Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Fagales > Fagaceae > Quercus > Quercus velutina
 

Quercus velutina (Black Oak)

Synonyms: Quercus coccinea var. nigrescens; Quercus coccinea var. tinctoria; Quercus discolor; Quercus leiodermis; Quercus magnifica; Quercus missouriensis; Quercus rubra var. tinctoria; Quercus tinctoria; Quercus tinctoria var. angulosa; Quercus tinctoria var. macrophylla; Quercus tinctoria var. magnifica; Quercus tinctoria var. nobilis; Quercus tinctoria var. pseudoxalapensis; Quercus tinctoria var. sinuosa; Quercus valentina; Quercus velutina f. angulosa; Quercus velutina f. dilaniata; Quercus velutina f. magnifica; Quercus velutina f. missouriensis; Quercus velutina f. nobilis; Quercus velutina f. obovata; Quercus velutina f. pagodiformis; Quercus velutina f. sinuosa; Quercus velutina var. macrophylla; Quercus velutina var. missouriensis

Wikipedia Abstract

Quercus velutina, the eastern black oak or more commonly known as simply black oak, is an oak in the red oak (Quercus sect. Lobatae) group of oaks.
View Wikipedia Record: Quercus velutina

Attributes

Height [2]  98 feet (30 m)
Width [2]  82 feet (25 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  None
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-High
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-High
Shade Percentage [1]  79 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Water Use [1]  Moderate to Low
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Monoecious
Janka Hardness [3]  1210 lbf (549 kgf) Medium
Leaf Type [2]  Deciduous
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Specific Gravity [4]  0.61
Structure [2]  Tree
Usage [2]  A mulch of the leaves repels slugs, grubs etc, though fresh leaves should not be used as these can inhibit plant growth; Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff; The bark is a source of tannin; A yellow dye is obtained from this tree; The bark is a rich source; The dye is reddish-yellow according to one report and does not need a mordant; Wood - heavy, hard, strong, coarse grained. It weighs 43lb per cubic foot; Of little value except as a fuel; Commercially important according to another report; The wood is used for rough lumber, cross-ties etc;
View Plants For A Future Record : Quercus velutina

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Appomattox Court House National Historical Park V 1687 Virginia, United States
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Bluestone National Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 3517 West Virginia, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Booker T. Washington National Monument V 237 Virginia, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   North Carolina, United States
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge   Puerto Rico, United States
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 10384 Virginia, United States
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Gauley River National Recreation Area V 10157 West Virginia, United States
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
George Washington Memorial Parkway V   Virginia, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Hobcaw Barony (North Inlet) National Estuarine Research Reserve 7585 South Carolina, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Johnstown Flood National Memorial VI 175 Pennsylvania, United States
Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park III 2897 Georgia, United States
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Manassas National Battlefield Park III 5132 Virginia, United States
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
National Capital Parks - Central National Park   District of Columbia, United States
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Obed Wild and Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 5268 Tennessee, United States
Oconee National Forest Botanical Reserve 306 Georgia, United States  
Petersburg National Battlefield III 3338 Virginia, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Rock Creek Park   District of Columbia, United States
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Shiloh National Military Park III 4061 Tennessee, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Spivey Pond Management Area 54 California, United States      
Tennessee River Gorge   Tennessee, United States
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States

Ecosystems

Predators

Abagrotis alternata (greater red dart)[5]
Allokermes galliformis (gall-like kermes)[6]
Allokermes kingii (northern red-oak kermes)[6]
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)[7]
Anisota oslari (Oslar’s oakworm moth)[5]
Anisota peigleri (Yellowstriped Oakworm)[5]
Anisota stigma (Spiny Oakworm Moth)[5]
Archips fervidana[5]
Automeris zephyria[5]
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)[7]
Cameraria bethunella[5]
Cameraria fasciella[5]
Cameraria obstrictella[5]
Cameraria ulmella[5]
Catastega aceriella[5]
Catocala amica (Girlfriend Underwing)[5]
Catocala ilia (ilia underwing)[5]
Cydia latiferreana (Filbertworm Moth)[5]
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)[7]
Erynnis horatius (Horace's Duskywing)[5]
Erynnis juvenalis (Juvenal's duskywing skipper)[5]
Eutrapela clemataria[5]
Hemileuca maia (Buck moth)[5]
Heterocampa umbrata[5]
Hethemia pistasciaria[5]
Kermes pettiti[6]
Lacosoma chiridota[5]
Liothula omnivora[8]
Lithophane laticinerea[5]
Melanaspis obscura (obscure scale)[6]
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)[7]
Natada nasoni[5]
Parthenolecanium quercifex (oak lecanium scale)[6]
Phryganidia californica (California oakworm)[5]
Phyllonorycter aeriferella[5]
Phyllonorycter basistrigella[5]
Phyllonorycter quercialbella[5]
Pococera asperatella[5]
Pococera expandens[5]
Quernaspis quercus (Oak scale)[6]
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)[7]
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)[7]
Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite)[7]
Rhynchaenus quercus[9]
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)[7]
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)[7]
Tischeria quercitella[5]
Trypanisma prudens[5]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[7]
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)[7]
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)[7]
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)[7]
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)[7]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[7]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[7]
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)[7]
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)[7]
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)[7]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[7]
Pterophylla camellifolia (common true katydid)[7]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Actenodes acornis[10]
Agrilus arcuatus[10]
Agrilus bilineatus[10]
Amauroderma fuscatum (Turkeytail)[7]
Armillaria mellea (Honey Fungus)[7]
Ganoderma applanatum (Artist’s Bracket)[7]
Omphalotus olearius (Jack olantern)[7]
Stereum complicatum (Crowded parchment)[7]
Shelter for 
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[7]
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (black carpenter ant)[7]
Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture)[7]
Dolichovespula maculata (baldfaced hornet)[7]
Dynastes tityus (Eastern hercules beetle)[7]
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)[7]
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)[7]
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)[7]
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)[7]
Strix varia (Barred Owl)[7]
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)[7]
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)[7]
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)[7]
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)[7]
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)[7]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[7]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[7]
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)[7]
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)[7]
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)[7]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[7]
Pterophylla camellifolia (common true katydid)[7]

Range Map

SE. Ontario to C. & E. U.S.A.; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
4Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
5HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
6Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
7Study of Northern Virginia Ecology
8New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
9Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
10Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access