Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Apiales > Araliaceae > Hedera > Hedera helix

Hedera helix (Algerian ivy; English ivy)

Synonyms: Hedera helix var. vulgaris; Hedera poetarum; Hedera poetica

Wikipedia Abstract

Hedera helix (common ivy, English ivy, European ivy, or just ivy) is a species of flowering plant in the family Araliaceae, native to most of Europe and western Asia. A rampant, clinging evergreen vine, it is a familiar sight in gardens, waste spaces, on house walls, tree trunks and in wild areas across its native habitat. It is labeled as an invasive species in a number of areas where it has been introduced.
View Wikipedia Record: Hedera helix



Height [2]  49 feet (15 m)
Width [2]  16.4 feet (5 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-High
Light Preference [4]  Mostly Shady
Soil Acidity [4]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [4]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [4]  Moist
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Hermaphrodite
Hazards [2]  The plant is said to be poisonous in large doses[7, 10, 65, 76] although the leaves are eaten with impunity by various mammals without any noticeable harmful affects. The leaves and fruits contain the saponic glycoside hederagenin which, if ingested, can cause breathing difficulties and coma; The sap can cause dermatitis with blistering and inflammation. This is apparently due to the presence of polyacetylene compounds;
Leaf Type [2]  Evergreen
Lifespan [3]  Perennial
Pollinators [2]  Bees, Flies, Lepidoptera
Structure [2]  Vine
Usage [2]  A yellow and a brown dye are obtained from the twigs; A decoction of the leaves is used to restore black fabrics; If the leaves are boiled with soda they are a soap substitute for washing clothes etc; An excellent ground cover for shady places, succeeding even in the dense shade of trees; A very effective weed suppresser; The cultivars 'Hibernica', 'Lutzii' and 'Neilsonii' have been especially mentioned; Plants can be grown along fences to form a hedge. The variety 'Digitata' is very useful for this; Plants have been grown indoors in pots in order to help remove toxins from the atmosphere. It is especially good at removing chemical vapours, especially formaldehyde; The plants will probably benefit from being placed outdoors during the summer; The wood is very hard and can be used as a substitute for Buxus sempervirens (Box), used in engraving etc; Another report says that the wood is very soft and porous and is seldom used except as a strop for sharpening knives;
View Plants For A Future Record : Hedera helix

