Animalia > Arthropoda > Malacostraca > Euphausiacea > Euphausiidae > Euphausia > Euphausia superba
 

Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill; Krill)

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Wikipedia Abstract

Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, is a species of krill found in the Antarctic waters of the Southern Ocean. It is a small, swimming crustacean that lives in large schools, called swarms, sometimes reaching densities of 10,000–30,000 individual animals per cubic metre. It feeds directly on minute phytoplankton, thereby using the primary production energy that the phytoplankton originally derived from the sun in order to sustain their pelagic life cycle.
View Wikipedia Record: Euphausia superba

Attributes

Speed [1]  3.36 MPH (1.5 m/s)

Ecosystems

Prey / Diet

Corethron criophilum[2]
Distephanus speculum[2]
Fragilariopsis cylindrus[2]
Fragilariopsis kerguelensis[2]
Fragilariopsis pseudonana[2]
Fragilariopsis rhombica[2]
Phaeocystis antarctica (polar algae)[3]
Proboscia alata[2]
Rhizosolenia setigera[2]
Thalassiosira antarctica[2]
Thalassiosira gracilis[2]

Predators

Aphrodroma brevirostris (Kerguelen Petrel)[4]
Aptenodytes forsteri (Emperor Penguin)[3]
Arctocephalus gazella (Antarctic Fur Seal)[5]
Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Antarctic Minke Whale)[6]
Bathydraco marri (Deepwater dragon)[7]
Callianira antarctica[8]
Chaenocephalus aceratus (Scotian icefish)[9]
Champsocephalus esox (Pike icefish)[10]
Champsocephalus gunnari (Mackerel icefish)[9]
Cygnodraco mawsoni (Mawson's dragonfish)[11]
Daption capense (Cape Petrel)[12]
Dissostichus eleginoides (Patagonsky klykach)[3]
Dissostichus mawsoni (Antarctic blenny)[3]
Electrona carlsbergi (Electron subantarctic)[9]
Eudyptes chrysolophus (Macaroni Penguin)[9]
Fulmarus glacialoides (Southern Fulmar)[12]
Gobionotothen angustifrons (Narrowhead rockcod)[10]
Gobionotothen gibberifrons (Humped rockcod)[10]
Gymnodraco acuticeps (Ploughfish)[11]
Gymnoscopelus braueri (Lanternfish)[13]
Gymnoscopelus nicholsi (Nichol's lanternfish)[14]
Gymnoscopelus opisthopterus (Lanternfish)[14]
Halobaena caerulea (Blue Petrel)[12]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[9]
Lagenorhynchus cruciger (Hourglass Dolphin)[9]
Larus dominicanus (Kelp Gull)[12]
Lepidonotothen larseni (Painted notie)[10]
Lepidonotothen nudifrons (Yellowfin notie)[10]
Lepidonotothen squamifrons (Grey rockcod)[9]
Lobodon carcinophaga (Crabeater Seal)[3]
Macronectes giganteus (Southern Giant Petrel)[12]
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)[3]
Mirounga leonina (Southern Elephant Seal)[9]
Oceanites oceanicus (Wilson's Storm-Petrel)[12]
Onykia ingens (warty squid)[3]
Pachyptila desolata (Antarctic Prion)[12]
Pachyptila turtur (Fairy Prion)[15]
Pagodroma nivea (Snow Petrel)[12]
Parachaenichthys georgianus (Antarctic dragonfish)[10]
Phoebetria palpebrata (Light-mantled Albatross)[12]
Procellaria aequinoctialis (White-chinned Petrel)[4]
Pseudochaenichthys georgianus (South Georgia icefish)[10]
Pygoscelis adeliae (Adelie Penguin)[3]
Pygoscelis antarcticus (Chinstrap Penguin)[12]
Pygoscelis papua (Gentoo Penguin)[12]
Stercorarius maccormicki (South Polar Skua)[12]
Sterna vittata (Antarctic Tern)[12]
Thalassarche chrysostoma (Grey-headed Albatross)[16]
Thalassarche melanophris (Black-browed Albatross)[12]
Thalassoica antarctica (Antarctic Petrel)[3]
Trematomus hansoni (Striped rockcod)[10]
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)[9]
Vomeridens infuscipinnis (Antarctic dragonfish)[17]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Diphyllobothrium procercoid <Unverified Name>[18]

