Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Fagales > Fagaceae > Quercus > Quercus robur

Quercus robur (Pedunculate Oak)

Synonyms: Quercus longaeva; Quercus robur subsp. eurobur; Quercus robur subsp. longipeduncula; Quercus robur var. typica; Quercus robur var. vulgaris

Wikipedia Abstract

Quercus robur, commonly known as the pedunculate oak is a species of flowering plant in the beech and oak family Fagaceae. It is native to most of Europe west of the Caucasus. The tree is widely cultivated in temperate regions and has escaped into the wild in scattered parts of China and North America.
View Wikipedia Record: Quercus robur



Height [2]  98 feet (30 m)
Width [2]  98 feet (30 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  None
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-High
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-High
Shade Percentage [1]  79 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 5 Low Temperature: -20 F° (-28.9 C°) → -10 F° (-23.3 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Light Preference [5]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [5]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [5]  Mostly Infertile
Soil Moisture [5]  Moist
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Dispersal Mode [6]  Hoarding, Autochory
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Monoecious
Janka Hardness [3]  1120 lbf (508 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [2]  Deciduous
Lifespan [4]  Perennial
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Specific Gravity [7]  0.575
Structure [2]  Tree
Usage [2]  A mulch of the leaves repels slugs, grubs etc, though fresh leaves should not be used as these can inhibit plant growth; The bark is an ingredient of 'Quick Return' herbal compost activator; This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost; The bark is very rich in calcium; Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff; A black dye and an excellent long-lasting ink is made from the oak galls, mixed with salts of iron; The colour is not very durable; When mixed with alum, the dye is brown and with salts of tin it is yellow; Trees can be coppiced to provide material for basket making, fuel, construction etc; The wood is a source of tar, quaiacol, acetic acid, creosote and tannin; Tannin is extracted commercially from the bark and is also found in the leaves; On a 10% moisture basis, the bark contains11.6% tannin and the wood 9.2%; The bark strips easily from the wood in April and May; A purplish dye is obtained from an infusion of the bark with a small quantity of copperas; It is not bright, but is said to be durable; Wood - hard, tough, durable even under water - highly valued for furniture, construction etc; It is also a good fuel;
View Plants For A Future Record : Quercus robur

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alam-Pedja 85235 Estonia  
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Bosco di Chiusi e Paduletta di Ramone 1035 Italy  
Bosco Pantano di Policoro e Costa Ionica Foce Sinni 2100 Italy  
Buchholz bei Bleiwäsche 786 Germany  
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Craven Limestone Complex 13166 England, United Kingdom
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Duna e Lago di Lesina - Foce del Fortore 24273 Italy  
