Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Fagales > Betulaceae > Betula > Betula pendula

Betula pendula (European white birch)

Synonyms: Betula alba var. pendula

Wikipedia Abstract

Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch or warty birch, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia, though in southern Europe it is only found at higher altitudes. Its range extends into Siberia, China and southwest Asia in the mountains of northern Turkey, the Caucasus and northern Iran. It has been introduced into North America, where it is known as the European white birch, and is considered invasive in some states in USA and in parts of Canada. The tree can also be found in more temperate regions of Australia.
View Wikipedia Record: Betula pendula


Betula pendula subsp. mandshurica (Asian white birch) (Attributes)
Betula pendula subsp. pendula (Attributes)
Betula pendula subsp. szechuanica (Szechuan white birch) (Attributes)


Height [3]  66 feet (20 m)
Width [3]  33 feet (10 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-High
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Shade Percentage [1]  82 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 6 Low Temperature: -10 F° (-23.3 C°) → 0 F° (-17.8 C°)
Light Preference [6]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [6]  Mostly Acid
Soil Fertility [6]  Mostly Infertile
Soil Moisture [6]  Moist
Water Use [1]  High
Flower Color [2]  Brown
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Fall Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Flower Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Dispersal Mode [7]  Anemochory
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  90 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Thicket Forming
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Janka Hardness [4]  1200 lbf (544 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [5]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  24 inches (61 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Medium
Seeds Per [2]  2399995 / lb (5291088 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [8]  0.513
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  The bark is used to make drinking vessels, canoe skins, roofing tiles etc; It is waterproof, durable, tough and resinous. Only the outer bark is removed, this does not kill the tree. It is most easily removed in late spring to early summer. A pioneer species, it readily invades old fields, cleared or burnt-over land and creates conditions suitable for other woodland trees to become established. Since it is relatively short-lived and intolerant of shade, it is eventually out-competed by these trees; A tar-oil is obtained from the white bark in spring. It has fungicidal properties and is also used as an insect repellent; It makes a good shoe polish; Another report says that an essential oil is obtained from the bark and this, called 'Russian Leather' has been used as a perfume; A decoction of the inner bark is used to preserve cordage; An oil similar to Wintergreen oil (obtained from Gaultheria procumbens) is obtained from the inner bark; It is used medicinally and also makes a refreshing tea; The resin glands (the report does not say where these glands are found) are used to make a hair lotion; A brown dye is obtained from the inner bark A glue is made from the sap; Cordage can be made from the fibres of the inner bark; This inner bark can also be separated into thin layers and used as a substitute