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Brinton E., Ohman M.D., Townsend A.W., Knight M.D. & Bridgeman A.L., 2002-11-22, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1"Pelagic Fishes and Their Macroplankton Prey: Swimming Speeds", Sergey M. Ignatyev, Proceedings • Forage Fishes in Marine Ecosystems, Alaska Sea Grant College Program, AK-SG-97-01, 1997, p. 31-39 2WINTER GUT CONTENTS OF ANTARCTIC KRILL (EUPHAUSIA SUPERBA DANA) COLLECTED IN THE SOUTH GEORGIA AREA, Yasuto NISHINO and Akito KAWAMURA, Proc. NIPR Symp. Polar Biol., 7, 82-90, 1994 3Who's Eating Who 4THE DIETS AND DIETARY SEGREGATION OF SEABIRDS AT THE SUBANTARCTIC CROZET ISLANDS, VINCENT RIDOUX, MARINE ORNITHOLOGY Vol. 22 No. 1 1994 5Geographical variation in the diet of the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella, R. Casaux, A. Baroni, F. Arrighetti, A. Ramón, A. Carlini, Polar Biol (2003) 26: 753–758 6Feeding Habits and Prey Consumption of Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) in the Southern Ocean, Tsutomu Tamura and Kenji Konishi, J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 42: 13–25 7Feeding habits of Bathydraco marri (Pisces, Notothenioidei, Bathydraconidae) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica, Mario La Mesa, Joseph T. Eastman, Priscilla Licandro, Polar Biol (2007) 30:541–547 8Feeding ecology and metabolism of the Antarctic cydippid ctenophore Callianira antarctica, Kerri M. Scolardi, Kendra L. Daly, Evgeny A. Pakhomov, Joseph J. Torres, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 317: 111–126, 2006 9Towards the trophic structure of the Bouvet Island marine ecosystem, U. Jacob, T. Brey, I. Fetzer, S. Kaehler, K. Mintenbeck, K. Dunton, K. Beyer, U. Struck , E.A. Pakhomov and W.E. Arntz, Polar Biology, 29 (2). pp. 106-113 (2006) 10Trophic Ecology and Structure of Coastal Antarctic Fish Communities, Timothy E. Targett, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 4: 243-263, 1981 11Diet of two Antarctic dragonfish (Pisces: Bathydraconidae) from the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, EVGENY A. PAKHOMOV, Antarctic Science 10 (1): 55-61 (1998) 12DENSITIES OF ANTARCTIC SEABIRDS AT SEA AND THE PRESENCE OF THE KRILL EUPHAUSIA SUPERBA, BRYAN S. OBST, The Auk 102: 540-549. July 1985 13Feeding ecology of myctophid fishes in the northern Scotia Sea, R. S. Shreeve, M. A. Collins, G. A. Tarling, C. E. Main, P. Ward, N. M. Johnston, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 386: 221–236, 2009 14Prey composition and daily rations of myctophid fishes in the Southern Ocean, E. A. Pakhomov, R. Perissinotto, C. D. McQuaid, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 134: 1-14, 1996 15Food and feeding ecology of the sympatric thin-billed Pachyptila belcheri and Antarctic P. desolata prions at Iles Kerguelen, Southern Indian Ocean, Yves Cherel, Pierrick Bocher, Claude De Broyer, Keith A. Hobson, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 228: 263–281, 2002 16Exploitation of mesoscale oceanographic features by grey-headed albatross Thalassarche chrysostoma in the southern Indian Ocean, D. C. Nel, J. R. E. Lutjeharms, E. A. Pakhomov, I. J. Ansorge, P. G. Ryan, N. T. W. Klages, MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES, Vol. 217: 15–26, 2001 17Biology of the Antarctic dragonfish Vomeridens infuscipinnis (Notothenioidei: Bathydraconidae), KRISTEN L. KUHN, THOMAS J. NEAR, H. WILLIAM DETRICH III and JOSEPH T. EASTMAN, Antarctic Science 23(1), 18–26 (2011) 18Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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