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bagno Calowanie 10415 Poland  
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Beskid Slaski 65261 Poland  
Beskid Zywiecki 87169 Poland  
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Bobolickie Jeziora Lobeliowe 11760 Poland  
Bosco Cupolicchio (Tricarico) 4280 Italy  
Buchholz bei Bleiwäsche 786 Germany  
Buczyny Lagowsko-Sulecinskie 16732 Poland  
Cairnsmore of Fleet, Silver Flowe, and Merrick Kells Biosphere Reserve 8794 Scotland, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 8248 Georgia, Tennessee, United States
Cieszynskie Zródla Tufowe 660 Poland  
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Dolina Bialki 1769 Poland  
Dolina Biebrzy 299507 Poland  
Dolina Dolnej Pilicy 78633 Poland  
Dolina Górnej Leby 6301 Poland  
Dolina Ilanki 5517 Poland  
Dolina Lachy 2449 Poland  
Dolina Leniwej Obry 17638 Poland  
Dolina Lupawy 13612 Poland  
Dolina Pilicy 87367 Poland  
Dolina Pliszki 12439 Poland  
Dolina Pradnika 5387 Poland  
Dolina Radwi, Chocieli i Chotli 54021 Poland  
Dolina Rawki 6240 Poland  
Dolina Srodkowej Wietcisy 1065 Poland  
Dolina Stropnej 2381 Poland  
Dolina Wieprzy i Studnicy 35457 Poland  
Dolinki Jurajskie 2191 Poland  
Dorzecze Parsety 68474 Poland  
Dybowska Dolina Wisly 3440 Poland  
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Gogolice-Kosa 3521 Poland  
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Góry Kamienne 59550 Poland  
Hästenäs 1191 Sweden  
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Jaroszowiec 1445 Poland  
Jezioro Bobiecinskie 8360 Poland  
Kargowskie Zakola Odry 7587 Poland  
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kemy Rymanskie 6535 Poland  
Kõpu 8900 Estonia    
Lasy Ilawskie 62316 Poland  
Lasy Janowskie 148846 Poland  
Lasy Sobiborskie 23992 Poland  
Lasy Spalskie 4983 Poland  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Male Pieniny 4635 Poland  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Masyw Slezy 12502 Poland  
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Monte Paratiello 2790 Italy  
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Ostoja Borecka 62617 Poland  
Ostoja Jasliska 72369 Poland  
Ostoja Knyszynska 336272 Poland  
Ostoja Olsztynsko-Mirowska 5463 Poland  
Ostoja Poleska 25104 Poland  
Ostoja Popradzka 143151 Poland  
Ostoja Przedborska 28677 Poland  
Ostoja Przemyska 97994 Poland  
Ostoja Slowinska 79446 Poland    
Ostoja Srodkowojurajska 14252 Poland  
Ostoja Suwalska 15690 Poland  
Ostoja nad Barycza 202692 Poland  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Pasmo Krowiarki 13401 Poland  
Petersburg National Battlefield III 3338 Virginia, United States
Pieniny 5773 Poland  
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Przelom Nysy Klodzkiej kolo Morzyszowa 817 Poland  
Przelom Wisly w Malopolsce 37353 Poland  
Puszcza Biala 207024 Poland  
Puszcza Bialowieska 156041 Poland  
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Puszcza Solska 196076 Poland  
Rdumijiet ta' Malta: Ir-Ramla tac-Cirkewwa sa Il-Ponta ta' Benghisa 5724 Malta  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve V 1777 Spain  
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Rudawy Janowickie 16395 Poland  
Shiloh National Military Park III 4061 Tennessee, United States
Solecka Dolina Wisly 17372 Poland  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Stawy Lezczok 1448 Poland  
Tagamõisa 33316 Estonia    
Trzebiatowsko-Kolobrzeski Pas Nadmorski 43166 Poland    
Trzy Mlyny 1893 Poland    
Ujscie Ilanki 2245 Poland  
Uroczyska Puszczy Drawskiej 183887 Poland  
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Wielki Sandr Brdy 91691 Poland  
Wolin i Uznam 76089 Poland    
Zaleczanski Luk Warty 23023 Poland  
Zalew Wislany i Mierzeja Wislana 100974 Poland  
Zatoka Pucka i Pólwysep Helski 66334 Poland    



