Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Fagales > Betulaceae > Alnus > Alnus glutinosa
 

Alnus glutinosa (European alder)

Synonyms: Alnus glutinosa var. vulgaris; Alnus vulgaris; Betula alnus var. glutinosa; Betula glutinosa

Wikipedia Abstract

Alnus glutinosa, the common alder, black alder, European alder or just alder, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to most of Europe, southwest Asia and northern Africa. It thrives in wet locations where its association with the bacterium Frankia alni enables it to grow in poor quality soils. It is a medium size, short-lived tree growing to a height of up to 30 metres (100 ft). It has short-stalked rounded leaves and separate male and female flower in the form of catkins.
View Wikipedia Record: Alnus glutinosa

Infraspecies

Invasive Species

Alnus glutinosa is a member of the birch family (Betulaceae) and is native to Eurasia and the northern part of Africa. Members of the Alnus genus are commonly known as alders; A. glutinosa is known as black alder. It can grow up to 50 feet high. It is often cultivated for erosion control, to improve soil and as an ornamental. A. glutinosa is fast growing and can grow in a wide range of soils; this trait increases its invasiveness in susceptible environments. Association with species of the genus Frankia enable A. glutinosa to fix nitrogen (Frankia is a genus of nitrogen fixing filamentous bacteria that live in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants and form root nodules, similar to Rhizobia). A. glutinosa invades damp ecosystems near water sources, wetalnds and riparian zones.
View ISSG Record: Alnus glutinosa

Attributes

Height [3]  82 feet (25 m)
Width [3]  33 feet (10 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  High
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Shade Percentage [1]  82 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 7 Low Temperature: 0 F° (-17.8 C°) → 10 F° (-12.2 C°)
Light Preference [6]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [6]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [6]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [6]  Damp
Water Use [1]  High to Moderate
Flower Color [2]  Purple
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Medium
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  4 months 10 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Low
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Multiple Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Janka Hardness [4]  650 lbf (295 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [5]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  16 inches (41 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Low
Seeds Per [2]  325000 / lb (716502 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [7]  0.41
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  Tolerant of clipping and maritime exposure, the alder can be grown in a windbreak or a hedge; The trees are very quick to establish; This is an excellent pioneer species for re-establishing woodlands on disused farmland, difficult sites etc. Its fast rate of growth means that it quickly provides sheltered conditions to allow more permanent woodland trees to become established. In addition, bacteria on the roots fix atmospheric nitrogen - whilst this enables the tree to grow well in quite poor soils it also makes some of this nitrogen available to other plants growing nearby. Alder trees also have a heavy leaf canopy and when the leaves fall in the autumn they help to build up the humus content of the soil. Alder seedlings do not compete well in shady woodland conditions and so this species gradually dies out as the other trees become established; Because they tolerate very poor soils and also produce nitrogen nodules on their roots, alders are suitable for use in land reclamation schemes. The plants can be used as a source of biomass; According to the phytomass files, annual productivity is estimated at 6 to 9 tonnes per hectare. The tree has yielded 11.8 tonnes per hectare per annum on pulverized fuel ash and annual productivity has been estimated at 8.66 tonnes per hectare, with 5.87 tonnes in wood, bark, and branches, 2.79 tonnes in foliage; Alder has been recommended for consideration for firewood plantations in Tropical highlands where unseasonable cold might destroy the red alder; The powdered bark has been used as an ingredient of toothpastes; Sticks of the bark have been chewed as tooth cleaners; An ink and a tawny-red dye are obtained from the bark; A green dye is obtained from the catkins; A pinkish-fawn dye is obtained from the fresh green wood; A yellow dye is obtained from the bark and young shoots; A cinnamon dye is obtained from the shoots if they are harvested in March; If they are dried and powdered then the colour will be a tawny shade; The bark and the fruits contain up to 20% tannin; The leaves are also a good source of tannin; The leaves are clammy and, if spread in a room, are said to catch fleas and flies on their glutinous surface; Wood - very durable in water, elastic, soft, fairly light, easily worked, easily split. It is often used for situations where it has to remain underwater and is also used for furniture, pencils, bowls, woodcuts, clogs etc. It is much valued by cabinet makers; The wood also makes a good charcoal;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Alnus glutinosa

