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Pyrus communis (common pear)

Wikipedia Abstract

Pyrus communis, known as the European pear or common pear, is a species of pear native to central and eastern Europe and southwest Asia.It is one of the most important fruits of temperate regions, being the species from which most orchard pear cultivars grown in Europe, North America, and Australia have been developed. Two other species of pears, the Nashi pear, Pyrus pyrifolia, and the Chinese white pear bai li, Pyrus × bretschneideri, are more widely grown in eastern Asia.
View Wikipedia Record: Pyrus communis

Infraspecies

Pyrus communis subsp. caucasica (European Pear) (Attributes)
Pyrus communis subsp. communis (Common pear) (Endangered) (Attributes)
Pyrus communis subsp. pyraster (Attributes)

Attributes

Height [2]  43 feet (13 m)
Width [1]  27 feet (8.1 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Shade Percentage [1]  80 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 5 Low Temperature: -20 F° (-28.9 C°) → -10 F° (-23.3 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Light Preference [4]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [4]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [4]  Rich
Soil Moisture [4]  Moist
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Hermaphrodite
Janka Hardness [3]  1660 lbf (753 kgf) Medium
Leaf Type [2]  Deciduous
Pollinators [2]  Insects, Lepidoptera
Specific Gravity [5]  0.632
Structure [2]  Tree
Usage [2]  A yellow-tan dye is obtained from the leaves; Trees are sometimes used as part of a shelterbelt planting; Wood - heavy, tough, durable, fine grained, hard. It weighs 51lb per cubic foot; Used by cabinet and instrument makers; When covered with black varnish it is an excellent ebony substitute;
View Plants For A Future Record : Pyrus communis

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 8248 Georgia, Tennessee, United States
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fort Larned National Historic Site III 706 Kansas, United States
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Galichia Gora Zapovednik Ia 568 Lipetsk, Russia
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Hobcaw Barony (North Inlet) National Estuarine Research Reserve 7585 South Carolina, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Moores Creek National Battlefield III 100 North Carolina, United States
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Oconee National Forest Botanical Reserve 306 Georgia, United States  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Parco Del Somma-Vesuvio e Miglio D'Oro National Park II 33648 Italy
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Shiloh National Military Park III 4061 Tennessee, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Ukrainskii Stepnoi Zapovednik Nature Zapovednik Ia 2920 Ukraine  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Predators