for oiled paper; The young branches are very flexible and are used to make whisks, besoms etc; They are also used in thatching; The leaves are a good addition to the compost heap, improving fermentation; Wood - soft, light, durable. It is used for a wide range of purposes including furniture, tool handles, toys and carving; A high quality charcoal is obtained from the bark. It is used by artists, painters etc; The wood is also pulped and used for making paper;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Betula pendula

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Basegi Zapovednik Ia 93739 Perm, Russia
Beinn Eighe National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Comprensorio Tolfetano-Cerite-Manziate 166977 Italy  
Dahlberg 22 Germany  
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Dolina Górnego Nurca 9872 Poland  
Galichia Gora Zapovednik Ia 568 Lipetsk, Russia
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Lago Puelo National Park II 47607 Chubut, Argentina
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Monti Reatini 58028 Italy  
Nez Perce National Historical Park V 2076 Idaho, United States
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Del Somma-Vesuvio e Miglio D'Oro National Park II 33648 Italy
Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve IV 12219 Moscow, Russia
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Valsolda 808 Italy  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  



Acalitus rudis <Unverified Name>[9]
Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)[10]
Acantholybas brunneus[11]
Acaphylla acromius <Unverified Name>[9]
Achlya flavicornis (Yellow Horned)[12]
Acleris literana (Sprinkled Rough-wing)[12]
Acronicta aceris[9]
Acronicta alni (Alder Moth)[12]
Acronicta auricoma (Scarce Dagger)[12]
Acronicta euphorbiae (Sweet Gale Moth)[12]
Acronicta leporina (miller)[12]
Acronicta menyanthidis (Light Knot Grass)[9]
Acronicta psi (Grey Dagger Moth)[12]
Acronicta rumicis (Knot Grass)[12]
Acronicta tridens (Dark Dagger)[9]
Actias luna (luna moth)[12]
Aethalura punctulata (Grey Birch)[12]
Aglia tau (Tau Emperor)[12]
Agrilus cyanescens[10]
Agrilus viridis (beech splendour beetle)[9]
Agriopis aurantiaria <Unverified Name>[9]
Agriopis marginaria <Unverified Name>[10]
Agrochola helvola (Flounced Chestnut)[9]
Alcis repandata (Mottled Beauty)[12]
Alebra wahlbergi[9]
Alnetoidia alneti[9]
Amphipyra pyramidea[9]
Ancylis upupana[12]
Anisostephus betulinus[9]
Anoplus plantaris[9]
Apocheima hispidaria[9]
Apoderus coryli[9]
Archiearis parthenias (Orange Underwing)[9]
Arctia caja (garden tiger moth)[12]
Arctornis l-nigrum (Black V Moth)[9]
Arge metallica <Unverified Name>[9]
Arge ustulata <Unverified Name>[10]
Argyresthia goedartella[10]
Armillaria ostoyae[10]
Astetholida lucida[13]
Asthena albulata[9]
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)[12]
Betulaphis brevipilosa[11]
Betulaphis quadrituberculata[9]
Biston betularia (peppered moth)[12]
Blepharidopterus angulatus (Black-kneed Capsid)[10]
Boarmia roboraria[9]
Brachionycha nubeculosa (Rannoch Sprawler)[9]
Byctiscus betulae (Hazel Leaf Roller)[10]
Byctiscus populi[9]
Cabera exanthemata (Common Wave Moth)[9]
Cabera pusaria (Common White Wave Moth)[10]
Calaphis betulicola[9]
Calaphis flava (Birch aphid)[10]
Callipterinella calliptera[9]
Callipterinella minutissima[9]
Callipterinella tuberculata[9]
Calliteara pudibunda (Pale Tussock)[12]
Caloptilia betulicola[12]
Caloptilia populetorum[12]
Campaea margaritata (Light Emerald Moth)[10]