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alam-Pedja 85235 Estonia  
AMVRAKIKOS KOLPOS, DELTA LOUROU KAI ARACHTHOU (PETRA, MYTIKAS, EVRYTERI PERIOCHI) 71136 Greece  
AMVRAKIKOS KOLPOS, LIMNOTHALASSA KATAFOURKO KAI KORAKONISIA 56861 Greece  
Beinn Eighe National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd/ Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains 67265 Wales, United Kingdom
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Bosco Pantano di Policoro e Costa Ionica Foce Sinni 2100 Italy  
Breckland 18652 England, United Kingdom
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU, EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PETALA 87747 Greece  
Dornoch Firth and Morrich More 21499 Scotland, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Fenland 1529 England, United Kingdom
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Galichia Gora Zapovednik Ia 568 Lipetsk, Russia
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Große Röder 338 Germany  
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Hubbard Brook Biosphere Reserve 7809 New Hampshire, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Ingleborough Complex 14256 England, United Kingdom
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
KENTRIKO TMIMA ZAGORIOU 81829 Greece  
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Killarney National Park II 25482 Ireland
KOILADA ACHELOOU KAI ORI VALTOU 115492 Greece  
Kokkolan saaristo (SPA) 36322 Finland  
Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs 5883 Scotland, United Kingdom  
LOS ALCORNOCALES 414561 Spain  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
MATARRAÑA - AIGUABARREIX 90747 Spain  
Monte Vulture 4651 Italy  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Obed Wild and Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 5268 Tennessee, United States
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve IV 12219 Moscow, Russia
Räkäsuo 6501 Finland  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve V 1777 Spain  
River Tay 23469 Scotland, United Kingdom
Rum 26775 Scotland, United Kingdom
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
SIERRA NORTE 438558 Spain  
SIERRA PELADA Y RIVERA DEL ASERRADOR 30407 Spain  
SOTOS Y CARRIZALES DEL RÍO ARAGÓN 4774 Spain  
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Strathglass Complex 58277 Scotland, United Kingdom
Sunart 25320 Scotland, United Kingdom
Talaskankaan alue 12145 Finland  
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Valle Basento Grassano Scalo - Grottole 1925 Italy  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
YGROTOPOS EKVOLON KALAMA KAI NISOS PRASOUDI 21108 Greece  
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  

