Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Fagales > Fagaceae > Quercus > Quercus alba

Quercus alba (White Oak)

Synonyms: Quercus alba f. latiloba; Quercus alba f. pinnatifida; Quercus alba f. repanda; Quercus alba f. sublyrata; Quercus alba f. viridis; Quercus alba var. heterophylla; Quercus alba var. latiloba; Quercus alba var. longigemma; Quercus alba var. microcarpa; Quercus alba var. pinnatifida; Quercus alba var. repanda; Quercus alba var. ryderi; Quercus alba var. subcaerulea; Quercus alba var. subflavea; Quercus candida; Quercus nigrescens; Quercus ramosa; Quercus repanda; Quercus retusa

Wikipedia Abstract

Quercus alba, the white oak, is one of the pre-eminent hardwoods of eastern and central North America. It is a long-lived oak of the beech family, native to eastern and central North America and found from Minnesota, Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia south as far as northern Florida and eastern Texas. Specimens have been documented to be over 450 years old.Although called a white oak, it is very unusual to find an individual specimen with white bark; the usual color is a light gray.
View Wikipedia Record: Quercus alba


Height [3]  66 feet (20 m)
Width [3]  33 feet (10 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  None
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-High
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-High
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Shade Percentage [1]  79 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 9 Low Temperature: 20 F° (-6.7 C°) → 30 F° (-1.1 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [2]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [2]  Infertile
Water Use [1]  Moderate to Low
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Fall Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Medium
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Medium
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  4 months 25 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Slow
Janka Hardness [4]  1360 lbf (617 kgf) Medium
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  4.0 feet (122 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  128 / lb (282 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [5]  0.68
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A mulch of the leaves repels slugs, grubs etc, though fresh leaves should not be used as these can inhibit plant growth. The bark is a rich source of tannin; Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff; A brown dye is obtained from the bark or from the galls, it does not require a mordant; Yellow, chrome and gold can also be obtained if mordants are used; Wood - strong, very heavy, hard, tough, close grained, durable; It weighs about 46lb per cubic foot; One of the most important timbers in N. America, it is used for cabinet making, construction, agricultural tools etc, and is also a good fuel; Highly valued for making the staves of barrels for storing wine and liquor;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Quercus alba

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Appomattox Court House National Historical Park V 1687 Virginia, United States
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Bluestone National Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 3517 West Virginia, United States
Booker T. Washington National Monument V 237 Virginia, United States
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve 90 Michigan, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area V 7622 Georgia, United States
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 8248 Georgia, Tennessee, United States
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   North Carolina, United States
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fort Necessity National Battlefield III 1019 Pennsylvania, United States
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 10384 Virginia, United States
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Gauley River National Recreation Area V 10157 West Virginia, United States
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
George Washington Memorial Parkway V   Virginia, United States
Georgian Bay Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Grand Rapids Audubon Club Maher Sanctuary 80 Michigan, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Herbert Hoover National Historic Site   Iowa, United States
Hobcaw Barony (North Inlet) National Estuarine Research Reserve 7585 South Carolina, United States
Hope College Biology Nature Preserve 55 Michigan, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Johnstown Flood National Memorial VI 175 Pennsylvania, United States
Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park III 2897 Georgia, United States
Little River National Wildlife Refuge   Oklahoma, United States
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Manassas National Battlefield Park III 5132 Virginia, United States
Moores Creek National Battlefield III 100 North Carolina, United States
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
National Capital Parks - Central National Park   District of Columbia, United States
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Obed Wild and Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 5268 Tennessee, United States
Oconee National Forest Botanical Reserve 306 Georgia, United States  
Petersburg National Battlefield III 3338 Virginia, United States
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Rock Creek Park   District of Columbia, United States
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Shiloh National Military Park III 4061 Tennessee, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Tennessee River Gorge   Tennessee, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States


