Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Fagales > Betulaceae > Betula > Betula papyrifera

Betula papyrifera (mountain paper birch; Kenai birch; paper birch)

Synonyms: Betula alba subsp. excelsa; Betula alba subsp. latifolia; Betula alba subsp. papyrifera; Betula alba var. communis; Betula alba var. commutata; Betula alba var. elobata; Betula alba var. papyrifera; Betula dahurica var. americana; Betula excelsa; Betula grandis; Betula kamtschatica var. kenaica; Betula kenaica; Betula latifolia; Betula lenta var. papyrifera; Betula lyalliana; Betula montanensis; Betula neoalaskana var. kenaica; Betula papyracea; Betula papyracea var. communis; Betula papyracea var. grandis; Betula papyracea var. lyalliana; Betula papyrifera f. coriacea; Betula papyrifera f. elobata; Betula papyrifera f. longipes; Betula papyrifera f. nana; Betula papyrifera subsp. commutata; Betula papyrifera subsp. kenaica; Betula papyrifera subsp. subcordata; Betula papyrifera var. andrewsii; Betula papyrifera var. communis; Betula papyrifera var. commutata; Betula papyrifera var. elobata; Betula papyrifera var. kenaica; Betula papyrifera var. lyalliana; Betula papyrifera var. macrostachya; Betula papyrifera var. montanensis; Betula papyrifera var. pensilis; Betula papyrifera var. recessa; Betula papyrifera var. subcordata; Betula pirifolia; Betula subcordata

Wikipedia Abstract

Betula kenaica, or Kenai birch, is a species of birch that can be found in Alaska and northwestern North America at 300 m (980 ft) above sea level.
View Wikipedia Record: Betula papyrifera


Height [3]  66 feet (20 m)
Width [3]  16.4 feet (5 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-High
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-High
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Shade Percentage [1]  82 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  High
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 6 Low Temperature: -10 F° (-23.3 C°) → 0 F° (-17.8 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Full Sun
Soil Acidity [2]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [2]  Intermediate
Water Use [1]  High
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Fall Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Flower Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  High
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  80 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Janka Hardness [4]  910 lbf (413 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  24 inches (61 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Rapid
Seed Vigor [2]  Medium
Seeds Per [2]  1380797 / lb (3044139 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [5]  0.55
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  The thin outer bark is used to make drinking vessels, canoe skins, roofing tiles, buckets etc; This material was very widely used by various native North American Indian tribes, it is waterproof, durable, tough and resinous; Only the thin outer bark is removed, this does not kill the tree; It is most easily removed in late spring to early summer; The outer bark has also been used as emergency sun-glasses in order to prevent snow-blindness; A strip of bark 4 - 5cm wide is placed over the eyes, the natural openings (lenticels) in the bark serving as apertures for the eyes; A brown to red dye can be made from the inner bark; A pioneer species, it rapidly invades deforested areas (such as after a forest fire or logging) and creates suitable conditions for other woodland trees to follow. Because it cannot grow or reproduce very successfully in the shade it is eventually out-competed by the other woodland trees; The tree has an extensive root system and can be planted to control banks from erosion; The bark is a good tinder; An infusion of the leaves is used as a hair shampoo, it is effective against dandruff; The thin outer bark can be used as a paper substitute. It is carefully peeled off the tree and used as it is; A fibre is obtained from the inner bark and another from the heartwood, these are used in making paper; The heartwood fibre is 0.8 - 2.7mm long, that from the bark is probably longer; The branches of the tree can be harvested in spring or summer, the leaves and outer bark are removed, the branches are steamed and the fibres stripped off; Wood - strong, hard, light, very close grained, elastic, not durable. It weighs 37lb per cubic foot and is used for turnery, veneer, pulp etc; It is also used as a fuel; It splits easily and gives off considerable heat even when green, but tends to quickly coat chimneys with a layer of tar;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Betula papyrifera

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve 90 Michigan, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Coram Biosphere Reserve 7460 Montana, United States
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Georgian Bay Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Hubbard Brook Biosphere Reserve 7809 New Hampshire, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Katmai National Park and Preserve Ib 421782 Alaska, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve Ib 386679 Alaska, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mount Revelstoke National Park Ia 18 British Columbia, Canada
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada


Emblem of

New Hampshire


Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)[6]
Achatia distincta (Distinct Quaker)[7]
Acleris braunana[7]
Acleris caliginosana[7]
Acleris celiana[7]
Acleris chalybeana[7]
Acleris hastiana[7]
Acleris hudsoniana[7]
Acleris logiana[7]
Acleris maccana (Marbled Dog’s-tooth Tortrix)[7]
Acleris nigrolinea[7]
Acleris semiannula[7]
Acrobasis betulella[7]
Acrobasis tricolorella[7]
Acronicta americana (American dagger moth)[7]
Acronicta dactylina (fingered dagger)[7]
Acronicta fragilis (fragile dagger)[7]
Acronicta grisea (gray dagger)[7]
Acronicta impleta (Yellow-haired Dagger Moth)[7]
Acronicta impressa (printed dagger)[7]
Acronicta innotata (Unmarked Dagger Moth)[7]
Acronicta interrupta (Interrupted Dagger Moth)[7]
Acronicta leporina (miller)[7]
Acronicta lepusculina (cottonwood dagger moth)[7]
Acronicta radcliffei (Radcliffe's Dagger Moth)[7]
Acronicta superans (Splendid Dagger Moth)[7]
Actias luna (luna moth)[7]
Adelges abietis (Aphid)[6]
Agonopterix argillacea[7]
Agonopterix canadensis[7]
Agonopterix gelidella[7]
Alces alces (moose)[6]
Alsophila pometaria (fall cankerworm)[7]
Amorbia humerosana[7]
Amphipyra pyramidoides (copper underwing)[7]
Anacampsis innocuella[7]
Anacamptodes ephyraria[7]
Anacamptodes humaria[7]
Anaplectoides pressus[7]
Ancylis lamiana[7]
Andropolia contacta (Canadian Giant)[7]
Anisota senatoria (Orangestriped oakworm)[7]
Anisota virginiensis (Pink-striped oakworm)[7]
Antaeotricha leucillana[7]
Antaeotricha schlaegeri[7]
Antispila argentifera[7]
Apotomis albeolana[7]
Apotomis capreana[7]
Apotomis funerea[7]
Apotomis spinulana[7]
Apotomis tertiana[7]
Archiearis infans (first born geometer)[7]
Archips cerasivorana[7]
Archips purpurana[7]
Argyrotaenia mariana[7]
Argyrotaenia velutinana[7]
Autographa ampla (Large Looper Moth)[7]
Automeris io (Io moth)[7]
Baileya ophthalmica[7]
Bibarrambla allenella[7]
Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse)[6]
Cabera borealis[7]
Cabera exanthemata (Common Wave Moth)[7]
Callosamia promethea (Prometheus moth)[7]
Caloptilia alnivorella[7]
Caloptilia invariabilis[7]
Cameraria betulivora[7]
Campaea perlata (light emerald)[7]
Catocala relicta (white underwing)[7]
Cerastis tenebrifera (reddish speckled dart)[7]
Charadra deridens (Marbled Tuffet Moth)[7]
Chionaspis lintneri (Lintner scale)[8]
Choreutis diana[7]
Choristoneura conflictana (Large Aspen Tortrix)[7]
Choristoneura fractivittana[7]
Choristoneura obsoletana[7]
Choristoneura rosaceana (Oblique Banded Leaf Roller)[7]
Choristoneura zapulata[7]
Cingilia catenaria (chainspotted geometer)[7]
Cladara atroliturata (scribber)[7]
Clethrobius comes[9]
Clostera apicalis[7]
Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker)[10]
Coleophora comptoniella[7]
Coleophora serratella (birch casebearer)[7]
Colocasia flavicornis (Yellowhorn)[7]
Colocasia propinquilinea (Closebanded Yellowhorn)[7]
Crocigrapha normani[7]
Cucullia intermedia (Dusky Hooded Owlet)[7]
Cucullia lucifuga[7]
Cyclophora pendulinaria (sweet fern geometer)[7]
Cycnia oregonensis[7]
Dasychira dorsipennata[7]
Dasychira plagiata (Northern Pine Tussock)[7]
Dasychira vagans[7]
Datana ministra (yellownecked caterpillar)[7]
Dichomeris ligulella (Palmerworm)[7]
Drepana arcuata[7]
Eacles imperialis (Imperial moth)[7]
Ectoedemia occultella[9]
Ectropis crepuscularia (small engrailed)[7]
Egira dolosa[7]
