Animalia > Chordata > Reptilia > Squamata > Viperidae > Bitis > Bitis gabonica
 

Bitis gabonica (Gaboon Adder)

Synonyms: Bitis arietans gabonica; Bitis gabonica gabonica; Cerastes nasicornis; Echidna gabonica; Urobelus gabonicus

Wikipedia Abstract

Bitis gabonica, most commonly known as the Gaboon viper, is a viper species found in the rainforests and savannas of sub-Saharan Africa. Like all vipers, it is venomous. It is not only the largest member of the genus Bitis, but also the world's heaviest viperid, and it has the longest fangs – up to 2 inches in length (5 cm), and it has highest venom yield of any snake. Two subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here.
View Wikipedia Record: Bitis gabonica

Attributes

Diet [1]  Carnivore
Maximum Longevity [2]  18 years
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Venomous [3]  Yes

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Albertine Rift montane forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi,Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Congolian lowland forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cross-Niger transition forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Arc forests Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Mozambique Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Zimbabwe montane forest-grassland mosaic Zimbabwe, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Guinean montane forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Niger Delta swamp forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nigerian lowland forests Nigeria, Benin Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeastern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwestern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian Cryptosepalum dry forests Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
East Usambara Biosphere Reserve 222395 Tanzania  
Impenetrable (Bwindi) Forest Reserve National Park II 81404 Uganda  
Kahuzi-Biéga National Park II 1647768 Democratic Republic of the Congo  
Parc National de Tai National Park II 1085310 Côte d'Ivoire  
Reserve de Moukalaba-Dougoua (Gamba Complex) Faunal Reserve IV 266550 Gabon  
Reserve Forestiere et de Faune du Dja Wildlife Reserve IV 1551322 Cameroon  
Takamanda National Park II 167041 Cameroon  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No

Prey / Diet

Aethomys chrysophilus (red rock rat)[4]
Aethomys ineptus (Tete veld rat)[5]
Cossypha natalensis (Red-capped Robin-Chat)[4]
Cricetomys gambianus (Gambian rat)[4]
Grammomys dolichurus (Woodland mouse)[4]
Lemniscomys striatus (Typical striped grass mouse)[4]
Lepidothyris fernandi (True Fire Skink)[4]
Mastomys natalensis (Hildebrandt's multimammate mouse)[4]
Mus minutoides (Mouse)[4]
Petrodromus tetradactylus (Four-toed Elephant Shrew)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Atilax paludinosus (Marsh Mongoose)1
Bdeogale crassicauda (Bushy-tailed Mongoose)1
Poecilogale albinucha (African Striped Weasel)2
Psammophis phillipsii (Olive Grass Racer, Phillips’ Sand Snake)2
Vulpes chama (Cape Fox)1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Hexametra quadricornis <Unverified Name>[7]
Ophidascaris intorta <Unverified Name>[7]
Ophidascaris radiosa <Unverified Name>[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Abilene Zoological Gardensrhinoceros
Alexandria Zoological Park
Artis Zoogabonica
Audubon Zoorhinoceros
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
 rhinoceros
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Gardenrhinoceros
Cango Wildlife Ranchrhinoceros
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Clyde Peeling's Reptilandgabonica
 rhinoceros
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardens
Dallas Zoo
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dept. of National Zoological Gardens
Detroit Zoological Societyrhinoceros
Dickerson Park Zoo
Ellen Trout Zoo
Fort Worth Zoological Park
Fresno Chaffee Zoorhinoceros
Gladys Porter Zoorhinoceros
Guadalajara Zoorhinoceros
Houston Zoo, Inc.
 rhinoceros
Indian River Reptile Zoogabonica
Indianapolis Zoogabonica
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardensrhinoceros
Knoxville Zoological Gardensrhinoceros
Little Rock Zoological Gardensrhinoceros
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardensrhinoceros
Louisville Zoological Garden
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquariumrhinoceros
Menagerie du Jardin des Plantesrhinoceros
Montecasino Bird Gardensrhinoceros
Moscow Zoological Parkgabonica
 rhinoceros
National Aquarium in Baltimore Incgabonica
Newport Aquariumrhinoceros
North of England Zoological Societyrhinoceros
Oklahoma City Zoological Parkrhinoceros
Out of Africa Wildlife Park
Riverbanks Zoo and Gardenrhinoceros
Rome Zoo-Fondazione Bioparco di Roma
Saint Louis Zoological Parkrhinoceros
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquarrhinoceros
San Diego Zoo
 rhinoceros
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
Sedgwick County Zoo
Smithsonian National Zoological Park
 rhinoceros
Tbilisi Zoo
The Naples Zoorhinoceros
The Philadelphia Zoogabonica
 rhinoceros
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbHrhinoceros
Toledo Zoological Gardensrhinoceros
West Midland Safari & Leisure Park Ltdrhinoceros
Woodland Park Zoological Gardensrhinoceros
Zoo Atlanta
Zoological Garden Praguerhinoceros
Zoologicka Zahrada Jihlavarhinoceros
Zoologischer Garten Leipzig

Distribution

Angola, Gabon, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Central African Republic, Sudan, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Congo, E Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Republic of South A; Takamanda Forest Reserve;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Venomous snakes and antivenoms search interface, World Health Organization
4Conservation Biology of the Gaboon Adder (Bitis gabonica) in South Africa, Jonathan Kirk Warner, A dissertation submitted to the School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa in fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Masters of Science (2009)
5Aethomys ineptus, CHRISTIAN T. CHIMIMBA AND ALICIA V. LINZEY, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 809, pp. 1-7 (2008)
6Petrodromus tetradactylus, Mark R. Jennings and Galen B. Rathbun, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 682, pp. 1–6 (2001)
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access