Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Magnoliales > Magnoliaceae > Magnolia > Magnolia grandiflora

Magnolia grandiflora (southern magnolia)

Synonyms: Magnolia angustifolia; Magnolia elliptica; Magnolia exoniensis; Magnolia ferruginea; Magnolia foetida; Magnolia foetida f. margaretta; Magnolia foetida f. parvifolia; Magnolia galissoniensis; Magnolia glabra; Magnolia gloriosa; Magnolia grandiflora f. galissoniensis; Magnolia grandiflora f. lanceolata; Magnolia grandiflora var. angustifolia; Magnolia grandiflora var. elliptica; Magnolia grandiflora var. exoniensis; Magnolia grandiflora var. ferruginea; Magnolia grandiflora var. lanceolata; Magnolia grandiflora var. obovata; Magnolia grandiflora var. praecox; Magnolia grandiflora var. rotundifolia; Magnolia hartwegii; Magnolia hartwicus; Magnolia lacunosa; Magnolia lanceolata; Magnolia longifolia; Magnolia maxima; Magnolia microphylla; Magnolia obovata; Magnolia obtusifolia; Magnolia praecox; Magnolia pravertiana; Magnolia rotundifolia; Magnolia stricta; Magnolia tardiflora; Magnolia tomentosa; Magnolia umbrella var. maxima; Magnolia virginiana var. foetida; Magnolia virginiana var. grisea

Wikipedia Abstract

Magnolia grandiflora, commonly known as the southern magnolia or bull bay, is a tree of the family Magnoliaceae native to the southeastern United States, from coastal North Carolina to central Florida, and west to East Texas and Oklahoma. Reaching 27.5 m (90 ft) in height, it is a large, striking evergreen tree with large, dark green leaves up to 20 cm (7.9 in) long and 12 cm (4.7 in) wide, and large, white, fragrant flowers up to 30 cm (12 in) in diameter. Although endemic to the lowland subtropical forests on the Gulf and south Atlantic coastal plain, magnolia grandiflora is widely cultivated in warmer areas around the world. The timber is hard and heavy, and has been used commercially to make furniture, pallets, and veneer.
View Wikipedia Record: Magnolia grandiflora


Height [3]  33 feet (10 m)
Width [3]  33 feet (10 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  None
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-High
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Dense
Shade Percentage [1]  90 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  High
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 7 Low Temperature: 0 F° (-17.8 C°) → 10 F° (-12.2 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 10 Low Temperature: 30 F° (-1.1 C°) → 40 F° (4.4 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Mostly Shady
Soil Acidity [2]  Mostly Acid
Soil Fertility [2]  Infertile
Water Use [1]  High to Moderate
Flower Color [2]  White
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Red
Fall Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Flower Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [2]  7 months 10 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Moderate
Janka Hardness [4]  1020 lbf (463 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Beetles
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  3.5 feet (107 cm)
Scent [3]  The flowers have a delicious and very powerful scent, possibly more powerful than any other flower;
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  6400 / lb (14110 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Rounded
Specific Gravity [5]  0.5
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A fairly wind-tolerant tree, it can be used in shelterbelt plantings; An essential oil is obtained from the flowers; Wood - hard and fairly heavy, but weak and not durable; White when first cut, it turns brown on exposure to air; It is used in limited amounts for fuel, baskets, crates, woodenware and furniture;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Magnolia grandiflora

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 8248 Georgia, Tennessee, United States
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Fort Caroline National Memorial III 137 Florida, United States
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fort Matanzas National Monument III 269 Florida, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gulf Island National Seashore II 67487 Florida, Mississippi, United States
Hobcaw Barony (North Inlet) National Estuarine Research Reserve 7585 South Carolina, United States
Little St. Simons Island   Georgia, United States
Moores Creek National Battlefield III 100 North Carolina, United States
Ocmulgee National Monument V 693 Georgia, United States
Oconee National Forest Botanical Reserve 306 Georgia, United States  
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Shiloh National Military Park III 4061 Tennessee, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  

Emblem of



Aculops magnolivora <Unverified Name>[6]
Acutaspis perseae (red bay scale)[7]
Aonidiella orientalis (Oriental Scale)[7]
Asterococcus scleroglutaeus[7]
Callosamia securifera[8]
Campephilus principalis (Ivory-billed Woodpecker)[9]
Cerace xanthocosma[8]
Ceroplastes ceriferus (Indian wax scale)[7]
Ceroplastes japonicus (fig wax scale)[7]
Diaspidiotus ancylus (Howard scale)[7]
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)[9]
Euzophera magnolialis[8]
Euzophera ostricolorella[8]
Graphium agamemnon (Tailed jay swallowtail)[9]
Graphium doson (Common jay swallowtail)[8]
Hemiberlesia neodiffinis[7]
Hemiberlesia rapax (greedy scale)[7]
Lepidosaphes pinnaeformis (cymbidium scale)[7]
Morganella cueroensis (Cuero scale)[7]
Neolecanium cornuparvum (Magnolia scale)[7]
Oceanaspidiotus spinosus (spinose scale)[7]
Parlatoria theae (tea parlatoria scale)[7]
Pinnaspis strachani (lesser snow scale)[7]
Planococcus kraunhiae (Japanese mealybug)[7]
Polymixis flavicincta (Large Ranunculus)[6]
Prococcus acutissimus (banana-shaped scale)[7]
Protesilaus protesilaus[8]
Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (false oleander scale)[7]
Pseudoparlatoria parlatorioides (false parlatoria scale)[7]
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)[9]
Terpna superans[8]
Toumeyella liriodendri (tuliptree scale)[7]
Velataspis dentata (dentate scale)[7]

Range Map

SE. U.S.A. to Texas;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
7Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
8HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access