Animalia > Chordata > Reptilia > Squamata > Colubridae > Pituophis > Pituophis melanoleucus

Pituophis melanoleucus (Eastern Pine Snake; Bull snake)

Synonyms: Churchilla bellona; Coluber melanoleucus; Pituophis bellona; Pityophis melanoleucus

Wikipedia Abstract

Common names: pine snake, pinesnake, common pine snake, and others.Pituophis melanoleucus is a harmless (non-venomous)colubrid species endemic to the southeastern United States. Three subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here.
View Wikipedia Record: Pituophis melanoleucus


Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi (Black pine snake) (Attributes)
Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus (Northern pine snake)
Pituophis melanoleucus mugitus (Florida pine snake) (Attributes)


Maximum Longevity [1]  22 years


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Bandelier National Monument V 8107 New Mexico, United States
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Bryce Canyon National Park II 36348 Utah, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carrizo Plain Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 7550 California, United States  
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Chaco Culture National Historical Park V 34277 New Mexico, United States
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary   California, United States
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Chiricahua National Monument V 1421 Arizona, United States
Coachella Valley Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 8106 California, United States
Coronado National Monument National Memorial III 4360 Arizona, United States
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
De Soto National Wildlife Refuge IV 8007 Iowa, Nebraska, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge Ia   Idaho, United States
Devils Tower National Monument V 1361 Wyoming, United States
Dye Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 38152 California, United States  
El Malpais National Monument III 109980 New Mexico, United States
El Morro National Monument V 960 New Mexico, United States
Fairfield Osborn Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 190 California, United States
Fort Bowie National Historic Site III 1004 Arizona, United States
George WA Carver National Monument V 210 Missouri, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Heath and Marjorie Angelo Coast Range Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 7008 California, United States
Hovenweep National Monument V 770 Colorado, Utah, United States
Jepson Prairie Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 1553 California, United States
Jornada Biosphere Reserve Ib 30913 New Mexico, United States
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
Konza Prairie Biosphere Reserve 8617 Kansas, United States  
Lake Meredith National Recreation Area V   Texas, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Landels-Hill Big Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 45 California, United States
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Lava Beds National Monument III 20002 California, United States
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
McCloud River Preserve Conservation Easement 1693 California, United States
McGinty Mountain Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 753 California, United States  
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Montezuma Castle National Monument V 872 Arizona, United States
Navajo National Monument V 604 Arizona, United States
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
Nipomo Dunes Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 3725 California, United States
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Paine Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 2965 California, United States    
Parque Nacional de Sierra San Pedro Martir National Park II 180607 Baja California, Mexico  
Pecos National Historical Park V 6539 New Mexico, United States
Philip L. Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Center 6101 California, United States
Pinnacles National Monument V 2869 California, United States
Pixley Vernal Pools Preserve 37 California, United States
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva de Mapimi Biosphere Reserve VI 849819 Chihuahua, Mexico  
Ring Mountain Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 438 California, United States  
Saint Croix International Historic Site   Maine, United States
Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument V 1081 New Mexico, United States
San Dimas Biosphere Reserve 17161 California, United States  
San Francisco Peninsular Watershed County Wildlife Refuge or Management Area 30320 California, United States  
Sand Ridge Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 285 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Scotts Bluff National Monument V 3185 Nebraska, United States
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Shortgrass Steppe LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Colorado, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument V 3049 Arizona, United States
Tonto National Monument V 1123 Arizona, United States
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Vina Plains Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 2056 California, United States
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Williams Wildlife Preserve Wildlife Reserve   California, United States      
Wupatki National Monument III 36098 Arizona, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yosemite National Park II 95209 California, United States
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Prey / Diet

Dipodomys deserti (desert kangaroo rat)[2]
Larus californicus (California Gull)[3]
Megascops kennicottii (Western Screech-Owl)[3]
Micrathene whitneyi (Elf Owl)[3]
Microtus ochrogaster (prairie vole)[4]
Microtus pinetorum (woodland vole)[4]
Mus musculus (house mouse)[4]
Neotoma floridana (eastern woodrat)[4]
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)[4]
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)[5]
Sigmodon hispidus (hispid cotton rat)[4]
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)[4]
Tamias merriami (Merriam's chipmunk)[6]
Thomomys mazama (western pocket gopher)[3]
Urocitellus townsendii (Townsend's ground squirrel)[7]
Urocitellus washingtoni (Washington ground squirrel)[3]
Xerospermophilus tereticaudus (round-tailed ground squirrel)[8]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter cooperii (Cooper's Hawk)1
Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)1
Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)2
Aegolius acadicus (Northern Saw-whet Owl)2
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)3
Agkistrodon piscivorus (conanti)1
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)2
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)4
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)4
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)4
Buteo lagopus (Rough-legged Hawk)2
Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk)2
Buteo platypterus (Broad-winged Hawk)1
Buteo regalis (Ferruginous Hawk)2
Buteo swainsoni (Swainson's Hawk)1
Canis latrans (Coyote)4
Canis lupus (Wolf)1
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)1
Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer)2
Coluber flagellum (Coachwhip)1
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)1
Crotalus cerberus (viridis)2
Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake (atricaudatus))8
Crotalus scutulatus (scutulatus)1
Didelphis marsupialis (Common Opossum)1
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)1
Falco mexicanus (Prairie Falcon)2
Ictidomys tridecemlineatus (thirteen-lined ground squirrel)1
Lampropeltis calligaster (Prairie Kingsnake)2
Leopardus pardalis (Ocelot)1
Lynx rufus (Bobcat)2
Megascops asio (Eastern Screech-Owl)1
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)3
Pituophis catenifer (Gopher Snake)5
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)1
Puma concolor (Cougar)1
Puma yagouaroundi (Jaguarundi)1
Spilogale putorius (Eastern Spotted Skunk)1
Strix varia (Barred Owl)3
Taxidea taxus (American Badger)3
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)2
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)2
Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Gray Fox)3
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)4


Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)[3]
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[3]
Buteo regalis (Ferruginous Hawk)[3]
Buteo swainsoni (Swainson's Hawk)[3]
Canis latrans (Coyote)[3]

Range Map

SW Canada, USA (Washington, Oregon, Montana, Wyoming, California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, SW North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Texas, Minnesota, Iowa, Arkansas, Louisiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virgini;



Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Dipodomys deserti, Troy L. Best, Nancy J. Hildreth, and Clyde Jones, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 339, pp. 1-8 (1989) 3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 4Resources of a Snake Community in Prairie-Woodland Habitat of Northeastern Kansas, Henry S. Fitch, U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Wildlife Research Report 13: 83-98 (1982) 5Sciurus niger, John L. Koprowski, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 479, pp. 1-9 (1994) 6Tamias merriami, Troy L. Best and Nancy J. Granai, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 476, pp. 1-9 (1994) 7Spermophilus townsendii, Eric A. Rickart, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 268, pp. 1-6 (1987) 8Spermophilus tereticaudus, Kristina A. Ernest and Michael A. Mares, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 274, pp. 1-9 (1987)
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access