Plantae > Tracheophyta > Liliopsida > Poales > Typhaceae > Typha > Typha latifolia

Typha latifolia (Reedmace; Common Cattail)

Synonyms: Massula latifolia; Typha ambigua; Typha angustifolia var. inaequalis; Typha angustifolia var. media; Typha angustifolia var. sonderi; Typha crassa; Typha elongata; Typha engelmannii; Typha intermedia; Typha latifolia f. divisa; Typha latifolia subsp. eulatifolia; Typha latifolia var. ambigua; Typha latifolia var. angustifolia; Typha latifolia var. elata; Typha latifolia var. elatior; Typha latifolia var. elongata; Typha latifolia var. gracilis; Typha latifolia var. obconica; Typha latifolia var. remotiuscula; Typha latifolia var. typica; Typha major; Typha media; Typha palustris; Typha pendula; Typha remotiuscula; Typha spathulifolia

Wikipedia Abstract

Typha latifolia (bulrush, common bulrush, broadleaf cattail, common cattail, great reedmace, cooper's reed, cumbungi) is a perennial herbaceous plant in the genus Typha. It is found as a native plant species in North and South America, Europe, Eurasia, and Africa. In Canada, broadleaf cattail occurs in all provinces and also in the Yukon and Northwest Territories, and in the United States, it is native to all states except Hawaii.
View Wikipedia Record: Typha latifolia

Invasive Species

Typha latifolia (cattails) are among the most common of all aquatic plants. They are often a nuisance but also perform an important function in keeping a lake healthy by filtering the runoffs. Typha latifolia form dense monocultures when there is a wetland disturbance. They can reach up to 2 or 3 metres and grow prolifically from thick underground rhizomes, forming dense rhizome mats and litter which has an impact on species diversity by alteration of habitat. Dense Typha latifolia growth and litter may reduce the opportunity for other plants to establish or survive.
View ISSG Record: Typha latifolia


Height [3]  8.2 feet (2.5 m)
Width [3]  9.8 feet (3 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium
Screening - Summer [2]  Porous
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Hardiness Zone Minimum [2]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Light Preference [5]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [5]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [5]  Rich
Soil Moisture [5]  Wet
Water Use [2]  High
Flower Color [2]  Brown
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Late Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  None
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  High
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  3 months 10 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Rhizomatous
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Leaf Type [4]  Deciduous
Lifespan [3]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Seed, Sprig
Regrowth Rate [2]  Moderate
Root Depth [2]  14 inches (36 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Moderate
Seed Vigor [2]  Medium
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Structure [4]  Herb
Usage [3]  The stems and leaves have many uses. Gathered in the autumn they make a good thatch, can be used in making paper, can be woven into mats, chairs, hats etc; They are a good source of biomass, making an excellent addition to the compost heap or used as a source of fuel etc. The pulp of the plant can be converted into rayon; The stems can be used to make rush lights. The outer stem is removed except for a small strip about 10mm wide which acts as a spine to keep the stem erect. The stem is then soaked in oil and can be lit and used like a candle; The female flowers make an excellent tinder and can be lit from the spark of a flint; A fibre is obtained from the blossom stem and flowers; A fibre obtained from the leaves can be used for making paper; The hairs of the fruits are used for stuffing pillows etc; They have good insulating and buoyancy properties and have also been used as a wound dressing and a lining for babies nappies; The flowering stems can be dried and used for insulation, they also have good buoyancy properties; The pollen is highly inflammable, it is used in making fireworks etc;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  Rapid
View Plants For A Future Record : Typha latifolia


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Alaska & Canada Pacific Coastal Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Cantabric Coast - Languedoc France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Eastern Iberia Andorra, France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Gulf of Venice Drainages Italy, San Marino, Slovenia, Switzerland Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Lake Onega - Lake Ladoga Finland, Russia Palearctic Large Lakes    
Northeast US & Southeast Canada Atlantic Drainages Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Norwegian Sea Drainages Norway, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Southern Baltic Lowlands Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Southern Iberia Portugal, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
St. Lawrence Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Upper Danube Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Western Iberia Portugal, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Basegi Zapovednik Ia 93739 Perm, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Bolshekhekhtsirsky Zapovednik Ia 112282 Khabarovsk, Russia
Boschi del Ticino 50788 Italy  
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Dornoch Firth and Morrich More 21499 Scotland, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Essex Estuaries 114016 England, United Kingdom
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Kokkolan saaristo (SPA) 36322 Finland  
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Parco Regionale Oglio Sud 9941 Italy  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Risaie della Lomellina 76457 Italy  
Río Pilcomayo National Park II 123699 Formosa, Argentina
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
San Dimas Biosphere Reserve 17161 California, United States  
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tigrovaia Balka Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 146860 Tajikistan  
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Ussuriysky Zapovednik Ia 99910 Primorsky Krai , Russia
Viadana, Portiolo, San Benedetto Po e Ostiglia 17848 Italy  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States