Ecosystems

Predators

Acalitus brevitarsus <Unverified Name>[8]
Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)[9]
Acaphylla trinotus <Unverified Name>[8]
Achlya flavicornis (Yellow Horned)[10]
Acleris emargana (Notched-winged tortricid)[10]
Acleris notana[8]
Acleris umbrana[10]
Acronicta alni (Alder Moth)[10]
Acronicta auricoma (Scarce Dagger)[10]
Acronicta cuspis (Large Dagger)[10]
Acronicta leporina (miller)[8]
Acronicta psi (Grey Dagger Moth)[10]
Actias selene (Indian moon moth)[10]
Adoxophyes orana (Summer Fruit Tortrix)[10]
Aethalura punctulata (Grey Birch)[10]
Agelastica alni (Alder Leaf Beetle)[9]
Aglia tau (Tau Emperor)[10]
Agrilus viridis <Unverified Name>[8]
Agriopis marginaria <Unverified Name>[8]
Agrochola litura[8]
Alebra wahlbergi[8]
Alnetoidia alneti[8]
Ampedus nigrinus <Unverified Name>[8]
Ampedus sanguinolentus <Unverified Name>[8]
Anoplus plantaris[8]
Anoplus roboris[8]
Aphrophora alni (Alder Spittle Bug)[9]
Apoderus coryli[8]
Aradus betulae[8]
Argyresthia brockeella[10]
Argyresthia geodartella <Unverified Name>[8]
Argyresthia goedartella[10]
Aspidiotus nerii (ivy scale)[8]
Asteroma alneum[9]
Attelabus nitens[8]
Baeopelma foersteri[8]
Bison bonasus (European bison)[11]
Biston betularia (peppered moth)[10]
Biston strataria (Oak Beauty)[8]
Blastobasis decolorella[8]
Blepharidopterus angulatus (Black-kneed Capsid)[9]
Blepharita adusta[8]
Bohemannia quadrimaculella[10]
Bucculatrix cidarella[10]
Bulbillomyces farinosus[12]
Byctiscus betulae (Hazel Leaf Roller)[9]
Cabera exanthemata (Common Wave Moth)[10]
Cabera pusaria (Common White Wave Moth)[10]
Calliteara pudibunda (Pale Tussock)[10]
Caloptilia elongella[10]
Caloptilia falconipennella[10]
Caloptilia glutinella[10]
Capreolus capreolus (western roe deer)[9]
Capua vulgana[10]
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)[9]
Carpatolechia proximella[8]
Ceraceomyces borealis[12]
Chionaspis lintneri (Lintner scale)[13]
Chionaspis salicis (black willow bark louse)[13]
Chloroclysta miata[8]
Chrysomela aenea <Unverified Name>[8]
Clethrobius comes[8]
Closterotomus fulvomaculatus[9]
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Hawfinch)[9]
Coleophora alnifoliae[10]
Coleophora binderella[10]
Coleophora limosipennella[10]
Coleophora serratella (birch casebearer)[10]
Coleophora violacea <Unverified Name>[8]
Colocasia coryli (Nut-tree Tussock)[8]
Compsidolon salicellum[8]
Cossus cossus (Goat Moth)[10]
Craniophora ligustri (Coronet)[10]
Cryptoblabes bistriga[10]
Cryptorhynchus lapathi[8]
Ctenopseustis obliquana[14]
Cyanostolus aeneus <Unverified Name>[8]
Cyclophora albipunctata (Birch Mocha)[8]
Cyclophora pendularia (Dingy Mocha)[8]
Cytospora occulta[12]
Daldinia petriniae[12]
Dasineura alni <Unverified Name>[8]
Dasineura tortilis[8]
Deporaus betulae[8]
Diaspidiotus alni[13]
Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis (European fruit scale)[13]
Diaspidiotus wuenni[13]
Diurnea lipsiella <Unverified Name>[8]
Drepana curvatula (Dusky Hook-tip Moth)[10]
Drepana falcataria (Pebble Hook-tip)[10]
Dryocoetes alni[12]
Dryocoetinus alni <Unverified Name>[8]
Dryocoetinus villosus[8]
Edwardsiana alnicola[8]
Edwardsiana bergmani[8]
Edwardsiana candidula[8]
Edwardsiana crataegi (Canary fly)[8]
Edwardsiana hippocastani <Unverified Name>[8]
Edwardsiana lanternae[8]
Edwardsiana plebeja[8]
Edwardsiana rosae (Rose leafhopper)[8]
Edwardsiana spinigera[8]
Eilema griseola (Dingy Footman Moth)[8]
Elasmucha grisea <Unverified Name>[8]
Electrophaes corylata (Broken-barred Carpet Moth)[10]
Elodes marginata <Unverified Name>[8]
Endromis versicolora (Kentish Glory)[10]
Ennomos autumnaria (Large Thorn)[10]
Epinotia demarniana[8]
Epinotia immundana[8]
Epinotia sordidana[10]
Epinotia tenerana (Nut Bud Moth)[10]
Epinotia tetraquetrana[10]
Epione repandaria (Bordered Beauty)[8]
Epiphyas postvittana (Light brown apple moth)[14]
Epirrita autumnata <Unverified Name>[8]
Epirrita christyi <Unverified Name>[8]
Epitrimerus longitarsus <Unverified Name>[8]
Eriocampa ovata <Unverified Name>[8]
Eriococcus spurius (European elm scale)[13]
Eriogaster lanestris (Small Eggar)[10]
Eriophyes axillaris <Unverified Name>[8]
Eriophyes inangulis <Unverified Name>[8]
Eriophyes laevis <Unverified Name>[9]
Ernoporicus fagi[12]
Euchoeca nebulata (Dingy Shell)[10]
Eulecanium tiliae (nut scale)[8]
Eulia ministrana[10]
