Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Fagales > Betulaceae > Alnus > Alnus incana

Alnus incana (gray alder; speckled alder; thinleaf alder)

Synonyms: Alnus februaria var. incana; Alnus glutinosa var. incana; Betula alnus var. incana; Betula incana

Wikipedia Abstract

Alnus incana (grey alder or speckled alder) is a species of alder with a wide range across the cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere.
View Wikipedia Record: Alnus incana



Height [3]  59 feet (18 m)
Width [3]  16.4 feet (5 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  High
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Hardiness Zone Minimum [2]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Light Preference [5]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [5]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [5]  Mostly Infertile
Soil Moisture [5]  Damp
Water Use [2]  High
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Bloom Period [2]  Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Fire Tolerance [2]  High
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  3 months 10 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Low
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Thicket Forming
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [4]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  24 inches (61 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Low
Seeds Per [2]  1084248 / lb (2390359 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [6]  0.439
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  This species fixes atmospheric nitrogen and is also tolerant of polluted soils, it can be used for land reclamation, especially on coal tips; This is an excellent pioneer species for re-establishing woodlands on disused farmland, difficult sites etc. Its fast rate of growth means that it quickly provides sheltered conditions to allow more permanent woodland trees to become established. In addition, bacteria on the roots fix atmospheric nitrogen - whilst this enables the tree to grow well in quite poor soils it also makes some of this nitrogen available to other plants growing nearby. Alder trees also have a heavy leaf canopy and when the leaves fall in the autumn they help to build up the humus content of the soil. Alder seedlings do not compete well in shady woodland conditions and so this species gradually dies out as the other trees become established; The bark and the fruits contain up to 20% tannin; Wood - light, soft, fairly elastic, easy to split. Used for clogs, bowls, woodcuts etc. Much valued by cabinet makers;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  Slow
View Plants For A Future Record : Alnus incana

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd/ Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains 67265 Wales, United Kingdom
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Breckland 18652 England, United Kingdom
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Coram Biosphere Reserve 7460 Montana, United States
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
Dahlberg 22 Germany  
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Eryri/ Snowdonia 48773 Wales, United Kingdom  
Glen Coe 7329 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lower Derwent Valley 2263 England, United Kingdom
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Morecambe Bay Pavements 6449 England, United Kingdom
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Oregon Caves National Monument V 456 Oregon, United States
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve IV 12219 Moscow, Russia
Rum 26775 Scotland, United Kingdom
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Start Point to Plymouth Sound & Eddystone 84204 England, United Kingdom  
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Upper Nithsdale Woods 243 Scotland, United Kingdom
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  