East Hampshire Hangers 1408 England, United Kingdom
Ebernoe Common 581 England, United Kingdom
Eryri/ Snowdonia 48773 Wales, United Kingdom  
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Foresta Umbra 51042 Italy    
Galichia Gora Zapovednik Ia 568 Lipetsk, Russia
Große Röder 338 Germany  
Ingleborough Complex 14256 England, United Kingdom
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Killarney National Park II 25482 Ireland
Kirkkonummen saaristo (SPA) 35173 Finland  
Krayner Teiche/Lutzketal 1542 Germany  
La Gallinola - Monte Miletto - Monti del Matese 61781 Italy  
La Rocchetta 220 Italy  
Limestone Coast of South West Wales/ Arfordir Calchfaen de Orllewin Cymru 3940 Wales, United Kingdom  
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Marchesato e Fiume Neto 173480 Italy  
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Parco Del Somma-Vesuvio e Miglio D'Oro National Park II 33648 Italy
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve V 1777 Spain  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Saltfjärdenin-Tavastfjärdenin lintuvedet 642 Finland  
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  


Emblem of



Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale <Unverified Name>[8]
Acleris literana (Sprinkled Rough-wing)[9]
Acrobasis sodalella[9]
Acrobasis tumidana[9]
Acrocercops brongniardella (Leaf Blotch Miner Moth)[9]
Acronicta aceris[9]
Acronicta alni (Alder Moth)[9]
Acronicta auricoma (Scarce Dagger)[9]
Acronicta leporina (miller)[10]
Acronicta psi (Grey Dagger Moth)[9]
Acronicta tridens (Dark Dagger)[10]
Aglia tau (Tau Emperor)[9]
Agrilus angustulus[10]
Agrilus biguttatus[10]
Agrilus cyanescens[8]
Agrilus laticornis[10]
Agriopis aurantiaria <Unverified Name>[10]
Agriopis leucophaearia <Unverified Name>[10]
Agriopis marginaria <Unverified Name>[8]
Agrochola helvola (Flounced Chestnut)[10]
Agrochola macilenta (Yellow-line Quaker)[10]
Aleimma loeflingiana[9]
Allokermes galliformis (gall-like kermes)[11]
Alsophila aescularia (March Moth)[8]
Amphiporthe leiphaemia[12]
Amphipyra berbera (Svensson's Copper Underwing)[9]
Amphipyra pyramidea[10]
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)[12]
Ancylis mitterbacheriana[9]
Andricus albopunctatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Andricus anthracina <Unverified Name>[10]
Andricus callidoma <Unverified Name>[10]
Andricus clemantinae <Unverified Name>[10]
Andricus corruptrix <Unverified Name>[10]
Andricus curvator[10]
Andricus fecundator <Unverified Name>[10]
Andricus glandulae <Unverified Name>[10]
Andricus inflator <Unverified Name>[10]
Andricus kollari (Marble Gall Wasp)[10]
Andricus legitimus <Unverified Name>[10]
Andricus lignicola <Unverified Name>[10]
Andricus lucidus <Unverified Name>[10]
Andricus nudus <Unverified Name>[10]
Andricus quadrilineatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Andricus quercuscalicis <Unverified Name>[10]
Andricus quercuscorticis <Unverified Name>[10]
Andricus quercusradicis[10]
Andricus quercusramuli[10]
Andricus rhizomae <Unverified Name>[10]
Andricus seminationis <Unverified Name>[10]
Andricus solitarius[10]
Andricus testaceipes <Unverified Name>[10]
Anomala dubia[8]
Anthaxia perrini[8]
Antheraea pernyi (Chinese oak silk moth)[9]