Elaphria versicolor (Variegated Midget)[7]
Enargia decolor (Pale Enargia)[7]
Enargia infumata (Lesser Eyed Sallow)[7]
Ennomos subsignaria (elm spanworm)[7]
Epinotia nisella[7]
Epinotia rectiplicana[7]
Epinotia solandriana[7]
Epinotia solicitana[7]
Erannis tiliaria (linden looper)[7]
Euchlaena irraria[7]
Euchlaena johnsonaria[7]
Euchlaena marginaria[7]
Euchlaena pectinaria[7]
Euchlaena tigrinaria (Mottled Euchlaena)[7]
Euclea delphinii (spiny oak slug)[7]
Eueretagrotis attentus (Attentive Dart)[7]
Eueretagrotis perattentus (Two-Spot Dart)[7]
Eufidonia discospilata[7]
Eulithis xylina[7]
Eupithecia columbiata[7]
Eupithecia gelidata[7]
Eupithecia georgii[7]
Eupithecia lachrymosa[7]
Eupithecia perfusca[7]
Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Brown-tail)[7]
Eupsilia sidus[7]
Eupsilia tristigmata[7]
Eutrapela clemataria[7]
Exaeretia ciniflonella[7]
Fenusa pusilla (birch leafminer)[9]
Furcula cinerea[7]
Furcula scolopendrina[7]
Gluphisia septentrionis[7]
Gluphisia severa[7]
Habrosyne scripta (Lettered Habrosyne)[7]
Halysidota tessellaris (Banded Tussock Moth)[7]
Haploa confusa[7]
Haploa lecontei (Leconte's Haploa)[7]
Hedya separatana[7]
Hemileuca lucina[7]
Hesperumia sulphuraria[7]
Heterocampa biundata[7]
Heterocampa guttivitta (saddled prominent)[7]
Heterocampa umbrata[7]
Hethemia pistasciaria[7]
Homoglaea hircina[7]
Hyalophora cecropia (Cecropia Moth)[10]
Hyalophora columbia (Columbia Silkmoth)[7]
Hyalophora euryalus (Ceanothus Silkmoth)[7]
Hydrelia albifera[7]
Hydrelia inornata[7]
Hydriomena furcata (July Highflyer)[7]
Hypagyrtis piniata (pine measuringworm)[7]
Hypagyrtis unipunctata (One-spotted Variant Moth)[7]
Hypomecis umbrosaria[7]
Hypoprepia fucosa (painted lichen moth)[7]
Iridopsis larvaria[7]
Itame anataria[7]
Itame brunneata[7]
Itame exauspicata[7]
Itame loricaria[7]
Lacanobia radix[7]
Lepus americanus (Snowshoe Hare)[6]
Leucobrephos brephoides[7]
Leucoma salicis (White Satin Moth)[7]
Lithomoia solidaginis (goldenrod brindle)[7]
Lithophane amanda[7]
Lithophane baileyi[7]
Lithophane bethunei[7]
Lithophane fagina[7]
Lithophane georgii[7]
Lithophane innominata (Nameless Pinion)[7]
Lithophane laticinerea[7]
Lithophane petulca[7]
Lithophane pexata[7]
Lithophane tepida[7]
Lithophane vivida[7]
Lobophora nivigerata[7]
Lochmaeus bilineata[7]
Lochmaeus manteo (Variable Oakleaf Caterpillar Moth)[7]
Lophocampa caryae (hickory tussock moth)[7]
Lophocampa maculata (spotted tussock moth)[7]
Lycia ursaria[7]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[7]
Lyonetia clerkella (Apple Leaf Miner Moth)[9]
Machimia tentoriferella (Gold-striped Leaftier Moth)[7]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[7]
Malacosoma disstria (forest tent caterpillars)[7]
Melanchra assimilis[7]
Melanolophia canadaria[7]
Meroptera pravella[7]
Mesothea incertata[7]
Messa nana <Unverified Name>[9]
Metanema determinata[7]
Metarranthis duaria[7]
Metarranthis pilosaria[7]
Nadata gibbosa (Rough Prominent)[7]
Nemoria mimosaria (White-fringed Emerald)[7]
Nepytia canosaria (false hemlock looper)[7]
Nites betulella[7]
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)[7]
Ochotona collaris (Collared Pika)[11]
Olethreutes appendiceum[7]
Olethreutes glaciana[7]
Olethreutes zelleriana[7]
Oligia illocata (Wandering Brocade)[7]
Oligocentria lignicolor[7]
Oligocentria semirufescens (Red-washed Prominent Moth)[7]
Oligotrophus skuhravae[9]
