Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Gentianales > Rubiaceae > Cephalanthus > Cephalanthus tetrandra
 

Cephalanthus tetrandra (Buttonbush)

Synonyms: Cephalanthus glabrifolius; Cephalanthus monas; Cephalanthus naucleoides; Cephalanthus occidentalis; Cephalanthus occidentalis angustifolius; Cephalanthus occidentalis f. angustifolia; Cephalanthus occidentalis var. angustifolius; Cephalanthus ratoensis; Gilipus montanus; Nauclea tetrandra

Attributes

Height [1]  23 feet (7 m)
Flower Type [1]  Hermaphrodite
Hazards [1]  The leaves contain glucosides and can be toxic in large doses. Symptoms include vomiting, convulsions, chronic spasms and muscular paralysis;
Leaf Type [1]  Deciduous
Scent [1]  The dried leaves have a soft sweet fragrance like newly mown hay.
Structure [1]  Shrub
Usage [1]  Wood - light, tough. Of no commercial value;
View Plants For A Future Record : Cephalanthus tetrandra

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Bluestone National Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 3517 West Virginia, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve 90 Michigan, United States
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge   Puerto Rico, United States
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Everglades and Dry Tortugas Biosphere Reserve   Florida, United States  
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fort Larned National Historic Site III 706 Kansas, United States
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Gauley River National Recreation Area V 10157 West Virginia, United States
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
George Washington Memorial Parkway V   Virginia, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Gulf Island National Seashore II 67487 Florida, Mississippi, United States
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Hobcaw Barony (North Inlet) National Estuarine Research Reserve 7585 South Carolina, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Little River National Wildlife Refuge   Oklahoma, United States
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Manassas National Battlefield Park III 5132 Virginia, United States
Moores Creek National Battlefield III 100 North Carolina, United States
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
National Capital Region - East National Park   District of Columbia, United States
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Obed Wild and Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 5268 Tennessee, United States
Oconee National Forest Botanical Reserve 306 Georgia, United States  
Petersburg National Battlefield III 3338 Virginia, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Rock Creek Park   District of Columbia, United States
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Shiloh National Military Park III 4061 Tennessee, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Tennessee River Gorge   Tennessee, United States
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States

Ecosystems

Predators

Aellopos titan (Titan Sphinx)[2]
Aethes cephalanthana[2]
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)[3]
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)[3]
Callosamia promethea (Prometheus moth)[2]
Catocala connubialis (Connubial Underwing)[2]
Citheronia regalis (Regal moth/hickory horned devil)[2]
Colias philodice (clouded sulphur)[3]
Darapsa versicolor (Hydrangea sphinx)[2]
Diaspidiotus ancylus (Howard scale)[4]
Dolichovespula maculata (baldfaced hornet)[3]
Eudryas grata (beautiful wood nymph)[2]
Harrisimemna trisignata (Harris' three spot)[2]
Machimia tentoriferella (Gold-striped Leaftier Moth)[2]
Melanomma auricinctaria[2]
Neopinnaspis harperi (Harper scale)[4]
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)[3]
Papilio polyxenes (Eastern black swallowtail)[3]
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)[3]
Rothschildia lebeau[2]
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)[3]
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)[3]

Providers

Pollinated by 
Agapostemon radiatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Agapostemon texanus[5]
Agapostemon viridulus[5]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[5]
Argynnis cybele <Unverified Name>[5]
Atrytone delaware[5]
Atrytone zabulon <Unverified Name>[5]
Basilarchia archippus <Unverified Name>[5]
Bombias auricomus <Unverified Name>[5]
Bombias scutellaris <Unverified Name>[5]
Bombias separatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Bombus americanorum[5]
Bombus impatiens[5]
Bombus ridingsii <Unverified Name>[5]
Bombus variabilis (Variable Cuckoo Bumblebee)[5]
Cephen texanus <Unverified Name>[5]
Ceratina dupla (Little carpenter bee)[5]
Chrysophanus thoe <Unverified Name>[5]
Colias philodice (clouded sulphur)[3]
Conops brachyrrhynchus <Unverified Name>[5]
Cyaniris pseudargiolus <Unverified Name>[5]
Elymnias mimalon[5]
Emphor bombiformis <Unverified Name>[5]
Epimelissodes obliqua <Unverified Name>[5]
Eristalis stipator[5]
Eristalis tenax (drone fly)[5]
Euphoeades troilus <Unverified Name>[5]
Eurymus philodice <Unverified Name>[5]
Everes comyntas (Eastern Tailed Blue)[5]
Florilegus condignus[5]
Halictus lerouxii[5]
Laertias philenor <Unverified Name>[5]
Leionotus arvensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Limochores taumas <Unverified Name>[5]
Megachile brevis[5]
Megachile mendica[5]
Megachile petulans[5]
Melissodes bimaculata[5]
Melissodes petalostemonis <Unverified Name>[5]
Melissodes variabilis <Unverified Name>[5]
Musca domestica (house fly)[5]
Odontalictus ligatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Oncopeltus fasciatus (large milkweed bug)[5]
Papilio asterias <Unverified Name>[5]
Peponapis pruinosa[5]
Phyciodes tharos (Pearl crescent-spot)[5]
Physocephala texana[5]
Physocephala tibialis[5]
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)[3]
Pontia protodice (Checkered White)[5]
Priocnemoides fulvicornis <Unverified Name>[5]
Prosopis ziziae <Unverified Name>[5]
Sayapis sayi <Unverified Name>[5]
Scepsis fulvicollis <Unverified Name>[5]
Sphaerophoria cylindrica[5]
Sphex nigricans <Unverified Name>[5]
Syritta pipiens (thick-legged hoverfly)[5]
Thanaos juvenalis <Unverified Name>[5]
Trichiotinus affinis[5]
Triepeolus concavus[5]
Triepeolus concolor <Unverified Name>[5]
Triepeolus lunatus[5]
Uranotes melinus <Unverified Name>[5]
Utetheisa bella (bella moth)[5]
Vanessa atalanta (red admiral)[5]
Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady)[5]
Vanessa huntera <Unverified Name>[5]
Volucella bombylans[5]
Volucella vesiculosa <Unverified Name>[5]
Zerene caesonia <Unverified Name>[5]

Consumers

Shelter for 
Anax junius (green darner)[3]
Aquarius remigis (Common water strider)[3]
Calopteryx maculata (Ebony jewelwing)[3]
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)[3]
Castor canadensis (american beaver)[3]
Chelydra serpentina (Common Snapping Turtle)[3]
Corydalus cornutus (dobsonfly)[3]
Dolomedes triton (Six-spottedfishingspider)[3]
Eurycea guttolineata (Three-lined Salamander)[3]
Gambusia holbrooki (Bore-drain fish)[3]
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)[3]
Hyalella azteca (Scud)[3]
Ischnura posita (Fragile forktail)[3]
Libellula lydia (Common whitetail)[3]
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)[3]
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)[3]
Macrocyclops albidus (Copepod)[3]
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)[3]
Nerodia sipedon (Northern Water Snake)[3]
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)[3]
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)[3]
Procotyla fluviatilis (Flatworm)[3]
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)[3]
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)[3]
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)[3]

Range Map

India to Taiwan;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License 2HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández 3Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 4Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009 5Robertson, C. Flowers and insects lists of visitors of four hundred and fifty three flowers. 1929. The Science Press Printing Company Lancaster, PA.
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve Chippewa Nature Center Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Images provided by Google Image Search
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access