Acalitus brevitarsus <Unverified Name>[7]
Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)[8]
Acaphylla trinotus <Unverified Name>[7]
Achatia distincta (Distinct Quaker)[9]
Acleris braunana[9]
Acleris caliginosana[9]
Acleris cornana[9]
Acleris logiana[9]
Acleris maccana (Marbled Dog’s-tooth Tortrix)[9]
Acrobasis rubrifasciella[9]
Acronicta alni (Alder Moth)[9]
Acronicta americana (American dagger moth)[9]
Acronicta auricoma (Scarce Dagger)[9]
Acronicta cuspis (Large Dagger)[9]
Acronicta dactylina (fingered dagger)[9]
Acronicta euphorbiae (Sweet Gale Moth)[9]
Acronicta fragilis (fragile dagger)[9]
Acronicta grisea (gray dagger)[9]
Acronicta hesperida[9]
Acronicta impleta (Yellow-haired Dagger Moth)[9]
Acronicta impressa (printed dagger)[9]
Acronicta innotata (Unmarked Dagger Moth)[9]
Acronicta leporina (miller)[9]
Acronicta megacephala (Poplar Grey)[9]
Acronicta psi (Grey Dagger Moth)[9]
Acronicta rumicis (Knot Grass)[9]
Agelastica alni (Alder Leaf Beetle)[7]
Aglia tau (Tau Emperor)[9]
Agonopterix argillacea[9]
Agromyza alnivora[7]
Alcis repandata (Mottled Beauty)[9]
Amorbia humerosana[9]
Amphipyra pyramidoides (copper underwing)[9]
Anaplectoides pressus[9]
Angerona prunaria[9]
Antepione thisoaria[9]
Antheraea polyphemus (polyphemus moth)[9]
Archips cerasivorana[9]
Archips negundana (Larger Boxelder Leafroller)[9]
Archips rosana (Rose Tortrix)[9]
Arctia caja (garden tiger moth)[9]
Autographa ampla (Large Looper Moth)[9]
Baeopelma foersteri[7]
Baileya doubledayi[9]
Baileya ophthalmica[9]
Bibarrambla allenella[9]
Biston betularia (peppered moth)[9]
Cabera pusaria (Common White Wave Moth)[9]
Calliteara pudibunda (Pale Tussock)[9]
Caloptilia alnivorella[9]
Caloptilia pulchella[9]
Campaea perlata (light emerald)[9]
Cavariella aquatica[7]
Cerastis rubricosa (Red Chestnut)[9]
Chionaspis lintneri (Lintner scale)[10]
Chloroclysta siterata (Red-green Carpet)[9]
Choristoneura conflictana (Large Aspen Tortrix)[9]
Choristoneura rosaceana (Oblique Banded Leaf Roller)[9]
Chrysomela aenea <Unverified Name>[7]
Clethrobius comes[7]
Clostera albosigma (Sigmoid Prominent)[9]
Coleophora alnifoliae[7]
Coleophora serratella (birch casebearer)[9]
Colocasia coryli (Nut-tree Tussock)[9]
Colocasia flavicornis (Yellowhorn)[9]
Cossus cossus (Goat Moth)[9]
Cryptocephalus bipunctatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cryptorhynchus lapathi[7]
Cucullia intermedia (Dusky Hooded Owlet)[9]
Cucullia lucifuga[9]
Cyclophora pendulinaria (sweet fern geometer)[9]
Daldinia petriniae[8]
Dasineura alni <Unverified Name>[7]
Dasineura tortilis[7]
Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis (European fruit scale)[10]
Drepana arcuata[9]
Drepana curvatula (Dusky Hook-tip Moth)[9]
Drepana falcataria (Pebble Hook-tip)[9]
Dryocoetinus alni <Unverified Name>[7]
Eacles imperialis (Imperial moth)[9]
Ectropis crepuscularia (small engrailed)[9]
Enargia decolor (Pale Enargia)[9]
Endromis versicolora (Kentish Glory)[9]
Ennomos subsignaria (elm spanworm)[9]
Epinotia rectiplicana[9]
Epinotia solandriana[9]
Epitrimerus longitarsus <Unverified Name>[7]
Eriocampa ovata <Unverified Name>[7]
Eriogaster lanestris (Small Eggar)[9]
Euchoeca nebulata (Dingy Shell)[9]
Eulecanium ciliatum (ciliate oak scale)[10]
Eulithis xylina[9]
Eupithecia misturata[9]
Eupithecia subfuscata (gray pug)[9]
Euplexia benesimilis[9]
Eupsilia tristigmata[9]
Eurois astricta (great brown dart)[9]
Eurois occulta (great gray dart)[9]
Evora hemidesma[9]
Falcaria lacertinaria (Scalloped Hook-tip)[9]
Feniseca tarquinius (Harvester)[9]
Fenusa dohrnii (European alder leafminer)[7]
Galerucella lineola <Unverified Name>[7]
Gluphisia septentrionis[9]
Glyphina jacutensis[7]
Gretchena semialba[9]
Heterocampa biundata[9]
Homoglaea hircina[9]
Hyalophora columbia (Columbia Silkmoth)[9]
Hydrelia flammeolaria[9]
Hydrelia sylvata (Waved Carpet)[9]
Hydriomena furcata (July Highflyer)[9]
Hydriomena impluviata (May Highflyer)[9]
Hydriomena renunciata[9]
Hypagyrtis unipunctata (One-spotted Variant Moth)[9]
Hyphantria cunea (fall webworm)[9]
Hypoxylon petriniae[8]
Iridopsis larvaria[9]
Itame exauspicata[9]
Lacanobia contigua (Beautiful Brocade)[9]
Lacanobia radix[9]
Lacanobia thalassina (Pale-shouldered Brocade)[9]
Lasiocampa quercus (Oak Eggar)[9]
Lepyrus capucinus <Unverified Name>[7]
Limenitis arthemis (white admiral)[8]
Lithophane amanda[9]