Antheraea yamamai (Japanese Silk Moth)[9]
Apiognomonia errabunda[8]
Apocheima hispidaria[10]
Arctornis l-nigrum (Black V Moth)[10]
Arge rustica <Unverified Name>[8]
Armillaria mellea[8]
Arnoldiola libera[10]
Arnoldiola quercicola <Unverified Name>[10]
Asterodiaspis minus <Unverified Name>[10]
Asterodiaspis quercicola <Unverified Name>[10]
Asterodiaspis variolosa <Unverified Name>[13]
Asteroscopus sphinx (Sprawler)[10]
Athelopsis lembospora[12]
Attelabus nitens[10]
Automeris coresus[9]
Automeris rubrescens[9]
Automeris zephyria[9]
Automeris zozine[9]
Bena prasinana[10]
Biorhiza pallida[10]
Bison bonasus (European bison)[14]
Biston strataria (Oak Beauty)[9]
Boarmia roboraria[10]
Bucculatrix ulmella[9]
Cabera pusaria (Common White Wave Moth)[10]
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Carnation Tortrix)[10]
Callirhytis bella <Unverified Name>[10]
Callirhytis glandium[10]
Caloptilia alchimiella[9]
Caloptilia leucapennella[10]
Caloptilia rhodinella[9]
Caloptilia robustella[10]
Calycellina punctata[12]
Calycellina rubescens[12]
Cameraria hamadryadella[9]
Campaea margaritata (Light Emerald Moth)[8]
Capreolus capreolus (western roe deer)[8]
Carcina quercana[9]
Catephia alchymista[10]
Catocala promissa (Light Crimson Underwing)[9]
Catocala sponsa (Dark Crimson Underwing)[9]
Cephalotheca sulfurea[12]
Ceroptres clavicornis[12]
Cerrena unicolor[8]
Cervus elaphus (wapiti or elk)[8]
Cervus elaphus hanglu (Kashmir stag)[15]
Chionaspis lepineyi (oak scurfy scale)[11]
Chloroclysta miata[10]
Chloroclysta siterata (Red-green Carpet)[9]
Cicadetta abscondita[10]
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Hawfinch)[8]
Coeliodes erythroleucos[10]
Coeliodes nigritarsis[10]
Coeliodes ruber[10]
Coeliodes transversealbofasciatus[10]
Coleophora currucipennella[9]
Coleophora flavipennella[9]
Coleophora ibipennella[9]
Colocasia coryli (Nut-tree Tussock)[9]
Colotois pennaria (Feathered Thorn)[9]
Columba oenas (Stock Dove)[8]
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)[8]
Comibaena bajularia <Unverified Name>[10]
Conistra ligula (Dark Chestnut)[10]
Conistra rubiginea (Dotted Chestnut)[10]
Conistra vaccinii (Chestnut)[10]
Contarinia quercina[10]
Copaxa mannana[9]
Coptomma lineatum[13]
Cosmia pyralina (Lunar-spotted Pinion)[10]
Cosmia trapezina (Dun-bar)[9]
Cossus cossus (Goat Moth)[9]
Crocallis elinguaria (Scalloped Oak Moth)[8]
Crustomyces subabruptus[12]
Cryptaspasma querula[13]
Cryptoblabes bistriga[9]
Curculio glandium (acorn weevil)[10]
Curculio pyrrhoceras[10]
Curculio venosus[10]
Cyclophora porata (False Mocha)[10]
Cyclophora punctaria (Maiden’s Blush)[9]
Cyclophora puppillaria (Blair's Mocha)[10]
Cydia splendana (Chestnut Tortrix)[8]
Cymatophorima diluta <Unverified Name>[10]
Cynips agama <Unverified Name>[10]
Cynips disticha <Unverified Name>[10]
Cynips divisa[10]
Cynips longiventris <Unverified Name>[10]
Cynips quercusfolii (common oak gall wasp)[10]
Daedalea quercina[8]
Dasineura dryophila[10]
Dasineura libera <Unverified Name>[10]
Dasineura panteli[10]
Dasychira georgiana[9]
Dendrothele commixta[12]
Diaspidiotus alni[11]
Diaspidiotus osborni (Osborn scale)[11]
Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis (European fruit scale)[11]
Diaspidiotus wuenni[11]
Diaspidiotus zonatus[11]
Dichonia aprilina[10]
