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Fagus grandifolia (American beech)

Synonyms: Fagus grandifolia var. typica

Wikipedia Abstract

Fagus grandifolia (American beech or North American beech) is the species of beech tree native to the eastern United States and Canada. The genus name Fagus is Latin for "beech", and the species name grandifolia comes from grandis "large" and folium "leaf".
View Wikipedia Record: Fagus grandifolia

Infraspecies

Attributes

Height [3]  33 feet (10 m)
Width [3]  33 feet (10 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-High
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-High
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Dense
Shade Percentage [1]  88 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Mostly Shady
Soil Acidity [2]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [2]  Infertile
Water Use [1]  High to Moderate
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Fall Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  High
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Medium
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  3 months 2 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Slow
Hazards [3]  Large quantities of the raw seed may be toxic;
Janka Hardness [4]  1300 lbf (590 kgf) Medium
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  32 inches (81 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Low
Seeds Per [2]  1600 / lb (3527 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [5]  0.64
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  The oil obtained from the seed has been used as a fuel in oil lamps; Wood - strong, hard, heavy, very close grained, not durable, difficult to cure; It weighs 43lb per cubic foot; Harvested commercially, it is used for furniture, flooring, tool handles, crates etc; It makes an excellent charcoal and is used in artwork;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Fagus grandifolia

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Appomattox Court House National Historical Park V 1687 Virginia, United States
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Bluestone National Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 3517 West Virginia, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Booker T. Washington National Monument V 237 Virginia, United States
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve 90 Michigan, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area V 7622 Georgia, United States
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 8248 Georgia, Tennessee, United States
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   North Carolina, United States
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge   Puerto Rico, United States
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fort Necessity National Battlefield III 1019 Pennsylvania, United States
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 10384 Virginia, United States
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gauley River National Recreation Area V 10157 West Virginia, United States
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
George Washington Memorial Parkway V   Virginia, United States
Georgian Bay Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Grand Rapids Audubon Club Maher Sanctuary 80 Michigan, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Hobcaw Barony (North Inlet) National Estuarine Research Reserve 7585 South Carolina, United States
Hope College Biology Nature Preserve 55 Michigan, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Hubbard Brook Biosphere Reserve 7809 New Hampshire, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Johnstown Flood National Memorial VI 175 Pennsylvania, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park III 2897 Georgia, United States
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Mount Mitchell State Park   North Carolina, United States
National Capital Parks - Central National Park   District of Columbia, United States
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Obed Wild and Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 5268 Tennessee, United States
Oconee National Forest Botanical Reserve 306 Georgia, United States  
Petersburg National Battlefield III 3338 Virginia, United States
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Rock Creek Park   District of Columbia, United States
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Shiloh National Military Park III 4061 Tennessee, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Tennessee River Gorge   Tennessee, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States