Capreolus capreolus (western roe deer)[10]
Cecidophyopsis vermiformis <Unverified Name>[9]
Ceroplastes ceriferus (Indian wax scale)[14]
Chamaepsylla hartigii[9]
Chionodes viduella[12]
Chloroclysta citrata <Unverified Name>[9]
Chloroclysta miata[12]
Chloroclysta siterata (Red-green Carpet)[9]
Chloroclysta truncata <Unverified Name>[9]
Chondrostereum purpureum (Silverleaf Fungus)[10]
Choristoneura hebenstreitella (Mountain-ash tortricid)[10]
Cicadetta abscondita[9]
Cleora cinctaria (Ringed Carpet)[12]
Clethrobius comes[9]
Closterotomus biclavatus[10]
Clytus arietis (wasp beetle)[10]
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Hawfinch)[10]
Cochylis nana[10]
Coeliodes rubicundus[9]
Coeliodinus nigritarsis <Unverified Name>[9]
Coeliodinus rubicundus <Unverified Name>[9]
Coleophora binderella[12]
Coleophora limosipennella[12]
Coleophora potentillae[10]
Coleophora serratella (birch casebearer)[9]
Colocasia coryli (Nut-tree Tussock)[12]
Colotois pennaria (Feathered Thorn)[9]
Cosmia trapezina (Dun-bar)[12]
Cossus cossus (Goat Moth)[12]
Craesus latipes <Unverified Name>[10]
Crocallis elinguaria (Scalloped Oak Moth)[12]
Cryptocephalus frontalis <Unverified Name>[9]
Cryptocephalus labiatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Cryptocephalus nitidulus <Unverified Name>[9]
Cryptocephalus parvulus <Unverified Name>[9]
Cryptocephalus punctiger <Unverified Name>[9]
Cryptocephalus pusillus <Unverified Name>[9]
Curculio rubidus[9]
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)[10]
Cyclophora albipunctata (Birch Mocha)[12]
Cyclophora porata (False Mocha)[9]
Cyclophora punctaria (Maiden’s Blush)[9]
Daldinia loculata[11]
Deporaus betulae[10]
Deporaus mannerheimi[9]
Diarsia brunnea (Purple Clay)[9]
Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis (European fruit scale)[14]
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (California scale)[14]
Dicallomera fascelina <Unverified Name>[9]
Discula betulae[10]
Diurnea fagella[12]
Drepana curvatula (Dusky Hook-tip Moth)[10]
Drepana falcataria (Pebble Hook-tip)[12]
Drymonia dodonaea (Marbled Brown)[9]
Dysstroma truncata (Common Marbled Carpet Moth)[10]
Ectoedemia minimella[9]
Ectoedemia occultella[12]
Ectropis crepuscularia (small engrailed)[12]
Edwardsiana bergmani[9]
Elasmucha grisea <Unverified Name>[9]
Electrophaes corylata (Broken-barred Carpet Moth)[10]
Ematurga atomaria (Common Heath Moth)[12]
Enargia paleacea (Angle-striped Sallow)[9]
Endromis versicolora (Kentish Glory)[12]
Ennomos erosaria <Unverified Name>[9]
Epinotia ramella[10]
Epinotia tetraquetrana[12]
Epione paralellaria <Unverified Name>[9]
Epirrita autumnata <Unverified Name>[9]
Epirrita christyi <Unverified Name>[9]
Epirrita dilutata <Unverified Name>[9]
Erannis defoliaria (Mottled Umber Moth)[10]
Eriocrania salopiella[9]
Eriocrania sangii[9]
Eriocrania semipurpurella[12]
Eriocrania sparrmannella[9]
Eriocrania unimaculella <Unverified Name>[9]
Eriogaster lanestris (Small Eggar)[12]
Eriophyes longisetus <Unverified Name>[9]
Erysiphe ornata[10]
Euceraphis betulae[11]
Euceraphis punctipennis (Birch Aphid)[10]
Eulecanium douglasi (currant soft scale)[9]
Eulithis testata (chevron moth)[9]
Eupithecia satyrata (Satyr Pug Moth)[12]
Eupsilia transversa (Satellite)[9]
Eurois occulta (great gray dart)[9]
Fagocyba cruenta[9]
Falcaria lacertinaria (Scalloped Hook-tip)[12]
Fenusa pusilla (birch leafminer)[9]
Fomes fomentarius (Hoof Fungus)[10]
Fomitopsis betulina (Birch Polypore)[10]
Fomitopsis pinicola (Red Banded Polypore)[10]
