Animalia > Chordata > Reptilia > Squamata > Colubridae > Natrix > Natrix natrix
 

Natrix natrix (European Grass Snake)

Synonyms: Coluber natrix; Coluber persa; Coluber scutatus; Coluber torquatus; Natrix vulgaris; Tropidonotus ater; Tropidonotus natrix

Wikipedia Abstract

The grass snake (Natrix natrix), sometimes called the ringed snake or water snake, is a Eurasian non-venomous snake. It is often found near water and feeds almost exclusively on amphibians.
View Wikipedia Record: Natrix natrix

Infraspecies

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  96 grams
Female Maturity [1]  4 years
Male Maturity [1]  4 years
Maximum Longevity [1]  20 years

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Asian northern desert Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian riparian woodlands Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh semi-desert Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
AMVRAKIKOS KOLPOS, DELTA LOUROU KAI ARACHTHOU (PETRA, MYTIKAS, EVRYTERI PERIOCHI) 71136 Greece  
Adamello Presanella 69894 Italy  
Alpi Marittime 83205 Italy  
Area delle Gravine 66076 Italy  
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Beskid Niski 375518 Poland  
Beskid Slaski 65261 Poland  
Beskid Zywiecki 87169 Poland  
Bieszczady 275571 Poland  
Brenta 73487 Italy  
Bukovské vrchy 106836 Slovakia  
Börzsöny és Visegrádi-hegység 122999 Hungary  
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Cerová vrchovina a Rimavská kotlina 76986 Slovakia  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Cserebökényi-puszták 69091 Hungary  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU, EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PETALA 87747 Greece  
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - ALYKI KITROUS 73260 Greece  
Dabrowy Krotoszynskie 84622 Poland  
Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve 1433211 Romania
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Dolina Dolnej Pilicy 78633 Poland  
Dolina Pilicy 87367 Poland  
Dolina Srodkowej Warty 141108 Poland  
Dolna Odra 72985 Poland  
Dorzecze Parsety 68474 Poland  
ETHNIKOS DRYMOS PRESPON 65762 Greece  
EVRYTERI PERIOCHI ATHAMANIKON OREON 161203 Greece  
Eastern Beskid National Park II 68484 Poland  
Felsõ-kiskunsági szikes puszták és turjánvidék 103542 Hungary  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Horná Orava 145144 Slovakia  
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
KARLA - MAVROVOUNI - KEFALOVRYSO VELESTINOU - NEOCHORI 107331 Greece  
KOILADA ACHELOOU KAI ORI VALTOU 115492 Greece  
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kiskunsági szikes tavak és az õrjegi turjánvidék 88335 Hungary  
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
LA SERENA Y SIERRAS PERIFÉRICAS 379806 Spain  
LIMNES KAI LIMNOTHALASSES TIS THRAKIS - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 72787 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
LOS ALCORNOCALES 414561 Spain  
Lagorai 114140 Italy  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Monti del Gennargentu 110493 Italy  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
OROS MAVROVOUNI 91743 Greece  
OROS TAYGETOS 131874 Greece  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Ostoja Augustowska 264573 Poland  
Ostoja Inska 216738 Poland  
Ostoja Jasliska 72369 Poland  
Ostoja Knyszynska 336272 Poland  
Ostoja Nadwarcianska 65861 Poland  
Ostoja Nidzianska 68254 Poland  
Ostoja Przemyska 97994 Poland  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Naturale Fanes - Senes - Braies 62896 Italy  
Parco Naturale Vedrette di Ries - Aurina 77376 Italy  
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio National Park V 333737 Italy
Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche 121015 Italy  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Po¾ana 93067 Slovakia  
Puszcza Bialowieska 156041 Poland  
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
RODOS: AKRAMYTIS, ARMENISTIS, ATTAVYROS, REMATA KAI THALASSIA ZONI (KARAVOLA-ORMOS GLYFADA) 68439 Greece  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Doñana Biosphere Reserve II 123801 Spain
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Retezat National Park II 94183 Romania
Risaie della Lomellina 76457 Italy  
SIERRA DE ARACENA Y PICOS DE AROCHE 461592 Spain  
SIERRA NORTE 438558 Spain  
SIERRA Y CAÑONES DE GUARA 201020 Spain  
SIERRAS DE SANTO DOMINGO Y CABALLERA Y RÍO ONSELLA 88167 Spain  
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Slanské vrchy 157675 Slovakia  
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Strážovské vrchy 147080 Slovakia  
Syunt-Khasardagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 105306 Turkmenistan  
Teberdinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 210198 Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Ujscie Odry i Zalew Szczecinski 130007 Poland  
Ujscie Warty 82280 Poland  
Uroczyska Puszczy Drawskiej 183887 Poland  
VOREIA CHIOS 80479 Greece  
VOREIA CHIOS KAI NISOI OINOUSSES KAI PARAKTIA THALASSIA ZONI 85029 Greece  
VOUNA EVROU 104705 Greece  
Visimskiy Zapovednik Biosphere Reserve 443816 Russia  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Wolin i Uznam 76089 Poland    