Emblem of



Abagrotis alternata (greater red dart)[6]
Achatia distincta (Distinct Quaker)[6]
Acleris semipurpurana[6]
Acrobasis minimella[6]
Acrocercops albinatella[6]
Acronicta funeralis (Funerary Dagger Moth)[6]
Acronicta haesitata (Hesitant Dagger Moth)[6]
Acronicta marmorata (Marble Dagger Moth)[6]
Actias luna (luna moth)[6]
Allokermes cueroensis (live oak kermes)[7]
Allokermes galliformis (gall-like kermes)[7]
Allokermes gillettei (Gillette's kermes)[7]
Allokermes nivalis (white kermes)[7]
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)[8]
Anisota finlaysoni[6]
Anisota senatoria (Orangestriped oakworm)[6]
Anisota stigma (Spiny Oakworm Moth)[6]
Anisota virginiensis (Pink-striped oakworm)[6]
Antaeotricha osseella[6]
Antaeotricha schlaegeri[6]
Antheraea pernyi (Chinese oak silk moth)[6]
Archips fervidana[6]
Argyrotaenia alisellana (White-spotted Leafroller)[6]
Argyrotaenia quercifoliana[6]
Automeris cecrops[6]
Automeris metzli[6]
Automeris zephyria[6]
Bucculatrix ainsliella (Oak Leaf Skeletonizer)[6]
Bucculatrix luteella[6]
Bucculatrix ochrisuffusa[6]
Cameraria cincinnatiella[6]
Cameraria fletcherella[6]
Cameraria hamadryadella[6]
Cameraria obstrictella[6]
Cameraria platanoidiella[6]
Cameraria tubiferella[6]
Castor canadensis (american beaver)[8]
Catocala aholibah (Aholibah Underwing)[6]
Catocala amica (Girlfriend Underwing)[6]
Catocala ilia (ilia underwing)[6]
Ceratomia undulosa (waxed sphinx)[6]
Chionodes formosella (Spring Oak Leafroller)[6]
Coleophora querciella[6]
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)[8]
Cyclophora dataria[6]
Cydia latiferreana (Filbertworm Moth)[6]
Dasychira basiflava (Yellow-based Tussock)[6]
Dasychira dorsipennata[6]
Dasychira vagans[6]
Diaspidiotus ancylus (Howard scale)[7]
Diaspidiotus osborni (Osborn scale)[7]
Dichomeris ligulella (Palmerworm)[6]
Egira dolosa[6]
Egira februalis[6]
Erora laeta (Early Hairstreak)[6]
Erynnis juvenalis (Juvenal's duskywing skipper)[6]
Eutrapela clemataria[6]
Euxoa scandens (white cutworm)[6]
Fixsenia ontario[6]
Heterocampa obliqua[6]
Heterocampa umbrata[6]
Homohadena badistriga[6]
Hyperaeschra georgica[6]
Hypoprepia fucosa (painted lichen moth)[6]
Kermes arizonensis (Arizona kermes)[7]
Kermes boguei[7]
Kermes concinnulus[7]
Kermes pettiti[7]
Kermes sylvestris (forest kermes)[7]
Kermes trinotatus[7]
Lacanobia atlantica[6]
Lacosoma chiridota[6]
Lambdina fervidaria (Curve-lined Looper)[6]
Lithophane contenta[6]
Lochmaeus manteo (Variable Oakleaf Caterpillar Moth)[6]
Lycia ursaria[6]
Malacosoma constricta[6]
Melanaspis obscura (obscure scale)[7]
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)[8]
Myzocallis castanicola (Oak aphid)[9]
Nanokermes folium (leaf kermes)[7]
Nanokermes pubescens (burr oak kermes)[7]
Nemoria darwiniata[6]
Neotelphusa querciella[6]
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)[8]
Olethreutes atrodentana[6]
Olethreutes inornatana[6]
Oligocentria lignicolor[6]
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)[8]
Oreana unicolorella[6]
Orthosia pacifica[6]
Orthosia revicta[6]
Orthotaenia undulana[6]
Pandemis canadana[6]
Pandemis limitata[6]
Panopoda rufimargo[6]
Paranthrene simulans[6]
Parrhasius m-album (White M Hairstreak)[6]
Parthenolecanium quercifex (oak lecanium scale)[7]
Perigonica angulata[6]
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)[8]
Phryganidia californica (California oakworm)[6]
Phyllonorycter aeriferella[6]
Phyllonorycter albanotella[6]
Phyllonorycter argentifimbriella[6]
Phyllonorycter basistrigella[6]
Phyllonorycter fitchella[6]
Phyllonorycter lucidicostella[6]
Phyllonorycter quercialbella[6]
Plagodis alcoolaria (Hollow-spotted Plagodis)[6]
Plagodis serinaria[6]
Pococera asperatella[6]
Pococera expandens[6]
Psilocorsis quercicella[6]
Pterophylla camellifolia (common true katydid)[8]
Quernaspis insularis[7]
Quernaspis quercus (Oak scale)[7]
Rhynchaenus quercus[9]
Satyrium calanus (Banded hairstreak)[6]
Schizura leptinoides[6]
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)[8]
Stigmella sclerostylota[6]
Symmerista albifrons[6]
Symmerista canicosta[6]
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)[8]
Tischeria badiiella[6]
Tischeria fuscomarginella[6]
Tolype velleda[6]
Zale aeruginosa[6]
Zale minerea[6]
Actias luna[8]
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)[8]
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)[8]
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)[8]
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)[8]
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)[8]
Dynastes tityus (Eastern hercules beetle)[8]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[8]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[8]
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)[8]
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)[8]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[8]
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)[8]


Parasitized by 
Acmaeodera tubulus[10]
Agrilaxia flavimana[10]
Agrilus bilineatus[10]
Amanita phalloides (Deathcap)[8]
Amauroderma fuscatum (Turkeytail)[8]
Armillaria mellea (Honey Fungus)[8]
Omphalotus olearius (Jack olantern)[8]
Stereum complicatum (Crowded parchment)[8]
Shelter for 
Ardea herodias (Great Blue Heron)[8]
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[8]
Corydalus cornutus (dobsonfly)[8]
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)[8]
Megaceryle alcyon (Belted Kingfisher)[8]
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)[8]
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)[8]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[8]
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)[8]
Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch)[8]
Strix varia (Barred Owl)[8]
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)[8]
Actias luna[8]
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)[8]
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)[8]
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)[8]
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)[8]
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)[8]
Dynastes tityus (Eastern hercules beetle)[8]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[8]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[8]
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)[8]
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)[8]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[8]
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)[8]

Range Map

C. & E. U.S.A., SE. Canada; SE. Canada to C. & E. U.S.A.; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
7Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
8Study of Northern Virginia Ecology
9Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
10Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access