Ecosystems

Predators

Acleris chalybeana[6]
Acronicta clarescens (Clear Dagger Moth)[6]
Acronicta impressa (printed dagger)[6]
Acronicta ovata (Ovate Dagger Moth)[6]
Acronicta tristis[6]
Actias luna (luna moth)[6]
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)[7]
Amorpha juglandis (Walnut Sphinx)[6]
Anisota virginiensis (Pink-striped oakworm)[6]
Bucculatrix packardella[6]
Castor canadensis (american beaver)[8]
Catastega aceriella[6]
Charadra deridens (Marbled Tuffet Moth)[6]
Choristoneura conflictana (Large Aspen Tortrix)[6]
Choristoneura fractivittana[6]
Choristoneura fumiferana[6]
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)[7]
Colocasia flavicornis (Yellowhorn)[6]
Colocasia propinquilinea (Closebanded Yellowhorn)[6]
Crocigrapha normani[6]
Cryptococcus fagisuga[9]
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)[7]
Dasychira dorsipennata[6]
Dasylophia thyatiroides[6]
Diaspidiotus ancylus (Howard scale)[9]
Dryocampa rubicunda (Rosy Maple Moth)[6]
Ennomos subsignaria (elm spanworm)[6]
Erethizon dorsatus (common porcupine)[8]
Erora laeta (Early Hairstreak)[6]
Euclea delphinii (spiny oak slug)[6]
Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Brown-tail)[6]
Heterocampa guttivitta (saddled prominent)[6]
Limenitis arthemis (white admiral)[8]
Lithacodes fasciola (Ochre-winged hag moth)[6]
Lithophane bethunei[6]
Lochmaeus manteo (Variable Oakleaf Caterpillar Moth)[6]
Lophocampa caryae (hickory tussock moth)[6]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[10]
Machimia tentoriferella (Gold-striped Leaftier Moth)[6]
Melanaspis obscura (obscure scale)[9]
Melanolophia canadaria[6]
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)[7]
Meroptera pravella[6]
Nadata gibbosa (Rough Prominent)[6]
Neotoma floridana (eastern woodrat)[11]
Neurobathra strigifinitella[6]
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)[7]
Olethreutes appendiceum[6]
Oligocentria semirufescens (Red-washed Prominent Moth)[6]
Orthosia hibisci (green fruitworm)[6]
Orthosia revicta[6]
Packardia elegans[6]
Pandemis lamprosana[6]
Panopoda rufimargo[6]
Paraclemensia acerifoliella (maple leafcutter)[6]
Peliococcus serratus (beech mealybug)[9]
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)[7]
Phigalia titea (Spiny Looper)[6]
Phyllonorycter restrictella[6]
Plagodis serinaria[6]
Pococera asperatella[6]
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)[7]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[7]
Prolimacodes badia (Skiff Moth)[6]
Psilocorsis cryptolechiella[6]
Psilocorsis quercicella[6]
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)[7]
Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite)[7]
Schizura leptinoides[6]
Schizura unicornis (unicorn caterpillar)[6]
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)[12]
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)[7]
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)[7]
Symmerista albifrons[6]
Symmerista canicosta[6]
Symmerista leucitys (orangehumped mapleworm)[6]
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)[7]
Tortricidia pallida[6]
Ursus americanus (black bear)[8]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[7]
Actias luna[7]
Antheraea polyphemus (polyphemus moth)[7]
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)[7]
Castor canadensis[7]
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)[7]
Lepidosaphes ulmi[7]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[7]
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)[7]
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)[7]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Actenodes acornis[8]
Agrilus arcuatus[8]
Amauroderma fuscatum (Turkeytail)[7]
Cryptococcus fagisuga (beech scale)[8]
Epifagus virginiana (beechdrops)[8]
Ganoderma applanatum (Artist’s Bracket)[7]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[7]
Lonicera japonica (Chinese honeysuckle)[7]
Monotropa uniflora (one-flower Indian-pipe)[7]
Neonectria coccinea[8]
Oxyporus populinus (Poplar Bracket)[7]
Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster Mushroom)[7]
Shelter for 
Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)[7]
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)[7]
Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture)[7]
Dolichovespula maculata (baldfaced hornet)[7]
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)[7]
Micrathena gracilis (Spined micrathena)[7]
Pterophylla camellifolia (common true katydid)[7]
Actias luna[7]
Antheraea polyphemus (polyphemus moth)[7]
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)[7]
Castor canadensis[7]
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)[7]
Lepidosaphes ulmi[7]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[7]
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)[7]
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)[7]

Range Map

E. Canada to C. Mexico; E. Canada, C. & E. U.S.A., NE. & C. Mexico;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hern√°ndez
7Study of Northern Virginia Ecology
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
10Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
11Neotoma floridana, Robert W. Wiley, Mammalian Species No. 139, pp. 1-7 (1980)
12Sciurus niger, John L. Koprowski, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 479, pp. 1-9 (1994)
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve
Chippewa Nature Center
Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Maher Sanctuary, Grand Rapids Audubon Club
Hope College Biology Nature Preserve
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access