Animalia > Chordata > Reptilia > Crocodylia > Alligatoridae > Caiman > Caiman crocodilus
 

Caiman crocodilus (Common caiman, Spectacled caiman)

Synonyms: Alligator sclerops; Caiman crocodylus; Caiman sclerops; Crocodilus sclerops; Lacerta crocodilus

Infraspecies

Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis (Apaporis River caiman)
Caiman crocodilus crocodilus (Spectacled caiman)
Caiman crocodilus fuscus (Brown caiman)

Invasive Species

The common caiman (Caiman crocodilus), is currently the most abundant crocodilian species and is the most harvested crocodile in the hide industry. Native to South and Central America, C. crocodilus has been introduced and has established in America, Puerto Rico, and Cuba. It poses a threat to native crocodilians through competition and is believed to be responsible for the introduction of the exotic parasite known as "caiman tongueworm" which infects local fish species in Puerto Rico.
View ISSG Record: Caiman crocodilus

Attributes

Gestation [1]  90 days
Litter Size [1]  22
Maximum Longevity [2]  24 years

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alta Paraná Atlantic forests Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Amazon-Orinoco-Southern Caribbean mangroves Brazil, Columbia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela Neotropic Mangroves  
Apure-Villavicencio dry forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Caatinga Brazil Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Caatinga Enclaves moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Campos Rupestres montane savanna Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Caqueta moist forests Brazil, Columbia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Catatumbo moist forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cerrado Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Chiquitano dry forests Bolivia, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chocó-Darién moist forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Cordillera real montane forests Ecuador, Colombia, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ecuadorian dry forests Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Guianan Freshwater swamp forests Suriname, Guyana, French Guiana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan Highlands moist forests Venezuela, Brazil, Guyana, Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan moist forests Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan savanna Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Iquitos varzea Brazil, Peru, Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Japurá-Solimoes-Negro moist forests Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Juruá-Purus moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Llanos Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Madeira-Tapajós moist forests Brazil, Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena-Urabá moist forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Marajó varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maranhao Babatu forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Monte Alegre varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Napo moist forests Colombia, Venezuela, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Negro-Branco moist forests Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeastern Brazil restingas Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Orinoco Delta swamp forests Venezuela, Guyana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Panamanian dry forests Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Pantanal Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Purus varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Purus-Madeira moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Rio Negro campinarana Brazil, Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sierra Madre de Chiapas moist forest Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Solimões-Japurá moist forest Brazil, Colombia, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South American Pacific mangroves Colombia, Panama, Ecuador Neotropic Mangroves    
Southern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Mangroves    
Southwest Amazon moist forests Peru, Brazil, Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tapajós-Xingu moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tocantins/Pindare moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Uatuma-Trombetas moist forests Brazil, Guyana, Suriname Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ucayali moist forests Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Ecuador moist forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Xingu-Tocantins-Araguaia moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Archipelago Golfo de Fonseca Marine National Park 9779 Honduras  
Bahuaja-Sonene National Park II 2716956 Madre de Dios (Puerto Maldonado), Peru  
Barro Colorado Island Natural Monument III   Panama  
Bush Bush Wildlife Sanctuary Game Sanctuary   Trinidad and Tobago  
Caratasca Lagoon Wildlife Refuge 795317 Honduras  
Corcovado National Park 115845 Costa Rica  
Cordillera Volcanica Central Forest Reserve VI 150571 Costa Rica  
Cuero y Salado Wildlife Refuge IV 19771 Honduras    
El Tuparro Natural National Park II 1366853 Colombia  
Estacion Biologica Beni Biosphere Reserve VI 335178 Bolivia  
Jeanette Kawas National Park 6379 Honduras    
La Amistad International Park National Park II 541617 Panama, Costa Rica  
La Selva Biological Station Protective Zone VI 6052 Costa Rica
Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve State Sustainable Development Reserve VI 3260792 Amazonas, Brazil  
Manú National Park II 4213523 Cusco, Peru  
Maracá Ecological Reserve Ia 257554 Roraima, Brazil  
Palo Verde National Park II 46190 Costa Rica  
Parque Nacional Fronterizo Darién National Park II 1382494 Panama  
Patuca National Park II 935848 Honduras  
Río Kruta Biological Reserve 123553 Honduras  
Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve   Honduras      
Reserva Cuzco Amazonico   Peru      
Reserva de la Biosfera de Yasuni Biosphere Reserve 4156313 Ecuador  
Reserve de Biosphere Cerrado Biosphere Reserve II 1812 Parana, Brazil  
Rus Rus Biological Reserve   Honduras      
Southern Watershed Wildlife Sanctuary Game Sanctuary 25159 Trinidad and Tobago  
Trinity Hills Wildlife Sanctuary Game Sanctuary IV   Trinidad and Tobago  
Victoria-Mayaro Forest Reserve 132764 Trinidad and Tobago  
Warunta   Honduras      

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Atlantic Forest Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay No
Cerrado Brazil No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Prey / Diet