Furcula bicuspis (Alder Kitten)[12]
Galerucella lineola <Unverified Name>[9]
Gastrosarus nigricollis[13]
Geometra papilionaria (Large Emerald)[12]
Glyphina betulae[9]
Graphiphora augur (Double Dart)[9]
Gynaephora selenitica[12]
Hamamelistes betulinus[11]
Hormaphis betulina <Unverified Name>[9]
Hydrelia sylvata (Waved Carpet)[9]
Hyles gallii (Bedstraw Hawk-Moth)[12]
Hypomecis punctinalis <Unverified Name>[10]
Idaea trigeminata (Treble Brown Spot)[9]
Incurvaria pectinea[12]
Incurvaria tenuicornis[12]
Inonotus obliquus (Clinker Polypore)[10]
Jodis lactearia (Little Emerald)[9]
Kallistaphis flava <Unverified Name>[9]
Kleidocerys resedae (Birch Catkin Bug)[10]
Kybos betulicola <Unverified Name>[9]
Lacanobia contigua (Beautiful Brocade)[12]
Lampronia fuscatella <Unverified Name>[9]
Lasiocampa quercus (Oak Eggar)[12]
Lepidosaphes conchiformis (fig oystershell scale)[9]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[14]
Leptosporomyces fuscostratus[11]
Leucodonta bicoloria (White Prominent)[9]
Lindbergina aurovittata[9]
Linnavuoriana decempunctata[9]
Lithomoia solidaginis (goldenrod brindle)[9]
Lochmaea capreae <Unverified Name>[10]
Lomaspilis marginata (Clouded Border Moth)[12]
Lomaspilis opis[12]
Lomographa temerata (Clouded Silver)[9]
Luperus luperus <Unverified Name>[10]
Lycia hirtaria (Brindled Beauty Moth)[12]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[12]
Lyonetia clerkella (Apple Leaf Miner Moth)[12]
Lyonetia prunifoliella[9]
Macaria notata <Unverified Name>[10]
Macrothylacia rubi (Fox Moth)[12]
Magdalis carbonaria[9]
Massalongia betulifolia[9]
Massalongia rubra[9]
Melanchra persicariae (Dot Moth)[12]
Melanchra pisi (Broom Moth)[12]
Melanophila acuminata[9]
Messa nana <Unverified Name>[9]
Metriostola betulae[12]
Metriotes lutarea[12]
Mimas tiliae (Lime Hawk-moth)[12]
Miris striatus[10]
Monaphis antennata[9]
Nearctaphis californica nigrescens[9]
Nematus umbratus <Unverified Name>[9]
Nematus viridis <Unverified Name>[9]
Notodonta dromedarius (Iron Prominent)[9]
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)[12]
Nymphalis polychloros (Large Tortoiseshell Butterfly)[10]
Ochropacha duplaris (Common Lutestring Moth)[12]
Odontopera bidentata (Scalloped Hazel)[9]
Odontosia carmelita (Scarce Prominent)[12]
Oemona hirta[13]
Oligotrophus skuhravae[9]
Oligotrophus tarda[9]
Oncopsis flavicollis[9]
Oncopsis subangulata <Unverified Name>[9]
Oncopsis tristis[9]
Operophtera fagata (Northern Winter Moth)[12]
Orgyia antiqua (Rusty Tussock Moth)[12]
Orthosia incerta (Clouded Drab)[9]
Orthotaenia undulana[10]
Pachythelia villosella[12]
Pachytodes cerambyciformis[10]
Pamphilius pallipes <Unverified Name>[9]
Pamphilius varius <Unverified Name>[9]
Paradarisa extersaria <Unverified Name>[9]
Paradiarsia sobrina <Unverified Name>[9]
Paraphotistus impressus <Unverified Name>[10]
Parastichtis suspecta[9]
Parornix betulae[12]
Pechipogo strigilata[9]
Peniophora polygonia[11]
Pentatoma rufipes <Unverified Name>[10]
Pezicula carnea[11]
Phalera bucephala (Buff-tip)[12]
Phellinus igniarius (Willow Bracket)[10]
Phenacoccus aceris (apple mealybug)[9]
Pheosia gnoma (Lesser Swallow Prominent)[12]
Phigalia pilosaria (Pale Brindled Beauty)[9]
Phlogophora meticulosa (Angle Shades Moth)[10]
Phyllobius argentatus[10]
Phyllobius glaucus[10]
Phyllobius pyri (Common Leaf Weevil)[10]
Phyllocoptes lionotus <Unverified Name>[9]
Phyllonorycter anderidae[12]
Phyllonorycter cavella[12]
Phyllonorycter corylifoliella[12]
Phyllonorycter ulmifoliella[12]
Phylloporia bistrigella[9]
Phytoptus laevis <Unverified Name>[9]