Abraxas grossulariata (Magpie Moth)[5]
Abroma temperata[5]
Acalles misellus[5]
Acaricalus hederae <Unverified Name>[5]
Acasis viretata[5]
Acutaspis aliena (Alien Scale)[6]
Agrochola circellaris (Brick)[5]
Agrochola helvola (Flounced Chestnut)[5]
Agrochola litura[5]
Agrochola lota (red-lined quaker)[5]
Agrochola lychnidis <Unverified Name>[5]
Agrochola macilenta (Yellow-line Quaker)[5]
Alcis repandata (Mottled Beauty)[5]
Allophyes oxyacanthae <Unverified Name>[5]
Anobium inexpectatum <Unverified Name>[5]
Anobium inexspectatum <Unverified Name>[5]
Anobium punctatum (furniture beetle)[5]
Aonidiella aurantii (California red scale)[6]
Aonidiella ensifera[6]
Aonidiella lauretorum[6]
Aonidiella yehudithae <Unverified Name>[6]
Aphis hederae (ivy aphid)[5]
Aporophyla australis[5]
Aporophyla nigra (Black Rustic)[5]
Artace cribraria[7]
Aspidiotus nerii (ivy scale)[5]
Bemisia afer[5]
Boeremia hedericola[8]
Borkhausenia fuscescens[5]
Bryobia kissophila[5]
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Carnation Tortrix)[5]
Calocera viscosa (Yellow Stagshorn)[8]
Celastrina argiolus (Holly Blue Butterfly)[5]
Ceroplastes japonicus (fig wax scale)[6]
Ceroplastes rubens (pink wax scale)[6]
Ceroplastes rusci (barnacle wax scale)[6]
Cheirospora botryospora[8]
Choragus sheppardi[8]
Choristoneura hebenstreitella (Mountain-ash tortricid)[7]
Chrysodeixis chalcites (Tomato Looper)[5]
Chrysolina polita <Unverified Name>[5]
Chrysomphalus aonidum (circular black scale)[8]
Chrysomphalus bifasciculatus (bifasciculate scale)[6]
Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (dictyospermum scale)[5]
Chrysomphalus diversicolor[6]
Chrysomphalus pallens <Unverified Name>[6]
Clepsis consimilana[7]
Coniophora arida[8]
Conistra erythrocephala (Red-headed Chestnut)[5]
Conistra ligula (Dark Chestnut)[5]
Conistra rubiginea (Dotted Chestnut)[5]
Conistra vaccinii (Chestnut)[5]
Ctenopseustis obliquana[9]
Ctenopseustis servana[9]
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)[10]
Dama dama (fallow deer)[11]
Dendrothrips eastopi <Unverified Name>[5]
Derephysia foliacea[5]
Diaspis boisduvalii (boisduval scale)[6]
Diaspis bromeliae (pineapple scale)[6]
Dichonia aprilina[5]
Ditula angustiorana (Red-barred Tortrix)[7]
Dynaspidiotus atlanticus[6]
Dynaspidiotus britannicus (holly scale)[6]
Epalxiphora axenana[9]
Ephestia parasitella[5]
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)[12]
Eulecanium kuwanai[6]
Eulithis diversilineata (grapevine looper)[7]
Euplexia lucipara (Small Angle Shades)[5]
Eupoecilia ambiguella (Vine Moth)[7]
Eupsilia transversa (Satellite)[5]
Exidia thuretiana (White Brain)[8]
Filippia follicularis[6]
Fiorinia fioriniae (European fiorinia scale)[6]
Fiorinia hederae[6]
Gymnoscelis rufifasciata (Double-striped Pug)[5]
Harrisina americana (Grapeleaf Skeletonizer)[7]
Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)[6]
Hemiberlesia rapax (greedy scale)[6]
Herminia tarsipennalis[5]
Hypena obesalis <Unverified Name>[5]
Hypena obsitalis[5]
Hypena rostralis (Buttoned Snout)[5]
Icerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale)[6]
Idaea rusticata (Least Carpet)[5]
Idaea seriata (Small Dusty Wave)[5]
Idaea trigeminata (Treble Brown Spot)[5]
Isaria friesii[8]
Issus coleoptratus[5]
Jodia croceago (Orange Upperwing)[5]
Kissophagus hederae[5]
Lamprosoma concolor <Unverified Name>[5]
Lasiocampa quercus (Oak Eggar)[5]
Lecanodiaspis takagii[6]
Lichtensia viburni (viburnum cushion scale)[5]
Lindingaspis rossi (araucaria black scale)[6]
Liophloeus tessulatus[5]
Lithophane furcifera[5]
Lithophane hepatica[5]
Lithophane lamda (Nonconformist)[5]
Lithophane ornitopus[5]
Lithophane semibrunnea (Tawny Pinion)[5]
Lobesia botrana (European Grapevine Moth)[5]
Lozotaenia forsterana[7]
Lycorea cleobaea (Butterfly)[7]
Marasmius epiphylloides[8]
Marpesia chiron (Daggerwing)[7]
Martes foina (Beech Marten)[8]
