Animalia > Chordata > Reptilia > Squamata > Colubridae > Coluber > Coluber constrictor
 

Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer; Northern black racer)

Synonyms: Bascanion constrictor; Bascanium anthicum; Coluber ortenburgeri; Coryphodon constrictor; Zamenis constrictor

Wikipedia Abstract

Coluber constrictor is a species of nonvenomous, colubrid snake, endemic to North America and Central America. Eleven subspecies, including the nominotypical subspecies, are recognized, which as a group are commonly referred to as the eastern racers.
View Wikipedia Record: Coluber constrictor

Infraspecies

Coluber constrictor anthicus (Buttermilk Racer)
Coluber constrictor constrictor (Northern black racer)
Coluber constrictor etheridgei (Tan racer)
Coluber constrictor flaviventris (Eastern yellow-bellied racer)
Coluber constrictor foxii (Blue Racer)
Coluber constrictor helvigularis (Brownchin Racer)
Coluber constrictor latrunculus (Blackmask racer)
Coluber constrictor mormon (Western yellow-bellied Racer)
Coluber constrictor oaxaca (Mexican racer)
Coluber constrictor paludicola (Everglades Racer)
Coluber constrictor priapus (Southern black racer)

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  110 grams
Diet [2]  Carnivore
Hibernates [2]  Yes
Litter Size [3]  9
Maximum Longevity [4]  10 years
Speed [1]  2.30 MPH (1.028 m/s)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central American pine-oak forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves Bahamas, United Kingdom Neotropic Mangroves
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Motagua Valley thornscrub Guatemala Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bandelier National Monument V 8107 New Mexico, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary   California, United States
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area V 7622 Georgia, United States
Chickasaw National Recreation Area V 7025 Oklahoma, United States
Congaree Swamp National Park II 6095 South Carolina, United States
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Cuyahoga Valley National Park II 24907 Ohio, United States
De Soto National Wildlife Refuge IV 8007 Iowa, Nebraska, United States
Devils Tower National Monument V 1361 Wyoming, United States
Dye Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 38152 California, United States  
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
El Malpais National Monument III 109980 New Mexico, United States
Fairfield Osborn Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 190 California, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Fort Caroline National Memorial III 137 Florida, United States
Fort Matanzas National Monument III 269 Florida, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Gulf Island National Seashore II 67487 Florida, Mississippi, United States
Heath and Marjorie Angelo Coast Range Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 7008 California, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Jackson Demonstration State Forest   California, United States
Jean Lafitte National Hist. Park & Preserve National Historical Park II 17686 Louisiana, United States
Lake Chelan National Recreation Area II 606367 Washington, United States
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Meredith National Recreation Area V   Texas, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Landels-Hill Big Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 45 California, United States
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Lava Beds National Monument III 20002 California, United States
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial III 96 Indiana, United States
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Maya Multiple Use Area 1156412 Guatemala  
McCloud River Preserve Conservation Easement 1693 California, United States
Muir Woods National Monument V 492 California, United States
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Nipomo Dunes Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 3725 California, United States
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Paine Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 2965 California, United States    
Pecos National Historical Park V 6539 New Mexico, United States
Pixley Vernal Pools Preserve 37 California, United States
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Ring Mountain Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 438 California, United States  
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saint Croix International Historic Site   Maine, United States
San Dimas Biosphere Reserve 17161 California, United States  
San Joaquin Biosphere Reserve 4527 California, United States  
Sand Ridge Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 285 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Scotts Bluff National Monument V 3185 Nebraska, United States
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Shortgrass Steppe LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Colorado, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
Williams Wildlife Preserve Wildlife Reserve   California, United States      
Yosemite National Park II 95209 California, United States

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Emblem of

Ohio

Prey / Diet

Anurogryllus ellops (Jamaican field cricket )[5]
Arphia simplex (Plains Yellow-Winged Grasshopper)[5]
Ceuthophilus maculatus (Spotted Camel Cricket)[5]
Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer)[5]
Diadophis punctatus (Ringneck Snake)[6]
Diadophis punctatus vandenburgii (arnyi)[5]
Dissosteira carolina (Carolina Grasshopper)[5]
Melanoplus bivittatus (Yellow-striped Locust)[5]
Melanoplus differentialis (Differential Grasshopper)[5]
Melanoplus femurrubrum (Red-legged Grasshopper)[5]
Microtus ochrogaster (prairie vole)[5]
Neoconocephalus robustus (Robust Conehead)[5]
Orchelimum vulgare (Common Meadow Katydid)[5]
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)[5]
Setophaga petechia (Yellow Warbler)[6]
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)1
Aegolius acadicus (Northern Saw-whet Owl)2
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)1
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)1
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)1
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)2
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)2
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)1
Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake (atricaudatus))2
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)1
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)1
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)1
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)1
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)1
Lampropeltis calligaster (Prairie Kingsnake)1
Larus delawarensis (Ring-billed Gull)1
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)1
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)1
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)1
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)1
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)1
Pituophis catenifer (Gopher Snake)2
Pituophis melanoleucus (Eastern Pine Snake)2
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)1
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)1
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)1
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)1
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)1
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)1
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)1
Strix varia (Barred Owl)1
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)1
Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle)1
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)3
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)1
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)1
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)1

Predators

Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)[6]
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[6]
Buteo platypterus (Broad-winged Hawk)[6]
Buteo regalis (Ferruginous Hawk)[6]
Buteo swainsoni (Swainson's Hawk)[6]
Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer)[5]
Ictidomys tridecemlineatus (thirteen-lined ground squirrel)[7]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Alaria marcianae <Unverified Name>[8]
Kalicephalus agkistrodontis <Unverified Name>[8]
Kalicephalus parvus <Unverified Name>[8]
Macracanthorhynchus ingens[8]
Megalodiscus temperatus[8]
Ochetosoma ellipticum <Unverified Name>[8]
Ochetosoma kansense <Unverified Name>[8]
Ophidascaris ashii <Unverified Name>[8]
Rhabdias eustreptos <Unverified Name>[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoo
John Ball Zoological Gardenfoxi
Lee Richardson Zoo
Miami Metrozoopriapus
Potawatomi Zoofoxi
Silver Springs Parkconstrictor
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoopriapus
ZooMontanaflaviventris

Range Map

S Canada, USA (Washington, Oregon, California, Illinois, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, Utah, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North ;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1LOCOMOTOR PERFORMANCE AND ENERGETIC COST OF SIDEWINDING BY THE SNAKE CROTALUS CERASTES, STEPHEN M. SECOR, BRUCE C. JAYNE AND ALBERT F. BENNETT, J. exp. Biol. 163, 1-14 (1992) 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3A neglected life-history trait: clutch-size variance in snakes, R. Shine and R. A. Seigel, J. Zool. Lond. (1996) 239, 209-223 4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 5Resources of a Snake Community in Prairie-Woodland Habitat of Northeastern Kansas, Henry S. Fitch, U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Wildlife Research Report 13: 83-98 (1982) 6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 7Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, Donald P. Streubel and James P. Fitzgerald, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 103, pp. 1-5 (1978) 8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access