Plagodis dolabraria (Scorched Wing)[9]
Plagodis pulveraria (Barred Umber Moth)[10]
Platypus apicalis[13]
Plemeliella betulicola <Unverified Name>[9]
Plemyria rubiginata (Blue-bordered Carpet)[9]
Pleurotus pulmonarius (Pale Oyster)[11]
Poecilocampa populi (December Moth)[12]
Polia nebulosa (Grey Arches)[9]
Polia trimaculosa[9]
Polydrusus cervinus[10]
Polydrusus formosus[10]
Polydrusus marginatus[10]
Polydrusus mollis[10]
Polydrusus pterygomalis[10]
Polydrusus tereticollis[10]
Profenusa thomsoni <Unverified Name>[9]
Psallus betuleti[10]
Pseudoips fagana[9]
Psylla betulae[9]
Ptilodon capucina (Coxcomb Prominent)[12]
Pulvinaria vitis (cottony vine scale)[14]
Ramphus pulicarius[9]
Resseliella betulicola[9]
Rhagium bifasciatum (two-banded longhorn beetle)[10]
Rheumaptera hastata (spear-marked black)[12]
Rheumaptera undulata[12]
Rhogogaster chlorosoma <Unverified Name>[10]
Rhogogaster punctulata <Unverified Name>[10]
Rhynchaenus iota[9]
Rhynchaenus rusci <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhynchaenus stigma[9]
Rhynchaenus testaceus[9]
Rhynchites longiceps[9]
Rhynchites nanus[9]
Roeslerstammia erxlebella[12]
Saturnia pavonia (Emperor moth)[12]
Schizotus pectinicornis <Unverified Name>[10]
Selenia tetralunaria (Purple Thorn)[12]
Semioscopis avellanella[12]
Semiothisa carbonaria <Unverified Name>[9]
Semiothisa notata[9]
Semudobia betulae[9]
Serraca punctinalis[9]
Spinus spinus (Eurasian Siskin)[10]
Stauropus fagi (Lobster Moth)[9]
Steccherinum ochraceum[11]
Steingelia gorodetskia[14]
Stenurella nigra[10]
Sterrhopterix fusca[12]
Stigmella betulicola[12]
Stigmella confusella[9]
Stigmella continuella[9]
Stigmella lapponica[9]
Stigmella luteella[12]
Stigmella sakhalinella[9]
Swammerdamia heroldella[12]
Swammerdamia pyrella[12]
Symydobius oblongus[11]
Synanthedon culciformis <Unverified Name>[9]
Synanthedon scoliaeformis[12]
Synanthedon spheciformis (White-barred Clearwing )[10]
Syndemis musculana[12]
Syngrapha epigaea (Pirate Looper Moth)[12]
Taphrina betulina (Birch Besom)[10]
Teleiodes paripunctella <Unverified Name>[9]
Tetheella fluctuosa (Satin Lutestring)[9]
Tetrastes bonasia (Hazel Grouse)[10]
Tettigella alba[9]
Thalera fimbrialis (Sussex Emerald)[9]
Trachipterus trachypterus (Mediterranean dealfish)[11]
Trichiosoma lucorum <Unverified Name>[10]
Trichiura crataegi (Pale Eggar)[12]
Trichopteryx carpinata (Early Tooth-striped)[9]
Troilus luridus <Unverified Name>[10]
Venusia cambrica (welsh wave)[9]
Watsonalla binaria (Oak Hook-tip)[12]
Xestia baja (Dotted Clay)[12]
Xestia ditrapezium <Unverified Name>[9]
Xyleborinus saxeseni[13]
Xylococculus betulae[14]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Agaricus capensis (Fly Agaric)[10]
Amanita crocea (Orange Grisette)[10]
Amanita fulva (Tawny Grisette)[10]
Amanita vaginata (Grisette)[10]
Boletus subtomentosus (Suede Bolete)[10]
Cortinarius alboviolaceus (Pearly Webcap)[10]
Cortinarius anomalus (Variable Webcap)[10]
Cortinarius armillatus (Red Banded Webcap)[10]
Cortinarius betuletorum[10]
Cortinarius bivelus[10]
Cortinarius chrysolitus[10]
Cortinarius cinnamomeus (Cinnamon Webcap)[10]
Cortinarius decipiens[10]
Cortinarius delibutus (Yellow Webcap)[10]
Cortinarius flexipes (Pelargonium Webcap)[10]
Cortinarius hemitrichus (Frosty Webcap)[10]
Cortinarius spilomeus (Freckled Webcap)[10]
Cortinarius tabularis[10]
Cortinarius tubarius[10]
Cortinarius violaceus (Violet Webcap)[10]
Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Poisonpie)[10]
Hebeloma incarnatulum[10]
Hebeloma mesophaeum (Veiled Poison Pie)[10]