Dicycla oo[10]
Diplocladiella scalaroides[12]
Diurnea fagella[9]
Diurnea lipsiella <Unverified Name>[8]
Diurnea phryganella[9]
Drepana binaria <Unverified Name>[10]
Drepana curvatula (Dusky Hook-tip Moth)[8]
Drepana falcataria (Pebble Hook-tip)[9]
Drepanothrips reuteri[10]
Drymonia dodonaea (Marbled Brown)[10]
Drymonia ruficornis (Lunar Marbled Brown)[10]
Dryobotodes eremita (Brindled Green)[9]
Eacles oslari (Oslar's Eacles)[9]
Ectoedemia albifasciella[9]
Ectoedemia heringi[10]
Ectoedemia quinquella[9]
Ectoedemia subbimaculella[9]
Edwardsiana frustrator[10]
Electrophaes corylata (Broken-barred Carpet Moth)[8]
Elegia similella[9]
Ennomos autumnaria (Large Thorn)[9]
Ennomos erosaria <Unverified Name>[10]
Ennomos quercinaria (August Thorn)[10]
Epirrita autumnata <Unverified Name>[10]
Epirrita dilutata <Unverified Name>[10]
Epitrimerus cristatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Erannis defoliaria (Mottled Umber Moth)[9]
Eriococcus roboris (oak felt scale)[11]
Eriogaster lanestris (Small Eggar)[9]
Eriophyes ilicis <Unverified Name>[10]
Eriophyes quercinus <Unverified Name>[10]
Erysiphe alphitoides[8]
Eulecanium ciliatum (ciliate oak scale)[11]
Eulecanium douglasi (currant soft scale)[11]
Eupithecia abbreviata (Brindled Pug)[10]
Eupithecia dodoneata (Oak-tree Pug)[9]
Eupithecia exiguata (Mottled Pug)[10]
Eupithecia irriguata (Marbled Pug)[10]
Eupithecia orphnata[9]
Eupsilia transversa (Satellite)[9]
Eurhadina kirschbaumi[10]
Eurhadina ribauti[10]
Eurytoma brunniventris[12]
Fagocyba carri[10]
Fomes fomentarius[8]
Garrulus glandarius (Eurasian Jay)[8]
Glis glis (fat dormouse)[16]
Gonimbrasia tyrrhea[9]
Graddonidiscus coruscatus[12]
Graphiphora augur (Double Dart)[10]
Gymnopus quercophilus[12]
Gymnorhina tibicen (Australian Magpie)[12]
Gynaephora selenitica[9]
Gynanisa maja[9]
Harpocera thoracica[8]
Heliozela sericiella[9]
Hemileuca grotei[9]
Hemileuca slosseri[9]
Hemithea aestivaria (Common Emerald)[10]
Hericium cirrhatum (Tiered Tooth)[12]
Herminia grisealis (Small Fan-foot)[10]
Hypochnicium subrigescens[12]
Hypomecis punctinalis <Unverified Name>[8]
Hypomecis roboraria <Unverified Name>[10]
Hypospilina pustula[12]
Iassus lanio[10]
Jodia croceago (Orange Upperwing)[10]
Jodis lactearia (Little Emerald)[9]
Kalotermes brouni[13]
Kermes cordiformis (kermes berry)[11]
Kermes quercus (striped kermes)[11]
Kermes roboris (English oak kermes)[11]
Lacanobia thalassina (Pale-shouldered Brocade)[10]
Lachnum soppittii[12]
Lachnus roboris[10]
Laetiporus sulphureus[8]
Lehmannia marginata[8]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[11]
Lindbergina aurovittata[10]
Lithophane ornitopus[10]
Lobatopedis foliicola[12]
Lophocampa catenulata[9]
Luperus luperus <Unverified Name>[8]
Lycia hirtaria (Brindled Beauty Moth)[8]
Lymantria monacha (Black Arches, Nun Moth)[9]
Macrodiplosis dryobia[10]
Macrodiplosis pustulans <Unverified Name>[10]
Macrodiplosis roboris <Unverified Name>[8]
Macrodiplosis volvens[10]
Mapondera capicola[10]
Megalopyge chrysocoma[9]
Megalopyge lanata[9]
Meganola strigula <Unverified Name>[10]
Melanaspis obscura (obscure scale)[11]
Melanophila acuminata[10]
Meles meles (European Badger)[8]
Metriotes lutarea[9]
Micropeziza mollisioides[12]
Microthyrium ilicinum[12]
Microthyrium microscopicum[12]
Minucia lunaris (Lunar Double-stripe)[10]