Anthomyza neglecta[6]
Archanara algae (Rush Wainscot)[7]
Archanara oblonga (Oblong Sedge Borer)[7]
Archanara sparganii (Webb's Wainscot)[7]
Arthrinium sporophleum[6]
Bactra maiorina[7]
Calamotropha paludella[8]
Chilacis typhae[8]
Chilodes maritima[7]
Coleophora caespititiella[8]
Donacia aquatica <Unverified Name>[8]
Donacia cinerea <Unverified Name>[8]
Donacia vulgaris <Unverified Name>[8]
Epithele typhae[6]
Fulica americana (American Coot)[9]
Hydrellia griseola (Rice leafminer)[8]
Hymenopsis typhae[6]
Lachnum controversum[6]
Limnaecia phragmitella[7]
Mycolindtneria trachyspora[6]
Nonagria typhae (Bulrush Wainscot)[7]
Notaris bimaculatus[8]
Notaris scirpi[8]
Notiphila riparia[8]
Ophiobolus typhae[6]
Oscinosoma cognata <Unverified Name>[8]
Papio hamadryas (hamadryas baboon)[10]
Parafairmairia gracilis (elongate soft scale)[11]
Paraschizaphis scirpi <Unverified Name>[8]
Phoma typharum[6]
Plateumaris sericea <Unverified Name>[8]
Psathyrella typhae[6]
Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae (water lily aphid)[8]
Rhopalosiphum padi (Oat aphid)[8]
Sesamia nonagrioides[7]
Simyra albovenosa (Reed Dagger)[7]
Simyra henrici[7]
Stagonospora typhoidearum[6]
Stilbus oblongus <Unverified Name>[8]
Thripsaphis ballii ballii[8]
Typhamyza bifasciata[6]
Typhula capitata[6]
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)[12]
Lymnaea stagnalis (swamp lymnaea)[12]


Shelter for 
Aedes albopictus (forest day mosquito)[12]
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)[12]
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)[12]
Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander)[12]
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)[12]
Anax junius (green darner)[12]
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)[12]
Anguilla rostrata (American eel)[12]
Ardea herodias (Great Blue Heron)[12]
Calopteryx maculata (Ebony jewelwing)[12]
Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)[12]
Chelydra serpentina (Common Snapping Turtle)[12]
Daphnia ambigua (Water flea)[12]
Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick)[12]
Dolomedes triton (Six-spottedfishingspider)[12]
Etheostoma olmstedi (Tessellated darter)[12]
Eurycea guttolineata (Three-lined Salamander)[12]
Gambusia holbrooki (Bore-drain fish)[12]
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)[12]
Hyalella azteca (Scud)[12]
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)[12]
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)[12]
Macrobdella decora (Freshwater leech)[12]
Macrocyclops albidus (Copepod)[12]
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)[12]
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)[12]
Nerodia sipedon (Northern Water Snake)[12]
Notemigonus crysoleucas (Golden shiner minnow)[12]
Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt)[12]
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)[12]
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)[12]
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)[12]
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)[12]
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Strawberry bass)[12]
Procotyla fluviatilis (Flatworm)[12]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[12]
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)[12]
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)[12]
Semotilus atromaculatus (Horned dace)[12]
Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch)[12]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[12]
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)[12]
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)[12]
Lymnaea stagnalis (swamp lymnaea)[12]


Bassegi Zapovednik; Temp. Northern Hemisphere to C. America, S. South America, Nigeria to Kenya; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000)
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
5ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
8Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
9American Coot Nesting and Feeding Habits in Southeastern Washington, R. E. Fitzner, E. T. Sipco, R. G. Schreckhise, Northwest Science Vol. 54, No. 4, 1980, p. 244-252
10Composition and Seasonality of Diet in Wild Hamadryas Baboons: Preliminary Findings from Filoha, Larissa Swedell, Getenet Hailemeskel, Amy Schreier, Folia Primatol 2008;79:476–490
11Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
12Study of Northern Virginia Ecology
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access