Elachistocleis ovalis (common oval frog)[3]
Holochilus sciureus (marsh rat)[4]
Myocastor coypus (nutria)[5]
Paracheirodon innesi (Piaba)[6]
Pleurodema brachyops (Colombian Four-eyed Frog)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk)1
Buteogallus meridionalis (Savanna Hawk)1
Elanus leucurus (White-tailed Kite)1
Inia geoffrensis (Pink River Dolphin)1
Leopardus geoffroyi (Geoffroy's Cat)1
Leopardus pardalis (Ocelot)1
Leopardus tigrinus (Oncilla)1
Leptodeira annulata (Banded Cat-eyed Snake)1
Melanosuchus niger (Black caiman)1
Panthera onca (Jaguar)1
Puma concolor (Cougar)1
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acanthostomum scyphocephalum <Unverified Name>[7]
Brevimulticaecum baylisi <Unverified Name>[7]
Brevimulticaecum stekhoveni <Unverified Name>[7]
Caimanicola marajoara <Unverified Name>[7]
Cyathocotyle brasiliensis <Unverified Name>[7]
Cystodiplostomum hollyi <Unverified Name>[7]
Diplostomum medusae <Unverified Name>[7]
Dujardinascaris chabaudi <Unverified Name>[7]
Dujardinascaris longispicula <Unverified Name>[7]
Eustrongylides ignotus <Unverified Name>[7]
Herpetodiplostomum caimancola <Unverified Name>[7]
Micropleura vazi <Unverified Name>[7]
Odhneriotrema microcephala <Unverified Name>[7]
Ortleppascaris alata <Unverified Name>[7]
Pachypsolus sclerops <Unverified Name>[7]
Paradiplostomum abbreviatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus[7]
Proctocaecum dorsale <Unverified Name>[7]
Proctocaecum scyphocephalum <Unverified Name>[7]
Prolecithodiplostomum cavum <Unverified Name>[7]
Prolecithodiplostomum constrictum <Unverified Name>[7]
Proterodiplostomum breve <Unverified Name>[7]
Proterodiplostomum globulare <Unverified Name>[7]
Proterodiplostomum intermedium <Unverified Name>[7]
Proterodiplostomum longum <Unverified Name>[7]
Proterodiplostomum medusae <Unverified Name>[7]
Proterodiplostomum tumidilum <Unverified Name>[7]
Pseudotelorchis caimanis <Unverified Name>[7]
Pseudotelorchis yacarei <Unverified Name>[7]
Stephanoprora jacaretinga <Unverified Name>[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
AB Furuviksparkencrocodilus
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Amazon Worldcrocodilus
Ardastra Gardens & Conserv. Centrecrocodilus
Artis Zoocrocodilus
Barranquilla Zoofuscus
Biodome de Montrealyacare
Blackpool Zooyacare
Chicago Zoological Park
Connecticut's Beardsley Zooyacare
Dusit (Bangkok) Zoological Park
Ellen Trout Zoo
Espace Zoolog de St-Martin-la-Plainecrocodilus
Faunia (Parque Biologico De Madrid,SA)
 crocodilus
Fundacion Zoologica de Cali
Greater Vancouver Zoocrocodilus
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoofuscus
Jardin Zoologique de la Ville de Lyoncrocodilus
Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden
Kazan Zoological & Botanical Gardencrocodilus
Khao Kheow Open Zoocrocodilus
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens
Madras Crocodile Bank Trust
Magnetic Hill Zoo
Menagerie du Jardin des Plantescrocodilus
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodzcrocodilus
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africacrocodilus
 fuscus
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Councilcrocodilus
Nogeyama Zoological Gardens Yokohamacrocodilus
 yacare
Novosibirsk Zoological Parkcrocodilus
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFTcrocodilus
 yacare
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniucrocodilus
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Out of Africa Wildlife Park
Parc Paradisio S.A.crocodilus
Parc Zoologic de Barcelonacrocodilus
 yacare
Parc Zoologique d'Amnevillecrocodilus
Parc Zoologique de la Barbencrocodilus
Parc Zoologique de La Palmyrecrocodilus
Parco Natura Viva
Parque De Animales Silvestres Temaikènyacare
Parque Recreativo y Zool. Piscilagofuscus
Parque Zoologico Huachipacrocodilus
Permskii Zoologicheskii Sadcrocodilus
Rome Zoo-Fondazione Bioparco di Romayacare
Rostock Zoologischer Garten
Silesian Zoological Gardencrocodilus
Silver Springs Parkcrocodilus
 yacare
Societa Zoologica Di Pistoia S.R.L
St. Augustine Alligator Farm
 crocodilus
 fuscus
 yacare
Taipei Zoo
 crocodilus
Touroparc
Tropical Butterfly House
Turtle Back Zoo
Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Ctryacare
West Midland Safari & Leisure Park Ltdcrocodilus
Wroclaw Zoo, LLCcrocodilus
Xantus János Állatkert Kht.
Zoo de La Flechecrocodilus
Zoo of Antwerp
 crocodilus
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaiacrocodilus
Zoological Society of Trinidad &Tobago
Zoologicka Zahrada Mesta Brnayacare
Zoologico Nacional La Aurora
 crocodilus
Zoologischer Garten Schmidingcrocodilus
 yacare

Distribution

Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru (Pasco etc.), Surinam, French Guiana, Guyana, Tobago, Trinidad, Venezuela, Bolivia Cuba (introduced), Isla de Juventud (=Isla dePinos; introduced); Trinity Hills Wildlife Sactuary;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Thorbjarnarson, JB (1994). Reproductive ecology of the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) in the Venezuelan llanos. Copeia 1994(4): 907-919 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Anurans as prey: an exploratory analysis and size relationships between predators and their prey, L. F. Toledo, R. S. Ribeiro & C. F. B. Haddad, Journal of Zoology 271 (2007) 170–177 4Holochilus sciureus, Guillermo R. Barreto and Shaenandhoa GarcÍa-Rangel, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 780, pp. 1-5 (2005) 5Myocastor coypus, Charles A. Woods, Luis Contreras, Gale Willner-Chapman, and Howard P. Whidden, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 398, pp. 1-8 (1992) 6Animals of the Rainforest 7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access