Eupithecia exiguata (Mottled Pug)[8]
Euproctis similis[10]
Eupterycyba jucunda[8]
Fenusa dohrnii (European alder leafminer)[8]
Furcula bicuspis (Alder Kitten)[10]
Galerucella lineola <Unverified Name>[8]
Galerucella tenella <Unverified Name>[8]
Geometra papilionaria (Large Emerald)[10]
Glyphina jacutensis[8]
Gonocerus acuteangulatus (Box Bug)[8]
Heliozela resplendella[10]
Herminia grisealis (Small Fan-foot)[10]
Herrera ancilla[8]
Hydrelia flammeolaria[10]
Hydrelia sylvata (Waved Carpet)[10]
Hydriomena impluviata (May Highflyer)[10]
Incurvaria pectinea[8]
Jaapiella clethrophila[8]
Kleidocerys resedae (Birch Catkin Bug)[8]
Kybos smaragdula[8]
Lepyrus capucinus[8]
Lindbergina aurovittata[8]
Lithophane furcifera[10]
Luperus flavipes <Unverified Name>[8]
Luperus longicornis <Unverified Name>[8]
Lycia hirtaria (Brindled Beauty Moth)[10]
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)[8]
Lygocoris viridis <Unverified Name>[8]
Lymantria monacha (Black Arches, Nun Moth)[10]
Macaria alternata <Unverified Name>[8]
Malacosoma neustria (Lackey moth)[8]
Melanophila acuminata[8]
Metriotes lutarea[10]
Mimas tiliae (Lime Hawk-moth)[10]
Miris striatus[9]
Mniotype adusta <Unverified Name>[8]
Monosoma pulverata <Unverified Name>[8]
Mrakiella aquatica[12]
Mycena rhenana[12]
Nematus pavidus <Unverified Name>[8]
Nematus polyspilus <Unverified Name>[8]
Neolygus viridis[9]
Notodonta dromedarius (Iron Prominent)[10]
Ochropacha duplaris (Common Lutestring Moth)[10]
Oemona hirta[14]
Oncopsis alni[8]
Operophtera fagata (Northern Winter Moth)[8]
Orgyia antiqua (Rusty Tussock Moth)[10]
Orgyia recens <Unverified Name>[8]
Orthosia gothica (Hebrew Character)[8]
Orthotylus flavinervis[8]
Orthotylus marginalis[9]
Ossiannilssonola callosa[8]
Otiorhynchus singularis[8]
Pachytodes cerambyciformis[9]
Palomena prasina[9]
Pamphilius vafer <Unverified Name>[8]
Pandemis cerasana (Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix)[10]
Pantilius tunicatus[8]
Paradarisa extersaria <Unverified Name>[8]
Pechipogo strigilata[8]
Pelosia muscerda (Dotted Footman)[8]
Pentatoma rufipes <Unverified Name>[9]
Phalera bucephala (Buff-tip)[8]
Phigalia pilosaria (Pale Brindled Beauty)[10]
Phomopsis alnea[12]
Phyllobius betulinus[8]
Phyllobius viridicollis[8]
Phyllonorycter alnivorella[10]
Phyllonorycter chrysella[10]
Phyllonorycter froelichiella[10]
Phyllonorycter kleemannella <Unverified Name>[8]
Phyllonorycter rajella[10]
Phyllonorycter stettinensis[10]
Phyllonorycter strigulatella[8]
Phytocoris populi[8]
Phytocoris reuteri[8]
Phytoptus laevis <Unverified Name>[8]
Phytoptus nalepai <Unverified Name>[8]
Planotortrix excessana (Greenheaded leafroller)[14]
Planotortrix octo <Unverified Name>[14]
Plemyria rubiginata (Blue-bordered Carpet)[10]
Poecilocampa populi (December Moth)[10]
Psallus ambiguus[9]
Psallus perrisi[8]
Psallus salicis[8]
Psylla alni[8]
Pterocallis alni[8]
Pterocallis maculata[8]
Ptilinus pectinicornis[8]
Ptilodon capucina (Coxcomb Prominent)[10]
Pulvinaria vitis (cottony vine scale)[13]
Ramphus pulicarius[8]
Rhagium bifasciatum (two-banded longhorn beetle)[9]
Rhynchaenus alni[8]
Rhynchaenus iota[8]
Rhynchaenus stigma[8]
Rhynchaenus testaceus[8]
Rhynchites nanus[8]
Rhynchites tomentosus[8]
Ribautiana debilis[8]
Ribautiana tenerrima (Bramble leafhopper)[8]
Salebriopsis albicilla[8]
Saperda scalaris[8]
Saturnia pavonia (Emperor moth)[8]
Saturnia pyri (Great peacock moth)[10]
Saturnia spini (Sloe Emperor Moth)[10]
Selatosomus bipustulatus <Unverified Name>[8]
Selenia tetralunaria (Purple Thorn)[8]
Semiothisa alternaria[10]
Smerinthus ocellata[10]
Spinus spinus (Eurasian Siskin)[9]
Stathmopoda pedella[8]
Stauropus fagi (Lobster Moth)[8]
Stigmella alnetella[10]
Stigmella glutinosae[10]
Synanthedon culciformis <Unverified Name>[8]
Synanthedon mesiaeformis[10]
Synanthedon spheciformis (White-barred Clearwing )[10]
Taphrina tosquinetii[9]
Teleiodes proximella <Unverified Name>[8]
Tenthredo ferruginea <Unverified Name>[9]
Tenthredo velox <Unverified Name>[8]
Tetheella fluctuosa (Satin Lutestring)[8]
Tettigella alba[8]
Thrips alni <Unverified Name>[8]
Trichopteryx carpinata (Early Tooth-striped)[10]
Valsalnicola oxystoma[12]
Xanthoporia radiata (Alder Bracket)[12]
Xylena exsoleta (Sword-grass)[8]
Xyloterus domesticum <Unverified Name>[8]
Zorion guttigerum[14]
Zygina tiliae[8]