Miris striatus[8]
Moma alpium (Scarce Merveille du Jour)[10]
Mycena cecidiophila[12]
Myodes glareolus (Bank vole)[8]
Mythimna turca (Double Line)[10]
Myzocallis castanicola (Oak aphid)[10]
Neolygus viridis[8]
Nephopterix tumidella[9]
Neuroterus albipes <Unverified Name>[10]
Neuroterus aprilinus <Unverified Name>[10]
Neuroterus numismalis[10]
Neuroterus quercusbaccarum (Oak Spangle Gall Wasp)[10]
Neuroterus tricolor <Unverified Name>[10]
Nola confusalis <Unverified Name>[10]
Nycteola degenerana (Sallow Nycteoline)[9]
Nycteola revayana (Oak Nycteoline)[9]
Ochropacha duplaris (Common Lutestring Moth)[10]
Ocneria prolai[9]
Odontopera bidentata (Scalloped Hazel)[9]
Oemona hirta[13]
Operophtera brumata (winter moth)[10]
Orgyia recens <Unverified Name>[10]
Orthosia cruda (Small Quaker)[9]
Orthosia gothica (Hebrew Character)[9]
Orthosia incerta (Clouded Drab)[9]
Orthosia miniosa (Blossom Underwing)[10]
Orthosia munda (Twin-spotted Quaker)[10]
Oxythrips quercicola[10]
Pachytodes cerambyciformis[8]
Pammene fasciana (Chestnut leafroller)[9]
Pandemis corylana[9]
Paradarisa extersaria <Unverified Name>[10]
Parthenolecanium rufulum (oak soft scale)[10]
Pealius quercus[10]
Pechipogo strigilata[10]
Peniophora polygonia[12]
Pentatoma rufipes <Unverified Name>[8]
Peribatodes ilicaria (Lydd Beauty)[10]
Periclista albida <Unverified Name>[10]
Periclista lineolata <Unverified Name>[10]
Periclista pubescens <Unverified Name>[10]
Peridea anceps (Great Prominent)[10]
Perisomena caecigena (Autumn Emperor Moth)[9]
Phalera bucephala (Buff-tip)[9]
Phanerochaete velutina[12]
Phigalia pilosaria (Pale Brindled Beauty)[9]
Phlebia lilascens[12]
Phlogophora meticulosa (Angle Shades Moth)[8]
Phobetron hipparchia[9]
Phomopsis quercina[12]
Phycita roborella[9]
Phyllobius argentatus[8]
Phyllobius glaucus[8]
Phyllobius pyri (Common Leaf Weevil)[8]
Phyllonorycter delitella[9]
Phyllonorycter distentella[9]
Phyllonorycter ilicifoliella[9]
Phyllonorycter lautella[9]
Phyllonorycter messaniella (Oak leafminer)[9]
Phyllonorycter muelleriella[9]
Phyllonorycter parisiella[9]
Phyllonorycter quercifoliella[9]
Phyllonorycter roboris[9]
Phylloxera corticalis[10]
Phylloxera glabra[10]
Phylloxera quercus[10]
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)[8]
Plagodis dolabraria (Scorched Wing)[9]
Plagodis pulveraria (Barred Umber Moth)[8]
Pleurotus dryinus[8]
Podalia albescens[9]
Poecilocampa populi (December Moth)[9]
Polydrusus cervinus[8]
Polydrusus formosus[8]
Polydrusus marginatus[8]
Polydrusus mollis[8]
Polydrusus pterygomalis[8]
Polyploca ridens (Frosted Green)[10]
Profenusa pygmaea <Unverified Name>[8]
Psallus perrisi[10]
Psallus quercus[10]
Psallus variabilis[10]
Psallus wagneri[10]
Pseudocoremia fenerata[13]
Pseudocoremia suavis (Common Forest Looper)[13]
Pseudoinonotus dryadeus[12]
Pseudoips fagana[10]
Ptilodon capucina (Coxcomb Prominent)[9]
Pyrochroa coccinea <Unverified Name>[8]
Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Eurasian Bullfinch)[8]
Quadraspidiotus zonatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Quercusia quercus[9]
Ramularia endophylla[12]
Rhagium bifasciatum (two-banded longhorn beetle)[8]
Rhizomarasmius setosus[12]
Rhycaphytoptus massalongoianus <Unverified Name>[10]
Rhyncaphytoptus massalongoianus <Unverified Name>[10]
