Animalia > Chordata > Reptilia > Testudines > Emydidae > Terrapene > Terrapene carolina
 

Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle; Eastern box turtle)

Synonyms: Cistudo carolina; Emys tritentaculata; Testudo carolina; Testudo caroliniana; Testudo irregulata

Wikipedia Abstract

The common box turtle (Terrapene carolina) is a species of box turtle with six existing subspecies. It is found throughout the eastern United States and Mexico. The box turtle has a distinctive hinged lowered shell (the box) that allows it to completely enclose itself. Its upper jaw is long and curved. The turtle is primarily terrestrial and eats a wide variety of plants and animals. The females lay their eggs in the summer. Turtles in the northern part of their range hibernate over the winter.
View Wikipedia Record: Terrapene carolina

Infraspecies

Terrapene carolina bauri (Florida box turtle)
Terrapene carolina carolina (Eastern box turtle)
Terrapene carolina major (Gulf Coast box turtle)
Terrapene carolina mexicana (Mexican box turtle)
Terrapene carolina triunguis (Three-toed box turtle)
Terrapene carolina yucatana (Yucatan box turtle)

Attributes

Female Maturity [2]  6 years
Male Maturity [2]  6 years
Diet [1]  Omnivore
Hibernates [1]  Yes
Maximum Longevity [2]  138 years

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands  
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve 90 Michigan, United States
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area V 7622 Georgia, United States
El Parque Estatal Lagunas de Yalahau Wetland Reserve   Yucatan, Mexico  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Fort Matanzas National Monument III 269 Florida, United States
George WA Carver National Monument V 210 Missouri, United States
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Guilford Courthouse National Military Park V 216 North Carolina, United States
Gulf Island National Seashore II 67487 Florida, Mississippi, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Jean Lafitte National Hist. Park & Preserve National Historical Park II 17686 Louisiana, United States
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Little River National Wildlife Refuge   Oklahoma, United States
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Moores Creek National Battlefield III 100 North Carolina, United States
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Ocmulgee National Monument V 693 Georgia, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Rock Creek Park   District of Columbia, United States
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States        
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Stones River National Battlefield III 518 Tennessee, United States
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Prey / Diet

Armillaria mellea (Honey Fungus)[3]
Colias philodice (clouded sulphur)[3]
Fragaria virginiana (Virginia Strawberry)[3]
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)[3]
Hemaris thysbe (common clear-wing)[3]
Ilex opaca (American holly)[3]
Lycoperdon pyriforme (Stump Puffball)[3]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[3]
Melanoplus differentialis (Differential Grasshopper)[3]
Misumena vatia (flower spider)[3]
Mutinus elegans (Elegant stinkhorn)[3]
Omphalotus olearius (Jack olantern)[3]
Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster Mushroom)[3]
Pterostichus melanarius (Common black ground beetle)[3]
Rabidosa rabida (Rabid wolf spider)[3]
Trametes versicolor (Turkeytail)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)5
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)2
Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander)2
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)1
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)6
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)1
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)3
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)8
Carduelis tristis (American Goldfinch)2
Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)2
Colias philodice (clouded sulphur)1
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)3
Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer)1
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)2
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)6
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)7
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)3
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)1
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)3
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)3
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)1
Incisalia henrici (Henry's Elfin)1
Larus delawarensis (Ring-billed Gull)2
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)1
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)6
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)4
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)9
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)4
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)1
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)5
Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)4
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)5
Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt)1
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)4
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)4
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)2
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)1
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)5
Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)2
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)4
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)3
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)4
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)1
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)3
Scalopus aquaticus (Eastern Mole)1
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)10
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)4
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)4
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)4
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)2
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)4
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)3
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)3
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)7
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)2
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)3
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)1

Predators

Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)[3]
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)[3]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[3]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[3]

