Animalia > Chordata > Reptilia > Squamata > Viperidae > Agkistrodon > Agkistrodon piscivorus

Agkistrodon piscivorus (conanti)

Synonyms: Ancistrodon piscivorus; Crotalus piscivorus; Toxicophis piscivorus; Trigonocephalus piscivorus

Wikipedia Abstract

Agkistrodon piscivorus is a venomous snake, a species of pit viper, found in the southeastern United States. Adults are large and capable of delivering a painful and potentially fatal bite. When antagonized, they will stand their ground by coiling their bodies and displaying their fangs. Although their aggression has been exaggerated, individuals may bite when feeling threatened or being handled. This is the world's only semiaquatic viper, usually found in or near water, particularly in slow-moving and shallow lakes, streams, and marshes. The snake is a strong swimmer and will even enter the sea. It has successfully colonized islands off both the Atlantic and Gulf coasts.
View Wikipedia Record: Agkistrodon piscivorus


Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti (Florida cottonmouth)
Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma (Western cottonmouth)
Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus (Eastern cottonmouth)


Female Maturity [2]  3 years
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Hibernates [1]  Yes
Litter Size [2]  8
Maximum Longevity [2]  25 years
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Venomous [3]  Yes
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams, Temporary Pools, Coastal


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Fort Caroline National Memorial III 137 Florida, United States
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Gulf Island National Seashore II 67487 Florida, Mississippi, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Jean Lafitte National Hist. Park & Preserve National Historical Park II 17686 Louisiana, United States
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Little River National Wildlife Refuge   Oklahoma, United States
Little St. Simons Island   Georgia, United States
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
Ocmulgee National Monument V 693 Georgia, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
San Antonio Missions National Historical Park VI 854 Texas, United States
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States

Prey / Diet

Acris crepitans (Northern Cricket Frog)[4]
Agkistrodon piscivorus (conanti)[4]
Baiomys taylori (northern pygmy mouse)[5]
Blarina carolinensis (Southern Short-tailed Shrew)[6]
Farancia abacura (abacura)[4]
Gallinula chloropus (Common Moorhen)[7]
Hyla cinerea (Green Treefrog)[4]
Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill)[4]
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)[4]
Nerodia fasciata (Southern Water Snake)[4]
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)[7]
Oryzomys palustris (marsh rice rat)[8]
Plestiodon inexpectatus (Southeastern Five-lined Skink)[4]
Podilymbus podiceps (Pied-billed Grebe)[7]
Scincella lateralis (Ground Skink, Little Brown Skink)[4]
Sigmodon hispidus (hispid cotton rat)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter cooperii (Cooper's Hawk)1
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)1
Anguilla rostrata (American eel)1
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)1
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)1
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)1
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)1
Canis latrans (Coyote)1
Chelydra serpentina (Common Snapping Turtle)1
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)1
Coluber flagellum (Coachwhip)2
Crotalus atrox (Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake)1
Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake (atricaudatus))2
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)1
Egretta caerulea (Little Blue Heron)1
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)1
Larus delawarensis (Ring-billed Gull)1
Megascops asio (Eastern Screech-Owl)1
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)2
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)1
Neovison vison (American Mink)1
Nerodia sipedon (Northern Water Snake)2
Pituophis catenifer (Gopher Snake)1
Pituophis melanoleucus (Eastern Pine Snake)1
Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana Pine Snake)1
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)2
Strix varia (Barred Owl)1
Thamnophis sauritus (Eastern Ribbonsnake)1
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)2
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)3
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)2


Agkistrodon piscivorus (conanti)[4]
Alligator mississippiensis (Alligator, Gator, American alligator, Florida alligator, Mississippi alligator, Louisiana alligator.)[7]


Parasitized by 
Alaria marcianae <Unverified Name>[9]
Capillaria heterodontis <Unverified Name>[9]
Cosmocercoides dukae <Unverified Name>[9]
Fibricola cratera <Unverified Name>[9]
Kalicephalus rectiphilus <Unverified Name>[9]
Macracanthorhynchus ingens[9]
Ophiotaenia grandis <Unverified Name>[9]
Proteocephalus agkistrodontis <Unverified Name>[9]
Proteocephalus marenzelleri <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhabdias eustreptos <Unverified Name>[9]
Terranova caballeroi <Unverified Name>[9]

Range Map

USA (Texas, S/E Oklahoma, S Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Kansas, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, E North Carolina, W Tennessee, W Kentucky, S Illinois, Indiana, SE Virginia) piscivorus: Atlantic coastal plain south from SE Virgi;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Venomous snakes and antivenoms search interface, World Health Organization
4Sexual dimorphism in head shape and diet in the cottonmouth snake (Agkistrodon piscivorus), Shawn E. Vincent, Anthony Herrel and Duncan J. Irschick, J. Zool., Lond. (2004) 264, 53–59
5Baiomys taylori, Bruce D. Eshelman and Guy N. Cameron, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 285, pp. 1-7 (1987)
6Blarina carolinensis, Timothy S. McCay, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 673, pp. 1–7 (2001)
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Oryzomys palustris, James L. Wolfe, Mammalian Species No. 176, pp. 1-5 (1982)
9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access