Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Fagales > Betulaceae > Alnus > Alnus rubra

Alnus rubra (red alder)

Synonyms: Alnus incana var. rubra; Alnus oregana; Alnus rubra f. pinnatisecta; Alnus rubra var. pinnatisecta

Wikipedia Abstract

Alnus rubra, the red alder,is a deciduous broadleaf tree native to western North America (Alaska, Yukon, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho and Montana).
View Wikipedia Record: Alnus rubra


Height [2]  66 feet (20 m)
Width [1]  23 feet (6.9 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  High
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium
Shade Percentage [1]  82 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 7 Low Temperature: 0 F° (-17.8 C°) → 10 F° (-12.2 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Water Use [1]  High
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Monoecious
Hazards [2]  The freshly harvested inner bark is emetic but is alright once it has been dried;
Janka Hardness [3]  590 lbf (268 kgf) Very Soft
Leaf Type [2]  Deciduous
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Specific Gravity [4]  0.41
Structure [2]  Tree
Usage [2]  A fast-growing and very wind resistant tree, it is an excellent plant for providing rapidly produced shelterbelts; The trees extensive root system also makes it suitable for controlling erosion along the banks of rivers; This is an excellent pioneer species for re-establishing woodlands on disused farmland, difficult sites etc; Its fast rate of growth means that it quickly provides sheltered conditions to allow more permanent woodland trees to become established. In addition, bacteria on the roots fix atmospheric nitrogen - whilst this enables the tree to grow well in quite poor soils it also makes some of this nitrogen available to other plants growing nearby. Alder trees also have a heavy leaf canopy and when the leaves fall in the autumn they help to build up the humus content of the soil. Alder seedlings do not compete well in shady woodland conditions and so this species gradually dies out as the other trees become established; Tannin is obtained from the bark and the strobils; Both the roots and the young shoots have been used in making baskets; A red to brown dye is obtained from the bark; Wood - soft, brittle, not strong, light, close and straight-grained, very durable in water; An important lumber tree, it makes a good imitation mahogany; A good fuel, it does not spark so can be used in the open;
View Plants For A Future Record : Alnus rubra

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve V   Washington, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
San Juan Island National Historical Park III 1674 Washington, United States



Acerra normalis[5]
Acleris braunana[5]
Acleris caliginosana[5]
Acleris maccana (Marbled Dog’s-tooth Tortrix)[5]
Acleris senescens[5]
Acronicta distans[5]
Acronicta funeralis (Funerary Dagger Moth)[5]
Acronicta grisea (gray dagger)[5]
Acronicta hesperida[5]
Acronicta impleta (Yellow-haired Dagger Moth)[5]
Amorbia humerosana[5]
Andropolia aedon[5]
Antheraea polyphemus (polyphemus moth)[5]
Apamea auranticolor[5]
Aplodontia rufa (mountain beaver)[6]
Aplodontia rufa humboldtiana[7]
Aplodontia rufa nigra (Point Arena mountain beaver)[7]
Aplodontia rufa phaea[7]
Arborimus albipes (white-footed vole)[8]
Archiearis infans (first born geometer)[5]
Archips rosana (Rose Tortrix)[5]
Aseptis binotata (Rusty Shoulder Knot Moth)[5]
Autographa ampla (Large Looper Moth)[5]
Caloptilia alnivorella[5]
Caloptilia invariabilis[5]
Campaea perlata (light emerald)[5]
Chlorosea nevadaria[5]
Choreutis diana[5]
Clostera albosigma (Sigmoid Prominent)[5]
Cyclophora pendulinaria (sweet fern geometer)[5]
Drepana arcuata[5]
Dysstroma citrata (dark marbled carpet)[5]
Ectropis crepuscularia (small engrailed)[5]
Egira crucialis[5]
Egira hiemalis[5]
Egira simplex[5]
Epinotia solandriana[5]
Eulia ministrana[5]
Eulithis xylina[5]
Eupithecia columbiata[5]
Eupithecia fletcherata (Fletcher's Larch Looper)[5]
Eupithecia harrisonata[5]
Eupithecia maestosa[5]
Eupithecia subfuscata (gray pug)[5]
Euplexia benesimilis[5]
Exaeretia ciniflonella[5]
Fishia evelina[5]
Hyalophora euryalus (Ceanothus Silkmoth)[5]
Hydriomena furcata (July Highflyer)[5]
Hydriomena irata[5]
Hydriomena renunciata[5]
Hyphantria cunea (fall webworm)[5]
Itame loricaria[5]
Lambdina fiscellaria (hemlock looper)[9]
Lithophane dilatocula[5]
Lithophane georgii[5]
Lithophane petulca[5]
Lithophane pexata[5]
Lobophora simsata[5]
Lophocampa argentata (silverspotted tiger moth)[5]
Lophocampa maculata (spotted tussock moth)[5]
Lycia ursaria[5]
Malacosoma californica[5]
Malacosoma disstria (forest tent caterpillars)[5]
Melanchra adjuncta[5]
Melanolophia imitata (Western Carpet)[5]
Metarranthis duaria[5]
Nadata gibbosa (Rough Prominent)[5]
Olethreutes albiciliana[5]
Olethreutes appendiceum[5]
Oligocentria pallida[5]
Oligocentria semirufescens (Red-washed Prominent Moth)[5]
Operophtera occidentalis[5]
Oreda notata[10]
Orgyia antiqua (Rusty Tussock Moth)[5]
Orthosia hibisci (green fruitworm)[5]
Orthotaenia undulana[5]
Pandemis limitata[5]
Papestra cristifera[5]
Papilio eurymedon (Pale swallowtail)[5]
Papilio rutulus (Western tiger swallowtail)[5]
Peridroma saucia (variegated cutworm)[5]
Pero morrisonaria (Morrison's Pero)[5]
Phlogophora periculosa (Brown Angle Shades)[5]
Phyllodesma americana (lappet moth)[5]
Plagodis phlogosaria (Straight-lined Plagodis)[5]
Polia nimbosa[5]
Probole amicaria[5]
Pseudorthodes irrorata[5]
Pseudosciaphila duplex (Aspen Leaftier)[5]
Pseudothyatira cymatophoroides (Tufted Thyatirid Moth)[5]
Rheumaptera hastata (spear-marked black)[5]
Rheumaptera subhastata (White-banded Black Moth)[5]
Sabulodes aegrotata (omnivorous looper)[5]
Sabulodes caberata (Omnivorous looper)[5]
Selenia alciphearia[5]
Semiothisa ulsterata[5]
Sicya macularia[5]
Spiramater lutra[5]
Synaxis jubararia[5]
Thallophaga hyperborea (Northern Thallophaga)[5]
Venusia cambrica (welsh wave)[5]
Venusia pearsalli[5]
Xanthorhoe defensaria[5]
Xestia smithii (Smith's Dart)[5]
Xylena cineritia[5]
Xylena nupera (red swordgrass moth)[5]
Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)[11]


Parasitized by 
Agrilus politus[9]
Melampsoridium betulinum (Birch Rust)[9]
Shelter for 
Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse)[11]
Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)[11]

Range Map

Alaska to California;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
4Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
5HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
6Aplodontia rufa, Leslie N. Carraway and B. J. Verts, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 431, pp. 1-10 (1993)
7An Ecological Survey of Endemic MOUNTAIN BEAVERS (Aplodontia rufa) in California, 1979-83, Dale T. Steele', State of California, THE RESOURCES AGENCY, Department of Fish and Game
8Phenacomys albipes, B. J. Verts and Leslie N. Carraway, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 494, pp. 1-5 (1995)
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
10New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
11Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection
Images provided by Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access