Animalia > Arthropoda > Insecta > Lepidoptera > Geometroidea > Geometridae > Biston > Biston betularia
 

Biston betularia (peppered moth)

Wikipedia Abstract

The peppered moth (Biston betularia) is a temperate species of night-flying moth. Peppered moth evolution is an example of population genetics and natural selection.
View Wikipedia Record: Biston betularia

Infraspecies

Attributes

Wing Span [1]  1.7 inches (.043 m)

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Brown Moss 79 England, United Kingdom  
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Corsydd Môn/ Anglesey Fens 1154 Wales, United Kingdom  
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Epping Forest 3966 England, United Kingdom  
Fenland 1529 England, United Kingdom
Fenn`s, Whixall, Bettisfield, Wem and Cadney Mosses 2346 England/Wales, United Kingdom  
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Loch Maree Complex 38882 Scotland, United Kingdom
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Morecambe Bay Pavements 6449 England, United Kingdom
Naddle Forest 892 England, United Kingdom  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Pevensey Levels 8860 England, United Kingdom  
Rhinog 7770 Wales, United Kingdom
Roudsea Wood and Mosses 1163 England, United Kingdom
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
South Solway Mosses 4849 England, United Kingdom
Sunart 25320 Scotland, United Kingdom
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Thursley, Ash, Pirbright and Chobham 12696 England, United Kingdom

