Animalia > Chordata > Reptilia > Squamata > Viperidae > Crotalus > Crotalus horridus

Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake (atricaudatus))

Synonyms: Crotalus atricaudatus; Crotalus horridus atricaudatus; Crotalus horridus horridus

Wikipedia Abstract

Crotalus horridus, commonly known as timber rattlesnake, canebrake rattlesnake or banded rattlesnake, is a species of venomous pit viper found in the eastern United States. This is the only rattlesnake species in most of the populous northeastern United States and is second only to its cousins to the west, the prairie rattlesnake, as the most northerly distributed venomous snake in North America. No subspecies is currently recognized.
View Wikipedia Record: Crotalus horridus


Female Maturity [2]  7 years
Male Maturity [2]  5 years
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Gestation [2]  4 months 15 days
Hibernates [1]  Yes
Litter Size [2]  9
Maximum Longevity [2]  30 years
Venomous [3]  Yes


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Carl Sandburg Home National Hist. Site National Historic Site III 271 North Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area V 7622 Georgia, United States
Chickasaw National Recreation Area V 7025 Oklahoma, United States
Congaree Swamp National Park II 6095 South Carolina, United States
Everglades and Dry Tortugas Biosphere Reserve   Florida, United States  
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Jean Lafitte National Hist. Park & Preserve National Historical Park II 17686 Louisiana, United States
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Little River National Wildlife Refuge   Oklahoma, United States
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Ocmulgee National Monument V 693 Georgia, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Saint Croix International Historic Site   Maine, United States
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States

Emblem of

West Virginia

Prey / Diet

Blarina brevicauda (Northern Short-tailed Shrew)[4]
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)[4]
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)[4]
Geomys bursarius (plains pocket gopher)[5]
Glaucomys volans (southern flying squirrel)[4]
Microtus chrotorrhinus (rock vole)[4]
Microtus ochrogaster (prairie vole)[6]
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)[4]
Microtus pinetorum (woodland vole)[6]
Mus musculus (house mouse)[4]
Myodes gapperi (southern red-backed vole)[4]
Napaeozapus insignis (woodland jumping mouse)[4]
Neotoma floridana (eastern woodrat)[6]
Neovison vison (American Mink)[4]
Ochrotomys nuttalli (golden mouse)[4]
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)[4]
Peromyscus gossypinus (cotton mouse)[4]
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)[4]
Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse)[4]
Scincella lateralis (Ground Skink, Little Brown Skink)[4]
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)[4]
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)[7]
Sigmodon hispidus (hispid cotton rat)[4]
Sorex fumeus (Smoky Shrew)[4]
Sorex longirostris (Southeastern Shrew)[4]
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)[6]
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)[4]
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (red squirrel)[4]
Zapus hudsonius (meadow jumping mouse)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)1
Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)3
Aegolius acadicus (Northern Saw-whet Owl)5
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)8
Agkistrodon piscivorus (conanti)2
Ardea herodias (Great Blue Heron)1
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)5
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)6
Athene cunicularia (Burrowing Owl)2
Blarina brevicauda (Northern Short-tailed Shrew)1
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)7
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)9
Buteo lagopus (Rough-legged Hawk)1
Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk)2
Buteo platypterus (Broad-winged Hawk)1
Buteo regalis (Ferruginous Hawk)2
Canis latrans (Coyote)2
Canis lupus (Wolf)1
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)1
Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer)2
Crotalus atrox (Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake)1
Didelphis marsupialis (Common Opossum)1
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)1
Falco femoralis (Aplomado Falcon)1
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)1
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)4
Ictidomys tridecemlineatus (thirteen-lined ground squirrel)2
Lampropeltis calligaster (Prairie Kingsnake)4
Lampropeltis gentilis (Scarlet kingsnake)2
Leopardus pardalis (Ocelot)1
Lynx rufus (Bobcat)3
Martes americana (American Marten)1
Megascops asio (Eastern Screech-Owl)3
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)1
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)4
Neovison vison (American Mink)1
Nerodia sipedon (Northern Water Snake)2
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)1
Pituophis catenifer (Gopher Snake)6
Pituophis melanoleucus (Eastern Pine Snake)8
Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana Pine Snake)1
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)1
Puma concolor (Cougar)1
Spilogale putorius (Eastern Spotted Skunk)2
Strix varia (Barred Owl)10
Taxidea taxus (American Badger)1
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)3
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)5
Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Gray Fox)3
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)8

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Abilene Zoological Gardens
Alexandria Zoological Parkatricaudatus
Audubon Zooatricaudatus
BREC's Baton Rouge Zooatricaudatus
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Caldwell Zooatricaudatus
Cameron Park Zoo
Cape May County Park Zoo
Central Florida Zoological Parkatricaudatus
Chehaw Wild Animal Parkatricaudatus
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Clyde Peeling's Reptilandhorridus
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Dallas Zoo
Denver Zoological Gardensatricaudatus
Dickerson Park Zoo
Ellen Trout Zoo
Greenville Zoohorridus
Henry Vilas Zoohorridus
Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park
Houston Zoo, Inc.atricaudatus
Hutchinson Zoo
Indian River Reptile Zoo
Indianapolis Zoo
Jackson Zoological Parkatricaudatus
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardensatricaudatus
Knoxville Zoological Gardens
Little Rock Zoological Gardensatricaudatus
Louisiana Purchase Gardens & Zooatricaudatus
Louisville Zoological Garden
Maryland Zoo in Baltimorehorridus
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquariumatricaudatus
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
Moscow Zoological Parkhorridus
Museum of Science - Live Animal Center
Nat'l Mississippi River Museum & Aquar
Natural History Museum of Adirondacks
Natural Science Center of Greensboro
North Carolina Zoological Park
NY State Zoo at Thompson Park
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquariumhorridus
Racine Zoological Gardens
Riverbanks Zoo and Gardenatricaudatus
Saint Louis Zoological Park
Sedgwick County Zoohorridus
Seneca Park Zoohorridus
Smithsonian National Zoological Park
South Carolina Aquarium
St. Augustine Alligator Farmatricaudatus
Staten Island Zoohorridus
Steinhart Aquarium (CA Acad of Science
Tampa's Lowry Park Zooatricaudatus
Tennessee Aquarium
The Naples Zooatricaudatus
The Philadelphia Zoo
Toledo Zoological Gardens
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museumhorridus
Virginia Aquarium&Marine Science Ctratricaudatus
Virginia Living Museumatricaudatus
Western North Carolina Nature Centerhorridus
Zoo Atlanta

Range Map

E USA (E Texas, E Oklahoma, E Kansas, SE Nebraska, SE Minnesota, S/E Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana without SW, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, N Florida, South Carolina, most of North Carolina, W/NW/SE Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, S Indiana, S/;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Venomous snakes and antivenoms search interface, World Health Organization
4Diet of the Timber Rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus, Rulon W. Clark, Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 494-499, 2002
5Geomys bursarius (Rodentia: Geomyidae), MATTHEW B. CONNIOR, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 43(879):104–117 (2011)
6Resources of a Snake Community in Prairie-Woodland Habitat of Northeastern Kansas, Henry S. Fitch, U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Wildlife Research Report 13: 83-98 (1982)
7Sciurus niger, John L. Koprowski, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 479, pp. 1-9 (1994)
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access