, Andrea C. Ostroff and Elmer J. Finck, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 724, pp. 1–5 (2003)
12Sylvilagus audubonii, Joseph A. Chapman and Gale R. Willner, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 106, pp. 1-4 (1978)
13Spermophilus beldingi, Stephen H. Jenkins and Bruce D. Eshelman, Mammalian Species No. 221, pp. 1-8 (1984)
14Spermophilus richardsonii, Gail R. Michener and James W. Koeppl, Mammalian Species No. 243, pp. 1-8, (1985)
15Diet of the Timber Rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus, Rulon W. Clark, Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 494-499, 2002
16Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
17International Flea Database
18Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access