Rhynchaenus avellanae[10]
Rhynchaenus erythropus[10]
Rhynchaenus pilosus[10]
Rhynchaenus quercus[10]
Rhynchites aeneovirens[10]
Rhynchites cavifrons[10]
Rhynchites germanicus[10]
Rhynchites interpunctatus[10]
Rhynchites sericeus <Unverified Name>[10]
Ribautiana scalaris[10]
Sciurus vulgaris (Eurasian red squirrel)[8]
Scolytus intricatus (Oak Bark Beetle)[8]
Scolytus scolytus[10]
Septoria quercina[12]
Serraca punctinalis[10]
Sibine trimacula[9]
Sparassis brevipes[8]
Spilosoma lutea (Buff Ermine)[9]
Spilosoma luteum <Unverified Name>[10]
Stauropus fagi (Lobster Moth)[10]
Steccherinum ochraceum[12]
Stenurella melanura[8]
Sterrhopterix fusca[9]
Stigmella atricapitella[9]
Stigmella basiguttella[10]
Stigmella roborella[8]
Stigmella ruficapitella[9]
Stigmella samiatella[9]
Stigmella svenssoni[10]
Stomaphis quercus[12]
Strophedra nitidana[9]
Strophosomus melanogrammus[10]
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)[8]
Sus scrofa (wild boar)[8]
Synanthedon vespiformis (Yellow-legged Clearwing)[10]
Syndemis musculana[9]
Synergus clandestinus[10]
Teleiodes luculella[9]
Tettigella alba[10]
Thelaxes dryophila[12]
Thrips minutissimus[10]
Tischeria dodonaea[9]
Tischeria ekebladella[9]
Tortrix viridana (Green tortrix)[9]
Trechispora stellulata[12]
Trichiura crataegi (Pale Eggar)[10]
Trigonaspis megaptera[10]
Trigonaspis synaspis <Unverified Name>[10]
Trinophylum cribratum[10]
Trioza remota[10]
Tuberculatus annulatus (Oad aphid)[8]
Tuberculatus neglectus[10]
Tuberculatus querceus[10]
Tuberculoides borealis <Unverified Name>[10]
Valsa intermedia[12]
Watsonalla binaria (Oak Hook-tip)[10]
Xanthia aurago (Barred Sallow)[10]
Xylobolus frustulatus[12]
Zimmermannia atrifrontella[9]
Zimmermannia longicaudella[9]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Agaricus capensis (Fly Agaric)[8]
Amanita ceciliae (Snakeskin Grisette)[8]
Amanita crocea (Orange Grisette)[8]
Amanita gemmata (Jewelled Amanita)[8]
Amanita pantherina (Panther Amanita)[8]
Amanita phalloides (Deathcap)[8]
Amanita vaginata (Grisette)[8]
Boletus reticulatus (Summer Bolete)[8]
Caloboletus frustosus (Bitter Beech Bolete)[8]
Clitopilus prunulus (The Miller)[8]
Cortinarius alboviolaceus (Pearly Webcap)[8]
Cortinarius anomalus (Variable Webcap)[8]
Cortinarius barbatus[8]
Cortinarius hinnuleus (Earthy Webcap)[8]
Cortinarius torvus (Stocking Webcap)[8]
Cyanoboletus pulverulentus (Inkstain Bolete)[8]
Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Poisonpie)[8]
Hydnum albidum (Wood Hedgehog)[8]
Hydnum rufescens (Terracotta Hedgehog)[8]
Hygrophorus persoonii[8]
Inocybe obsoleta (Split Fibrecap)[8]
Laccaria amethystina (Amethyst Deceiver)[8]
Laccaria laccata (Deceiver)[8]
Lactarius azonites[8]
Lactarius piperatus (Peppery Milkcap)[8]
Lactarius serifluus (Watery Milkcap)[8]
Lactarius subdulcis (Mild Milkcap)[8]
Lactarius turpis (Ugly Milkcap)[8]
Macrolepiota procera (parasol mushroom)[8]
Paxillus involutus (Brown Rollrim)[8]
Rodwaya infundibuliformis[8]
Russula adusta (Blackening Brittlegill)[8]
Russula brunneoviolacea[8]
Russula fellea (Geranium Brittlegill)[8]
Russula grisea[8]
Russula heterophylla (Greasy Green Brittlegill)[8]
Russula ochroleuca (Ochre Brittlegill)[8]
Russula paludosa[8]
Russula parazurea (Powdery Brittlegill)[8]
Russula xerampelina (Crab Brittlegill)[8]
Tricholoma columbetta (Blue Spot Knight)[8]