Inocybe grammata[10]
Inocybe lacera (Torn Fibrecap)[10]
Krombholziella murinacea (Brown Birch Bolete)[10]
Laccaria amethystina (Amethyst Deceiver)[10]
Laccaria proxima (Scurfy Deceiver)[10]
Lactarius flexuosus[10]
Lactarius glyciosmus (Coconut Milkcap)[10]
Lactarius helvus (Fenugreek Milkcap)[10]
Lactarius hysginus[10]
Lactarius lacunarum[10]
Lactarius rufus (Rufous Milkcap)[10]
Lactarius scoticus[10]
Lactarius tabidus (Birch Milkcap)[10]
Lactarius trivialis[10]
Lactarius turpis (Ugly Milkcap)[10]
Lactarius vietus (Grey Milkcap)[10]
Leccinum holopus (Ghost Bolete)[10]
Leccinum variicolor (Mottled Bolete)[10]
Leccinum versipelle (Orange Birch Bolete)[10]
Paxillus involutus (Brown Rollrim)[10]
Porphyrellus sordidus (Cep)[10]
Russula aeruginea (Green Brittlegill)[10]
Russula aurora (Rosy Brittlegill)[10]
Russula betularum (Birch Brittlegill)[10]
Russula claroflava (Yellow Swamp Brittlegill)[10]
Russula grisea[10]
Russula nitida (Purple Swamp Brittlegill)[10]
Russula ochroleuca (Ochre Brittlegill)[10]
Russula paludosa[10]
Russula parazurea (Powdery Brittlegill)[10]
Russula versicolor (Variable Brittlegill)[10]
Scleroderma citrinum (Common Earthball)[10]
Thelephora terrestris (Earthfan)[10]
Tricholoma columbetta (Blue Spot Knight)[10]
Tricholoma fulvum (Birch Knight)[10]
Tricholoma saponaceum (soap-scented toadstool)[10]
Tricholoma sejunctum (Deceiving Knight)[10]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Amanita fulva (Tawny Grisette)[10]
Cortinarius armillatus (Red Banded Webcap)[10]
Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Poisonpie)[10]
Inocybe grammata[10]
Inocybe lacera (Torn Fibrecap)[10]
Krombholziella murinacea (Brown Birch Bolete)[10]
Laccaria amethystina (Amethyst Deceiver)[10]
Laccaria proxima (Scurfy Deceiver)[10]
Lactarius glyciosmus (Coconut Milkcap)[10]
Paxillus involutus (Brown Rollrim)[10]
Phellodon confluens (Fused Tooth)[11]
Scleroderma citrinum (Common Earthball)[10]
Thelephora palmata (Stinking Earthfan)[11]
Thelephora terrestris (Earthfan)[10]
Tricholoma columbetta (Blue Spot Knight)[10]
Parasitized by 
Armillaria ostoyae (Dark Honey Fungus)[10]
Chondrostereum purpureum[10]
Coleophora potentillae[10]
Discula betulae[10]
Epinotia tetraquetrana[10]
Erysiphe ornata[10]
Fomes fomentarius[10]
Fomitopsis betulina[10]
Fomitopsis pinicola[10]
Ganoderma resinaceum[11]
Incurvaria pectinea[10]
Inonotus obliquus[10]
Melampsoridium betulinum (Birch Rust)[11]
Phellinus igniarius[10]
Phyllactinia guttata[11]
Taphrina betulina[10]
Shelter for 
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)[10]


Bassegi Zapovednik; Europe to Russian Far East, NW. Africa; Europe to SW. & C. Asia;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
6ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
7Paula S, Arianoutsou M, Kazanis D, Tavsanoglu Ç, Lloret F, Buhk C, Ojeda F, Luna B, Moreno JM, Rodrigo A, Espelta JM, Palacio S, Fernández-Santos B, Fernandes PM, and Pausas JG. 2009. Fire-related traits for plant species of the Mediterranean Basin. Ecology 90: 1420.
Paula S. & Pausas J.G. 2013. BROT: a plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species. Version 2013.06.
8Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
9Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
10Ecology of Commanster
11Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
12HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
13New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
14Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access