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No

Prey / Diet

Anguilla anguilla (River eel)[2]
Apodemus sylvaticus (Old World wood and field mouse)[2]
Bufo bufo (Common European toad)[2]
Podarcis muralis (Common Wall Lizard)[2]
Rana italica (Italian Frog)[2]
Rana temporaria (European frog)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aegolius funereus (Boreal Owl)1
Aeshna cyanea (Southern Hawker Dragonfly)1
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)1
Anax imperator (Emperor Dragonfly )2
Ardea cinerea (Grey Heron)1
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)1
Buteo buteo (Common Buzzard)1
Ciconia ciconia (White Stork)1
Ciconia nigra (Black Stork)1
Circaetus gallicus (Short-toed Snake Eagle)1
Coronella austriaca (Smooth Snake)1
Coronella girondica (Southern Smooth Snake)1
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)1
Dolomedes fimbriatus (Raft Spider)1
Dytiscus marginalis (Predaceous diving beetle)2
Felis silvestris (Wildcat)1
Genetta genetta (Common Genet)1
Gypaetus barbatus (Bearded Vulture)1
Hemorrhois hippocrepis (Horseshoe Snake)1
Ichthyosaura alpestris (Alpine Newt)1
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)1
Lissotriton helveticus (Palmate Newt)1
Lucilia bufonivora (Toadfly)1
Meles meles (European Badger)1
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)2
Milvus milvus (Red Kite)2
Mustela erminea (Ermine)1
Mustela nivalis (Least Weasel)1
Mustela putorius (European Polecat)2
Natrix tessellata (Dice Snake)2
Nepa cinerea (Water Scorpion)2
Pelecanus crispus (Dalmatian Pelican)1
Rhinechis scalaris (Ladder Snakes)1
Strix aluco (Tawny Owl)3
Vipera latastei (Lataste’s Viper)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)1
Zamenis longissimus (Aesculapean Snake)1