Oligotrophus tarda[9]
Operophtera bruceata (bruce spanworm)[7]
Operophtera brumata (winter moth)[7]
Oreana unicolorella[7]
Orgyia antiqua (Rusty Tussock Moth)[7]
Orgyia definita (definite tussock moth)[7]
Ortholepis pasadamia[7]
Orthosia hibisci (green fruitworm)[7]
Orthosia revicta[7]
Orthotaenia undulana[7]
Packardia ceanothi[7]
Paleacrita vernata (spring cankerworm)[7]
Palthis angulalis (Dark-spotted Palthis)[7]
Pandemis canadana[7]
Pandemis lamprosana[7]
Pandemis limitata[7]
Papilio rutulus (Western tiger swallowtail)[7]
Paraclemensia acerifoliella (maple leafcutter)[7]
Paradiarsia littoralis[7]
Phenacomys ungava (eastern heather vole)[12]
Phigalia titea (Spiny Looper)[7]
Phragmatobia assimilans[7]
Phyllodesma americana (lappet moth)[7]
Phyllonorycter messaniella (Oak leafminer)[9]
Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak)[6]
Plagodis alcoolaria (Hollow-spotted Plagodis)[7]
Plagodis phlogosaria (Straight-lined Plagodis)[7]
Plagodis pulveraria (Barred Umber Moth)[7]
Plagodis serinaria[7]
Pococera aplastella[7]
Polia imbrifera[7]
Polia nimbosa[7]
Polygonia comma (Comma anglewing)[7]
Polygonia faunus (green comma)[7]
Polygonia progne (gray comma)[7]
Probole amicaria[7]
Protitame virginalis[7]
Protolampra rufipectus[7]
Pseudosciaphila duplex (Aspen Leaftier)[7]
Pseudothyatira cymatophoroides (Tufted Thyatirid Moth)[7]
Psilocorsis cryptolechiella[7]
Psilocorsis reflexella[7]
Pyrrharctia isabella (banded woollybear)[7]
Rheumaptera hastata (spear-marked black)[7]
Rheumaptera subhastata (White-banded Black Moth)[7]
Schizura concinna (redhumped caterpillar)[7]
Schizura leptinoides[7]
Schizura unicornis (unicorn caterpillar)[7]
Scoliopteryx libatrix (herald moth)[7]
Selenia alciphearia[7]
Selenia kentaria (Kent's Thorn)[7]
Semiothisa aemulataria[7]
Semiothisa neptaria[7]
Semiothisa ulsterata[7]
Semudobia betulae[9]
Sicya macularia[7]
Sideridis rosea[7]
Smerinthus jamaicensis (twin-spotted sphinx)[7]
Sparganothis diluticostana[7]
Sparganothis directana[7]
Sparganothis reticulatana (Reticulated Sparganothis)[7]
Sphinx chersis (Great Ash Sphinx)[7]
Sphinx luscitiosa (Clemens' Hawkmoth)[7]
Spiramater lutra[7]
Stigmella luteella[9]
Symmerista albifrons[7]
Symmerista canicosta[7]
Symmerista leucitys (orangehumped mapleworm)[7]
Syndemis afflictana[7]
Syngrapha epigaea (Pirate Looper Moth)[7]
Tetracis cachexiata (White Slant-line)[7]
Thera contractata (evergreen spanworm)[7]
Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Evergreen bagworm moth)[7]
Tolype velleda[7]
Trichordestra tacoma[7]
Tympanuchus phasianellus (Sharp-tailed Grouse)[13]
Xestia smithii (Smith's Dart)[7]
Xylena cineritia[7]
Xylena curvimacula (dot-and-dash swordgrass moth)[7]
Xylena thoracica[7]
Zale minerea[7]


Parasitized by 
Agrilus anxius[10]

Range Map

Alaska, Yukon; Canada, N. U.S.A. to North Carolina;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection
7HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
8Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
9Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
10Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
11Ochotona collaris, Stephen O. MacDonald and Clyde Jones, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 281, pp. 1-4 (1987)
13Alaska Wildlife Notebook Series, Alaska Department of Fish and Game
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access