Lithophane consocia (Scarce Conformist)[9]
Lithophane fagina[9]
Lithophane furcifera[9]
Lithophane pexata[9]
Lithophane thaxteri (nonconformist)[9]
Lobophora nivigerata[9]
Lomanaltes eductalis[9]
Lophocampa maculata (spotted tussock moth)[9]
Lycia hirtaria (Brindled Beauty Moth)[9]
Lycia ursaria[9]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[9]
Malacosoma disstria (forest tent caterpillars)[9]
Melanchra adjuncta[9]
Melanchra assimilis[9]
Melanchra persicariae (Dot Moth)[9]
Melanchra pisi (Broom Moth)[9]
Melanolophia canadaria[9]
Melanophila acuminata[7]
Metarranthis duaria[9]
Mimas tiliae (Lime Hawk-moth)[9]
Monosoma pulverata <Unverified Name>[7]
Nadata gibbosa (Rough Prominent)[9]
Nemoria mimosaria (White-fringed Emerald)[9]
Nites betulella[9]
Nites grotella[9]
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)[9]
Ochropacha duplaris (Common Lutestring Moth)[9]
Odontopera bidentata (Scalloped Hazel)[9]
Oemona hirta[11]
Olethreutes appendiceum[9]
Orgyia antiqua (Rusty Tussock Moth)[9]
Orthosia gothica (Hebrew Character)[9]
Orthosia hibisci (green fruitworm)[9]
Orthosia opima (Northern Drab)[9]
Orthosia rubescens[9]
Orthotaenia undulana[9]
Palthis angulalis (Dark-spotted Palthis)[9]
Pamphilius fumipennis <Unverified Name>[7]
Pamphilius vafer <Unverified Name>[7]
Pandemis canadana[9]
Pandemis limitata[9]
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)[9]
Papilio rutulus (Western tiger swallowtail)[9]
Paradiarsia littoralis[9]
Pero morrisonaria (Morrison's Pero)[9]
Phlogophora periculosa (Brown Angle Shades)[9]
Phyllocoptes punctatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Phyllodesma americana (lappet moth)[9]
Phyllonorycter alnicolella[9]
Phyllonorycter auronitens[9]
Phyllonorycter chrysella[9]
Phyllonorycter incanella[9]
Phyllonorycter strigulatella[9]
Phytoptus laevis <Unverified Name>[7]
Plagodis alcoolaria (Hollow-spotted Plagodis)[9]
Plagodis phlogosaria (Straight-lined Plagodis)[9]
Plagodis pulveraria (Barred Umber Moth)[9]
Poecilocampa populi (December Moth)[9]
Polia bombycina (Pale Shining Brown)[9]
Polia imbrifera[9]
Polia nimbosa[9]
Probole amicaria[9]
Prociphilus tessellatus (woolly alder aphid)[8]
Protitame virginalis[9]
Pseudothyatira cymatophoroides (Tufted Thyatirid Moth)[9]
Psyche casta[9]
Psylla alni[7]
Ptilodon capucina (Coxcomb Prominent)[9]
Pulvinaria vitis (cottony vine scale)[10]
Rheumaptera hastata (spear-marked black)[9]
Rheumaptera subhastata (White-banded Black Moth)[9]
Rhynchaenus testaceus[7]
Saturnia pavonia (Emperor moth)[9]
Schizura concinna (redhumped caterpillar)[9]
Schizura unicornis (unicorn caterpillar)[9]
Selenia alciphearia[9]
Selenia tetralunaria (Purple Thorn)[9]
Semiothisa aemulataria[9]
Semiothisa ulsterata[9]
Smerinthus ocellata[9]
Sparganothis reticulatana (Reticulated Sparganothis)[9]
Sphinx luscitiosa (Clemens' Hawkmoth)[9]
Spilosoma lutea (Buff Ermine)[9]
Spiramater lutra[9]
Stathmopoda pedella[7]
Stigmella glutinosae[9]
Synanthedon spheciformis (White-barred Clearwing )[9]
Syndemis afflictana[9]
Tacparia detersata[9]
Tamias minimus (least chipmunk)[12]
Tortricidia testacea (Warm-chevroned Moth)[9]
Trichiura crataegi (Pale Eggar)[9]
Venusia cambrica (welsh wave)[9]
Venusia pearsalli[9]
Zale minerea[9]


Parasite of 
Melampsoridium betulinum (Birch Rust)[8]
Melampsoridium hiratsukanum[8]
Prociphilus tessellatus (woolly alder aphid)[8]


Europe to W. Siberia and Turkey, N. America;



Attributes / relations provided by 1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000) 2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture 3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License 4PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004) 5ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999) 6Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository. 7Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants 8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 9HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández 10Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009 11New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database 12Tamias minimus, B. J. Verts and Leslie N. Carraway, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 653, pp. 1–10 (2001)
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
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