Predators

Ardea cinerea (Grey Heron)[3]
Circaetus gallicus (Short-toed Snake Eagle)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Abbreviata abbreviata <Unverified Name>[5]
Acanthocephalus ranae[5]
Alaria alata <Unverified Name>[5]
Ascarops strongylina <Unverified Name>[5]
Astiotrema monticelli <Unverified Name>[5]
Candidotrema loossi <Unverified Name>[5]
Centrorhynchus aluconis[5]
Cephalogonimus retusus <Unverified Name>[5]
Codonocephalus urniger <Unverified Name>[5]
Contracaecum squalii <Unverified Name>[5]
Cosmocerca ornata <Unverified Name>[5]
Diphyllobothrium mansonoides <Unverified Name>[5]
Diplodiscus subclavatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Distomum naja <Unverified Name>[5]
Dracunculus riccii <Unverified Name>[5]
Encyclometra caudata <Unverified Name>[5]
Encyclometra colubrimurorum <Unverified Name>[5]
Eustrongylides excisus <Unverified Name>[5]
Halipegus kessleri <Unverified Name>[5]
Hedruris androphora <Unverified Name>[5]
Kalicephalus natrixi <Unverified Name>[5]
Leptophallus nigrovenosus <Unverified Name>[5]
Macrodera longicollis <Unverified Name>[5]
Manodistomum signatum <Unverified Name>[5]
Mesocestoides lineatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Metaleptophallus gracillimus <Unverified Name>[5]
Neodiplostomum attenuatum <Unverified Name>[5]
Neodiplostomum major <Unverified Name>[5]
Neodiplostomum spathoides <Unverified Name>[5]
Neoxysomatium brevicaudatum <Unverified Name>[5]
Ophiotaenia europaea <Unverified Name>[5]
Ophiotaenia racemosa <Unverified Name>[5]
Opisthioglyphe ranae <Unverified Name>[5]
Opisthodiscus diplodiscoides <Unverified Name>[5]
Oswaldocruzia filiformis <Unverified Name>[5]
Oswaldocruzia goezei <Unverified Name>[5]
Oxysomatium brevicaudatum <Unverified Name>[5]
Paralepoderma cloacicola <Unverified Name>[5]
Pharyngostomum cordatum <Unverified Name>[5]
Physocephalus sexalatus[5]
Plagiorchis mentulatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Pleurogenes claviger <Unverified Name>[5]
Pleurogenoides medians <Unverified Name>[5]
Rhabdias elaphe <Unverified Name>[5]
Rhabdias fuscovenosa[5]
Spirocerca lupi[5]
Spirometra erinacei <Unverified Name>[5]
Spirometra erinacei-europaei <Unverified Name>[5]
Spiroxys contorta <Unverified Name>[5]
Strigea falconis[5]
Strigea sphaerula <Unverified Name>[5]
Strigea strigis <Unverified Name>[5]
Strongyloides mirzai <Unverified Name>[5]
Strongyloides natricis <Unverified Name>[5]
Telorchis assula <Unverified Name>[5]
Telorchis corti <Unverified Name>[5]
Telorchis stossichi[5]
Tetracotyle natricis <Unverified Name>[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Alpenzoo Innsbruck - Tirol
Copenhagen Zoo
Helsinki Zoo
Kaliningrad Zoo
Nordens Ark
Ranua Wildlife Park
Riga Zoo
Scandinavian Wildlife Park
Tierpark Dählhölzli
Universeum Science Centergotlandica
 natrix
Wildwood Trust
Zoo am Meer Bremerhaven GmbH
Zoo Zürich
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbH

Distribution

Norway, Sweden, Finland, England, France (Corsica), Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg, Germany, Poland, Czech Republic (formerly Czechoslovakia), Denmark, Austria, Switzerland, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia: Croatia (including some adriatic islands), Slo; Vallée de l'Ourthe entre Comblain-au-Pont et Angleur (Chaudfontaine; Comblain-au-Pont; Esneux; Liège;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Uetz P., , in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2The prey spectrum of Natrix natrix (LINNAEUS, 1758) and Natrix tessellata (LAURENTI, 1768) in sympatric populations (Squamata: Serpentes: Colubridae), ERNESTO FILIPPI & MASSIMO CAPULA & LUCA LUISELLI & UMBERTO AGRIMI, HERPETOZOA 8 (3/4): 155 -164 Wien, 30. Jänner 1996 3Ecology of Commanster 4Prey and prey-size selection by the short-toed eagle (Circaetus gallicus) during the breeding season in Granada (south-eastern Spain), José M. Gil, Juan M. Pleguezuelos, J. Zool., Lond. (2001) 255, 131-137 5Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011