Prey / Diet

Alnus glutinosa (European alder)[2]
Alnus incana (gray alder)[2]
Amelanchier stolonifera (thicket shadbush)[2]
Betula ermanii (Gold Birch)[2]
Betula pendula (European white birch)[2]
Betula pubescens (downy birch)[2]
Buddleja davidii (orange eye butterflybush)[3]
Castanea sativa (European chestnut)[3]
Chamaedaphne calyculata (leatherleaf)[2]
Crataegus heterophylla (Common Hawthorn)[3]
Crataegus laevigata (Midland Hawthorn)[3]
Cytisus scoparius (Broomtops)[3]
Dasiphora fruticosa (shrubby cinquefoil)[3]
Euonymus europaeus (European spindletree)[2]
Fagus sylvatica (European beech)[3]
Filipendula ulmaria (Meadowsweet)[2]
Frangula alnus subsp. alnus (Glossy Buckthorn)[2]
Gladiolus illyricus (Wild Gladiolus)[4]
Humulus lupulus (common hops)[2]
Larix decidua (European larch)[2]
Larix sibirica (Siberian larch)[2]
Lythrum salicaria (salicaire)[2]
Malus pumila (Common apple)[2]
Nothofagus obliqua (roble beech)[3]
Prunus avium (Wild Cherry)[4]
Prunus domestica (plum)[3]
Prunus padus (Bird Cherry)[4]
Prunus spinosa (Blackthorn)[3]
Ribes nigrum (European black currant)[3]
Salix caprea (goat willow)[3]
Salix cinerea (large gray willow)[3]
Salix fragilis (crack willow)[4]
Sanguisorba officinalis (Great Burnet)[3]
Sorbaria sorbifolia (false spiraea)[4]
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (Newfoundland aster)[3]
Tilia henryana (Henry's Lime)[4]
Vernonanthura cuneifolia (Mugwort)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Abraxas grossulariata (Magpie Moth)8
Acronicta alni (Alder Moth)9
Acronicta euphorbiae (Sweet Gale Moth)5
Acronicta leporina (miller)6
Acronicta psi (Grey Dagger Moth)12
Acronicta rumicis (Knot Grass)7
Acronicta tridens (Dark Dagger)7
Alsophila aescularia (March Moth)6
Amphipyra pyramidea8
Ancylis achatana5
Angerona prunaria6
Aphrophora alni (Alder Spittle Bug)6
Apocheima hispidaria5
Biston strataria (Oak Beauty)6
Blastodacna hellerella5
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)5
Byctiscus betulae (Hazel Leaf Roller)7
Cabera pusaria (Common White Wave Moth)5
Calliteara pudibunda (Pale Tussock)9
Callophrys rubi (Green Hairstreak Butterfly)5
Campaea margaritata (Light Emerald Moth)9
Capreolus capreolus (western roe deer)5
Carcina quercana6
Celastrina argiolus (Holly Blue Butterfly)5
Chloroclysta miata6
Coleophora serratella (birch casebearer)6
Colocasia coryli (Nut-tree Tussock)12
Colotois pennaria (Feathered Thorn)9
Conistra vaccinii (Chestnut)5
Cosmia trapezina (Dun-bar)8
Cossus cossus (Goat Moth)6
Crocallis elinguaria (Scalloped Oak Moth)10
Ectropis crepuscularia (small engrailed)9
Electrophaes corylata (Broken-barred Carpet Moth)6
Erannis defoliaria (Mottled Umber Moth)11
Eriogaster lanestris (Small Eggar)10
Eupithecia exiguata (Mottled Pug)9
Eupithecia satyrata (Satyr Pug Moth)5
Eupithecia subfuscata (gray pug)7
Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Brown-tail)5
Eupsilia transversa (Satellite)6
Fagocyba cruenta6
Gastropacha quercifolia (Lappet)6
Geometra papilionaria (Large Emerald)5
Graphiphora augur (Double Dart)7
Hemithea aestivaria (Common Emerald)5
Hydrelia sylvata (Waved Carpet)7
Jodis lactearia (Little Emerald)8
Lacanobia contigua (Beautiful Brocade)6
Lacanobia thalassina (Pale-shouldered Brocade)5
Lasiocampa quercus (Oak Eggar)9
Lomographa temerata (Clouded Silver)6
Lycia hirtaria (Brindled Beauty Moth)13
Lymantria monacha (Black Arches, Nun Moth)5
Malacosoma neustria (Lackey moth)6
Melanchra persicariae (Dot Moth)8
Melanchra pisi (Broom Moth)9
Naenia typica (Gothic)7
Noctua comes (Lesser Yellow Underwing)6
Nola cucullatella (Short-cloaked Moth)5
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)5
Nymphalis polychloros (Large Tortoiseshell Butterfly)5
Odontopera bidentata (Scalloped Hazel)15
Operophtera brumata (winter moth)8
Operophtera fagata (Northern Winter Moth)5
Opisthograptis luteolata (Brimstone Moth)7
Orgyia antiqua (Rusty Tussock Moth)9
Orthosia gothica (Hebrew Character)14
Orthosia gracilis (Powdered Quaker)6
Orthosia incerta (Clouded Drab)7
Orthosia opima (Northern Drab)6
Ourapteryx sambucaria (Swallow-tailed Moth)5
Phalera bucephala (Buff-tip)7
Phigalia pilosaria (Pale Brindled Beauty)8
Phlogophora meticulosa (Angle Shades Moth)5
Phyllonorycter corylifoliella5
Plagodis dolabraria (Scorched Wing)5
Plagodis pulveraria (Barred Umber Moth)8
Poecilocampa populi (December Moth)9
Polia nebulosa (Grey Arches)5
Ptilodon capucina (Coxcomb Prominent)9
Saturnia pavonia (Emperor moth)13
Selenia tetralunaria (Purple Thorn)7
Smerinthus ocellata5
Stauropus fagi (Lobster Moth)7
Swammerdamia pyrella5
Synanthedon spheciformis (White-barred Clearwing )5
Tettigella alba6
Trichiura crataegi (Pale Eggar)6
Xestia baja (Dotted Clay)5
Xylena exsoleta (Sword-grass)5
Yponomeuta padella (Common Hawthorn Ermel Moth)5
Zeuzera pyrina (leopard moth)8

Distribution

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Auditory influences on the flight behaviour of moths in a Nearctic site. I. Flight tendency, Scott B. Morrill and James H. Fullard, CAN. J. ZOOL. VOL. 70, 1992, pp. 1097-1101
2HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
3Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access