Tricholoma sejunctum (Deceiving Knight)[8]
Tricholoma ustaloides[8]
Tylopilus felleus (Bitter Bolete)[8]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Cantharellus cibarius (Chanterelle)[8]
Clitopilus prunulus (The Miller)[8]
Cortinarius hinnuleus (Earthy Webcap)[8]
Cortinarius sanguineus (Bloodred Webcap)[12]
Hydnum albidum (Wood Hedgehog)[8]
Hygrophorus chrysodon (Gold Flecked Woodwax)[12]
Hygrophorus persoonii[8]
Imleria badia (Bay Bolete)[8]
Inocybe obsoleta (Split Fibrecap)[8]
Laccaria amethystina (Amethyst Deceiver)[8]
Laccaria laccata (Deceiver)[8]
Macrolepiota procera (parasol mushroom)[8]
Paxillus involutus (Brown Rollrim)[8]
Russula parazurea (Powdery Brittlegill)[8]
Scleroderma citrinum (Common Earthball)[8]
Tricholoma columbetta (Blue Spot Knight)[8]
Parasitized by 
Andricus kollari[8]
Apiognomonia errabunda[8]
Armillaria mellea (Honey Fungus)[8]
Caloptilia alchimiella[8]
Cerrena unicolor (mossy maze polypore)[8]
Cronartium quercuum[12]
Cryphonectria parasitica (Chestnut blight)[12]
Daedalea quercina (Oak Mazegill)[8]
Erysiphe alphitoides[8]
Fomes fomentarius (Hoof Fungus)[8]
Fuscoporia torulosa (Tufted Bracket)[12]
Laetiporus sulphureus (Chicken of the Woods)[8]
Macrodiplosis roboris <Unverified Name>[8]
Pleurotus dryinus (Veiled Oyster)[8]
Podoscypha multizonata (Zoned Rosette)[12]
Profenusa pygmaea <Unverified Name>[8]
Sparassis brevipes[8]
Stigmella roborella[8]
Viscum album (European mistletoe)[12]
Shelter for 
Dendrocopos medius (Middle Spotted Woodpecker)[8]
Muscicapa striata (Spotted Flycatcher)[8]


Europe to Iran;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
4PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
5ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
6Paula S, Arianoutsou M, Kazanis D, Tavsanoglu Ç, Lloret F, Buhk C, Ojeda F, Luna B, Moreno JM, Rodrigo A, Espelta JM, Palacio S, Fernández-Santos B, Fernandes PM, and Pausas JG. 2009. Fire-related traits for plant species of the Mediterranean Basin. Ecology 90: 1420.
Paula S. & Pausas J.G. 2013. BROT: a plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species. Version 2013.06.
7Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
8Ecology of Commanster
9HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
10Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
11Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
12Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
13New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
14Food eaten by the free-living European bison in Białowieża Forest, Zofia GĘBCZYŃSKA, Marek GĘBCZYŃSKI and Ewa MARTYNOWICZ, Acta Theriologica 36 (3-4), 307-313, 1991.
15Diets of Hangul Deer Cervus elaphus hanglu (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae) in Dachigam National Park, Kashmir, India, G. Mustafa Shah, Ulfat Jan, Bilal A. Bhat & Fayaz A. Ahangar, Journal of Threatened Taxa | July 2009 | 1(7): 398-400
16Influences of the feeding ecology on body mass and possible implications for reproduction in the edible dormouse (Glis glis), Joanna Fietz, M. Pflug, W. Schlund, F. Tataruch, J Comp Physiol B (2005) 175: 45–55
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Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
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