Megalopyge opercularis (southern flannel moth)[7]
Melanchra persicariae (Dot Moth)[5]
Melanconium hederae[8]
Mormo maura (Old Lady)[5]
Mythimna loreyi <Unverified Name>[5]
Mythimna unipuncta <Unverified Name>[5]
Mythimna vitellina <Unverified Name>[5]
Myxarium nucleatum (Crystal Brain)[8]
Niveaspis argentata[6]
Nycteola revayana (Oak Nycteoline)[5]
Oceanaspidiotus spinosus (spinose scale)[6]
Ochina ptinoides <Unverified Name>[5]
Omphaloscelis lunosa (Lunar Underwing Moth)[5]
Oncomera femorata <Unverified Name>[5]
Oomorphus concolor <Unverified Name>[5]
Orthops cervinus <Unverified Name>[5]
Ourapteryx sambucaria (Swallow-tailed Moth)[7]
Pandemis dumetana[7]
Parlatoria oleae (olive parlatoria scale)[6]
Pechipogo plumigeralis <Unverified Name>[5]
Peribatodes rhomboidaria (Willow Beauty)[5]
Phenacoccus gossypii (Mexican mealybug)[6]
Phomopsis pulla[8]
Physalacria stilboidea[8]
Planchonia arabidis <Unverified Name>[5]
Planococcus minor (Pacific mealybug)[6]
Planotortrix octo <Unverified Name>[9]
Pogonocherus hispidus[8]
Polymixis flavicincta (Large Ranunculus)[5]
Polymixis lichenea <Unverified Name>[5]
Praelongorthezia praelonga (citrus orthezia)[6]
Protopulvinaria pyriformis (pyriform scale)[6]
Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (false oleander scale)[6]
Pseudischnaspis bowreyi (bowrey scale)[6]
Pseudococcus calceolariae (citrophilus mealybug)[6]
Pseudococcus longispinus (long tailed mealybug)[9]
Pseudococcus sociabilis (Hambleton mealybug)[6]
Pulvinaria psidii (green shield scale)[6]
Rhizoecus simplex[6]
Rhyncolus lignarius[5]
Ribautiana debilis[5]
Sabulodes caberata (Omnivorous looper)[7]
Schiffermuelleria grandis[5]
Scoliopteryx libatrix (herald moth)[5]
Selenaspidus articulatus (rufous scale)[5]
Siphoninus immaculata <Unverified Name>[5]
Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm)[5]
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)[12]
Subulispora britannica[8]
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)[12]
Synophropsis lauri[8]
Trigonophora flammea (Flame Brocade)[5]
Turdus iliacus (Redwing)[12]
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)[12]
Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)[12]
Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)[12]
Turdus torquatus (Ring Ouzel)[12]
Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush)[12]
Unaspis euonymi (euonymus scale)[6]
Vanessa atalanta (red admiral)[5]
Xanthia aurago (Barred Sallow)[5]
Xanthia gilvago (Dusky-lemon Sallow)[5]
Xanthia icteritia (Sallow)[5]
Xanthia togata (Pink-barred Sallow Moth)[5]
Xylena exsoleta (Sword-grass)[5]
Xylena vetusta (Red Sword-grass)[5]
Xyloterus domesticum <Unverified Name>[5]
Zygina angusta[5]


Parasite of 
Platanus orientalis (oriental planetree)[8]
Pollinated by 
Vespa orientalis (Oriental hornet)[8]


Parasitized by 
Orobanche hederae (Ivy broomrape)[8]
Phyllactinia guttata[8]
Pollinator of 
Vespa orientalis (Oriental hornet)[8]


Europe, Medit. to Iran;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000)
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
4ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
5Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
6Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
7HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
10Recruitment of a Mast-Fruiting, Bird-Dispersed Tree: Bridging Frugivore Activity and Seedling Establishment, Carlos M. Herrera, Pedro Jordano, Luis López-Soria, Juan A. Amat, Ecological Monographs, 64(3), 1994, pp. 315-344
11Dama dama, George A. Feldhamer, Kelly C. Farris-Renner, and Celeste M. Barker, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 317, pp. 1-8 (1988)
12Birds and berries: a study of an ecological interaction. Calton, Great Britain, Snow B.K., Snow D.W., 1988, T & AD Poyser. 268 p.
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access