Providers

Mutual (symbiont) 
Cortinarius violaceus (Violet Webcap)[9]
Lactarius lacunarum[9]
Paxillus rubicundulus[9]
Russula decolorans (Copper Brittlegill)[9]

Consumers

Mutual (symbiont) 
Cortinarius violaceus (Violet Webcap)[9]
Gyrodon lividus (Alder Bolete)[12]
Lactarius lacunarum[9]
Lactarius lilacinus[12]
Paxillus involutus (Brown Rollrim)[9]
Paxillus rubicundulus[9]
Russula decolorans (Copper Brittlegill)[9]
Parasitized by 
Asteroma alneum[9]
Epinotia tetraquetrana[9]
Eriophyes laevis <Unverified Name>[9]
Erysiphe penicillata[12]
Eupristocerus cogitans[12]
Fomitopsis pinicola (Red Banded Polypore)[9]
Incurvaria pectinea[9]
Melampsoridium betulinum (Birch Rust)[12]
Melampsoridium hiratsukanum[12]
Mycosphaerella conglomerata[12]
Phyllactinia guttata[12]
Taphrina sadebeckii[12]
Taphrina tosquinetii[9]
Xanthoporia radiata[9]

Distribution

Europe to Kazakhstan, introduced elsewere; Europe to W. Siberia and Turkey, introduced elsewere;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database. 2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture 3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License 4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts 5PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004) 6ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999) 7Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service 8Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants 9Ecology of Commanster 10HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández 11Food eaten by the free-living European bison in Białowieża Forest, Zofia GĘBCZYŃSKA, Marek GĘBCZYŃSKI and Ewa MARTYNOWICZ, Acta Theriologica 36 (3-4), 307-313, 1991. 12Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 13Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009 14New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
Protected Areas provided by Ramsar Sites Information Service Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access