Providers

Shelter 
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (American ivy)[3]
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)[3]
Pteridium aquilinum (northern bracken fern)[3]
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)[3]
Trifolium pratense (Red Clover)[3]
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)[3]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Atractis carolinae <Unverified Name>[4]
Brachycoelium salamandrae[4]
Cardianema cistudinis <Unverified Name>[4]
Cosmocercoides dukae <Unverified Name>[4]
Cruzia testudines <Unverified Name>[4]
Gnathostoma procyonis <Unverified Name>[4]
Macracanthorhynchus ingens[4]
Neopolystoma terrapensis <Unverified Name>[4]
Oochoristica whitentoni <Unverified Name>[4]
Oswaldocruzia leidyi <Unverified Name>[4]
Oswaldocruzia pipiens <Unverified Name>[4]
Physaloptera terrapenis <Unverified Name>[4]
Polystomoidella oblongum <Unverified Name>[4]
Polystomoidella whartoni <Unverified Name>[4]
Polystomoides coronatum <Unverified Name>[4]
Serpinema microcephalus <Unverified Name>[4]
Spironoura affinis <Unverified Name>[4]
Spironoura chelydrae <Unverified Name>[4]
Spironoura cryptobranchi <Unverified Name>[4]
Spironoura longispiculata <Unverified Name>[4]
Spiroxys constricta <Unverified Name>[4]
Spiroxys hectographi <Unverified Name>[4]
Telorchis corti <Unverified Name>[4]
Telorchis robustus <Unverified Name>[4]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Abilene Zoological Gardenstriunguis
Akron Zoological Parkcarolina
 major
 triunguis
Amazon World
America's Teaching Zoo
Aquarium & Rainforest at Moody Gardens
Aquarium du Quebec
Artis Zootriunguis
Audubon Zoomajor
Bergen County Zoological Parkcarolina
 triunguis
Binder Park Zoocarolina
Birmingham Zoo
Blank Park Zoo of Des Moinescarolina
Boonshoft Museum of Discoverycarolina
Bramble Park Zootriunguis
Brandywine Zoocarolina
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoo
 carolina
Brevard Zoobauri
 carolina
 major
Bristol Zoo Gardens
Bronx Children's Zoocarolina
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Societycarolina
Brookgreen Gardens
Buttonwood Park Zoocarolina
Caldwell Zootriunguis
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Parktriunguis
Cape May County Park Zoo
 carolina
 triunguis
Central Florida Zoological Parkbauri
Central Park Zoocarolina
Chahinkapa Zoo
Chattanooga Zoo at Warner Park
Chehaw Wild Animal Park
 carolina
Chessington World of Adventures, Ltd.
Chicago Zoological Parkcarolina
 triunguis
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Gardenbauri
 carolina
 major
 triunguis
Cleveland Metroparks Zoocarolina
Clyde Peeling's Reptiland
Colchester Zoo
Columbus Zoo and Aquariumcarolina
Connecticut's Beardsley Zoo
 carolina
 triunguis
Cosley Zootriunguis
Curraghs Wildlife Parktriunguis
Dakota Zoocarolina
 triunguis
Dallas Zoo
 triunguis
David Traylor Zoo of Emporiatriunguis
Denver Zoological Gardenscarolina
 triunguis
Detroit Zoological Societycarolina
Dickerson Park Zootriunguis
Disney's Animal Kingdomcarolina
Drayton Manor Park Zoo
Dudley Zoological Gardensbauri
ECHO Lake Aquarium & Science Center
Ellen Trout Zootriunguis
Erie Zoological Gardenscarolina
 triunguis
Espace Zoolog de St-Martin-la-Plaine
Florida Aquarium
 bauri
Fort Wayne Children's Zoocarolina
Gladys Porter Zoomexicana
Granby Zoo / Zoo de Granbycarolina
Great Plains Zoo
Greenville Zoo
Guadalajara Zoo
Happy Hollow Zoocarolina
 triunguis
Hattiesburg Zoo
Henson Robinson Zoocarolina
Houston Zoo, Inc.triunguis
Hutchinson Zootriunguis
Indianapolis Zoocarolina
Jackson Zoological Parkcarolina
 triunguis
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens
 bauri
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
Jesperhus Blomsterpark
John Ball Zoological Gardencarolina
Kaliningrad Zoo
Knoxville Zoological Gardensbauri
 carolina
 triunguis
Lake Superior Zoological Gardenscarolina
 triunguis
Lehigh Valley Zoocarolina
 triunguis
Lincoln Childrens Zoo (former Folsom)bauri
 triunguis
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardenscarolina
 triunguis
Lion Country Safari Inc - Floridabauri
 carolina
Louisville Zoological Gardencarolina
Magnetic Hill Zootriunguis
Maryland Zoo in Baltimorecarolina
Melbourne Zoo
 major
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquarium
 carolina
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodz
Mill Mountain Zoo
Miller Park Zootriunguis
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardensbauri
Minnesota Zoological Gardencarolina
Moonridge Animal Park
Musee d'Histoire Naturelle de Tournaimajor
Museum of Science - Live Animal Centercarolina
Nashville Zoo at Grassmerecarolina
Nat'l Mississippi River Museum & Aquar
 carolina
 triunguis
National Aviary in Pittsburghcarolina
National Zoo & Aquarium
Natural Science Center of Greensboro
NEW Zootriunguis
Newark Museum Associationcarolina
Newport Aquariumcarolina
Niabi Zoocarolina
 triunguis
Nogeyama Zoological Gardens Yokohamacarolina
 major
North Carolina Zoological Park
NY State Zoo at Thompson Parkcarolina
 triunguis
Oakland Zoocarolina
 triunguis
Oatland Island Wildlife Centercarolina
Oklahoma City Zoological Parktriunguis
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoocarolina
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.carolina
Paignton Zoo Environmental Parktriunguis
Palm Beach Zoo at Dreher Park
 bauri
 triunguis
Pana'ewa Rainforest Zoo & Gardens
Parc Zoologique de la Barbencarolina
Peoria Zoo in Glen Oak Parkcarolina
Perth Zoological Gardenstriunguis
Phoenix Zootriunguis
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquariumcarolina
 major
Pocatello Zoocarolina
Point Defiance Zoo & Aquariumcarolina
Potter Park Zoological Gardenscarolina
Prospect Park Zoobauri
 carolina
Reaseheath College Animal Centre
Red River Zootriunguis
Riverbanks Zoo and Gardencarolina
Riverview Park & Zoo
Roger Williams Park Zoocarolina
Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Parkcarolina
Sacramento Zootriunguis
Saint Louis Zoological Park
 major
 triunguis
Salisbury Zoological Park
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquarcarolina
San Francisco Zoological Gardensbauri
 carolina
 triunguis
Santa Fe CollegeTeaching Zoo
 bauri
Scovill Zoocarolina
 triunguis
Sedgwick County Zoocarolina
 triunguis
Silver Springs Parkbauri
Smithsonian National Zoological Park
South Carolina Aquarium
St. Augustine Alligator Farm
Staten Island Zoo
 triunguis
Steinhart Aquarium (CA Acad of Sciencecarolina
 triunguis
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoobauri
 carolina
 major
 triunguis
Tennessee Aquariumcarolina
 major
Texas Zootriunguis
The Philadelphia Zoocarolina
Toledo Zoological Gardenscarolina
Toronto Zoocarolina
Trevor Zoo at Millbrook Schoolcarolina
 triunguis
Tropiquaria Wildlife Parktriunguis
Trotter's World of Animalscarolina
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museumcarolina
 triunguis
Turtle Back Zoo
Ueno Zoological Gardens
 carolina
 triunguis
Utica Zoocarolina
 triunguis
Valley Zoo & John Janzen Nature Centercarolina
 major
 triunguis
Virginia Aquarium&Marine Science Ctr
 carolina
Virginia Living Museumcarolina
Virginia Zoological Parkcarolina
Washington Park Zoological Gardenscarolina
Welsh Mountain Zoo
 triunguis
West Edmonton Mall Marine Life Centertriunguis
Western North Carolina Nature Centercarolina
Wildlife World Zoo
 carolina
 triunguis
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
Zoo Atlantacarolina
 mexicana
Zoo de Pont-Scorff
Zoo Dvur Kralove, a.s.triunguis
Zoo New England, Franklin Park Zoocarolina
Zoo New England, Stone Zoocarolina
Zoo of Acadianamajor
 triunguis
Zoo of Antwerp
Zoo Parc de Beauval
ZooAmerica (No. American Wildlife Pk.)carolina
Zoologischer Garten Leipzigmajor
ZooMontana

Distribution

USA (S Maine ?, S New Hampshire ?, SE New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Missouri, Arkansas, S Ill;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Uetz P., , TIGR Reptile Database in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 4Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011