Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Malpighiales > Phyllanthaceae > Bischofia > Bischofia javanica

Bischofia javanica (Javanese bishopwood)

Synonyms: Andrachne apetala; Andrachne trifoliata; Bischofia javanica var. genuina; Bischofia javanica var. lanceolata; Bischofia javanica var. oblongifolia; Bischofia javanica var. toui; Bischofia leptopoda; Bischofia oblongifolia; Bischofia roeperiana; Bischofia toui; Bischofia trifoliata; Microelus roeperianus; Phyllanthus gymnanthus; Stylodiscus trifoliatus

Wikipedia Abstract

Bischofia javanica (Bishop wood) is a plant species of the family Phyllanthaceae. It and the related B. polycarpa are the only two members of genus (Bischofia) and tribe (Bischofieae). These species are distributed throughout southern and southeast Asia to Australia and Polynesia also in North America (brought to North America as a decorative plant but now considered to be an invasive species). The tree is commonly used by tigers to scratch-mark territory in the jungles of Assam where it is locally called uriam. They also occur in southwestern, central, eastern, and southern China, and also Taiwan, where aboriginal people consider it a sacred tree.
View Wikipedia Record: Bischofia javanica


Height [1]  37 feet (11.4 m)
Width [1]  30 feet (9.2 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  None
Allergen Potential [1]  High
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Shade Percentage [1]  91 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 10 Low Temperature: 30 F° (-1.1 C°) → 40 F° (4.4 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 11 Low Temperature: 40 F° (4.4 C°) → 50 F° (10 C°)
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Janka Hardness [3]  1600 lbf (726 kgf) Medium
Leaf Type [2]  Evergreen
Lifespan [4]  Perennial
Specific Gravity [5]  0.602
Structure [2]  Tree

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Everglades and Dry Tortugas Biosphere Reserve   Florida, United States  


Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly)[6]
Aonidiella inornata (papaya red scale)[7]
Aonidiella orientalis (Oriental Scale)[7]
Ceroplastes rubens (pink wax scale)[7]
Cynopterus brachyotis (lesser short-nosed fruit bat)[8]
Ducula bicolor (Pied Imperial Pigeon)[8]
Ducula pacifica (Pacific Imperial Pigeon)[9]
Ducula poliocephala (Pink-bellied Imperial Pigeon)[8]
Dysmicoccus nesophilus[7]
Eucalymnatus tessellatus (tessellated scale)[7]
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)[10]
Hypsipetes philippinus (Philippine Bulbul)[8]
Macaca cyclopis (Taiwan macaque)[11]
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)[10]
Macropygia amboinensis phasianella (Synonym of Macropygia phasianella, Slender-bill cuckoo-dove)[8]
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)[8]
Megalaima viridis (White-cheeked Barbet)[12]
Milviscutulus mangiferae (mango shield scale)[7]
Oriolus chinensis (Black-naped Oriole)[8]
Paraputo leveri[7]
Penelopides panini (Tarictic Hornbill)[8]
Phapitreron leucotis (White-eared Brown Dove)[8]
Planococcus minor (Pacific mealybug)[7]
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)[10]
Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (false oleander scale)[7]
Pseudococcus gilbertensis[7]
Pseudococcus ogasawarensis[7]
Ptenochirus jagori (greater musky fruit bat)[8]
Pteropus dasymallus inopinatus (Orii’s flying-fox)[13]
Ptilinopus occipitalis (Yellow-breasted Fruit Dove)[8]
Pulvinaria neocellulosa[7]
Pulvinaria psidii (green shield scale)[7]
Pycnonotus goiavier (Yellow-vented Bulbul)[8]
Rhabdornis mystacalis (Stripe-headed Creeper)[8]
Saissetia coffeae (brown scale)[7]
Sarcops calvus (Coleto)[8]
Streptopelia chinensis (Spotted Dove)[8]
Trachypithecus pileatus (capped leaf monkey)[14]
Zosterops nigrorum (Yellowish White-eye)[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


Trop. & Subtrop. Asia to S. Pacific;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
3Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
4USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
5Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
6Norrbom, A.L. 2004. Fruit fly (Tephritidae) host plant database. Version Nov, 2004.
7Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
8Interactions among Frugivores and Fleshy Fruit Trees in a Philippine Submontane Rainforest, Andreas Hamann and Eberhard Curio, Conservation Biology Volume 13, No. 4, August 1999, Pages 766–773
9Seed dispersal by Pacific Pigeons (Ducula pacifica) in Tonga, Western Polynesia, Kim R. McConkey, Hayley J. Meehan and Donald R. Drake, Emu, 2004, 104, 369–376
10Fruit Preferences of Four Sympatric Primate Species at Ketambe, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, Peter S. Ungar, International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1995
11Food Habits of Formosan Rock Macaques (Macaca cyclopis) in Jentse, Northeastern Taiwan, Assessed by Fecal Analysis and Behavioral Observation, Hsiu-Hui Su and Ling-Ling Lee, International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2001, pp. 359-377
12del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
13The role of Orii’s flying-fox (Pteropus dasymallus inopinatus) as a pollinator and a seed disperser on Okinawa-jima Island, the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan; Atsushi Nakamoto, Kazumitsu Kinjo Masako Izawa; Ecol Res (2009) 24: 405–414
14Feeding Ecology of Trachypithecus pileatus in India, G. S. Solanki & Awadhesh Kumar & B. K. Sharma, Int J Primatol (2008) 29:173–182
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access