Acleris cristana (Rufous-margined Button Moth)[6]
Acleris minuta[7]
Acleris rhombana (Rhomboid Tortrix)[6]
Acleris variegana (Garden rose tortricid moth)[7]
Acrobasis indigenella[7]
Acronicta interrupta (Interrupted Dagger Moth)[7]
Acronicta psi (Grey Dagger Moth)[7]
Acronicta tridens (Dark Dagger)[6]
Actias artemis[7]
Aculus schlechtendali[6]
Aglia tau (Tau Emperor)[7]
Agrilus sinuatus[6]
Amphitetranychus viennensis[6]
Anacamptodes humaria[7]
Anastrepha distincta[8]
Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly)[8]
Anastrepha ludens (Mexican fruit fly)[8]
Anastrepha obliqua (west indian fruit fly)[8]
Anastrepha ornata[8]
Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly)[8]
Ancylis tineana[6]
Anthonomus pedicularius[6]
Anthonomus piri <Unverified Name>[6]
Anthonomus pomorum (apple blossom weevil)[6]
Anuraphis farfarae[6]
Anuraphis subterranea[6]
Aonidiella aurantii (California red scale)[9]
Aphis pomi (Apple aphid)[6]
Aporia crataegi (Black-veined White Butterfly)[7]
Archips pruneticola[7]
Arctia caja (garden tiger moth)[6]
Argyresthia albistria[7]
Argyresthia mendica[7]
Aspidiotus nerii (ivy scale)[10]
Astetholida lucida[11]
Aulacaspis rosae (rosa scale)[10]
Automeris complicata[7]
Balsa malana[7]
Bohemannia pulverosella[6]
Bonagota cranaodes[7]
Bryobia graminium <Unverified Name>[6]
Bryobia rubrioculus[6]
Bucculatrix bechsteinella <Unverified Name>[6]
Bucculatrix crataegi[7]
Byctiscus betulae (Hazel Leaf Roller)[6]
Byturus tomentosus <Unverified Name>[6]
Cacopsylla pyri[6]
Cacopsylla pyricola[6]
Cacopsylla pyrisuga[6]
Caligula japonica (Japanese Giant Silkworm)[7]
Caligula simla[7]
Caliroa cerasi (pearslug)[6]
Callisto denticulella[6]
Cenopalpus pulcher[6]
Ceroplastes grandis[9]
Ceroplastes japonicus (fig wax scale)[9]
Ceroplastes rubens (pink wax scale)[9]
Ceroplastes rusci (barnacle wax scale)[9]
Ceroplastes sinensis (hard wax scale)[9]
Cheromettia apicata[7]
Chionaspis furfura (Harris's bark-louse)[9]
Chlidaspis asiatica (Asiatic plum scale)[9]
Chloroclystis rectangulata (Green Pug)[7]
Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (dictyospermum scale)[10]
Cilix glaucata[6]
Clavaspis covilleae (covillea scale)[9]
Cleorodes lichenaria (Brussels Lace)[6]
Coleophora anatipennella[6]
Coleophora cerasivorella[7]
Coleophora hemerobiella[6]
Coleophora multipulvella[7]
Coleophora spinella <Unverified Name>[6]
Coleophora violacea <Unverified Name>[6]
Colotois pennaria (Feathered Thorn)[7]
Contarinia pyrivora (pear midge)[6]
Coryphodema tristis[7]
Cosmia trapezina (Dun-bar)[7]
Creontiades dilutus[10]
Cricula andrei (Moth)[7]
Crisicoccus matsumotoi[9]
Croesia holmiana <Unverified Name>[6]
Cydia molesta <Unverified Name>[6]
Cydia pomonella (Codling moth)[6]
Dasineura pyri[6]
Dasychira meridionalis[7]
Diaspidiotus africanus (grey scale)[9]
Diaspidiotus ancylus (Howard scale)[9]
Diaspidiotus lenticularis[9]
Diaspidiotus marani[9]
Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis (European fruit scale)[9]
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (California scale)[9]
Diaspidiotus prunorum[9]
Diaspidiotus pyri[9]
Dichodiplosis langeni[6]
Diloba caeruleocephala[6]
Ditula angustiorana (Red-barred Tortrix)[6]
Drosicha contrahens[9]
Dynaspidiotus britanicus <Unverified Name>[6]
Dysaphis pyri[6]
Dysmicoccus prochilus[9]
Dysmicoccus umbambae <Unverified Name>[9]
Dysmicoccus wistariae (taxus mealybug)[9]
Epidiaspis leperii (European pear scale)[9]
Epitrimerus pyri[6]
Eriophyes pyri <Unverified Name>[11]
Eriosoma lanuginosum[6]
Eriosoma pyricola (Pear root aphid)[10]
Esperia oliviella <Unverified Name>[6]
Eulecanium nocivum[9]
Eulithis diversilineata (grapevine looper)[7]
Eumarozia malachitana[7]
Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Brown-tail)[6]
Euproctis similis[6]
Eupsilia transversa (Satellite)[7]
Eutrapela clemataria[7]
Euxoa scandens (white cutworm)[7]
Gastropacha quercifolia (Lappet)[6]
Grapholita molesta[10]
Hedya dimidioalba[6]
Hedya pruniana[6]
Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)[9]
Hemiberlesia palmae (tropical palm scale)[6]
Hemiberlesia rapax (greedy scale)[9]
Homohadena badistriga[7]
Hoplocampa brevis <Unverified Name>[6]
Hoplocampa testudinea (European apple sawfly)[6]
Icerya aegyptiaca[9]
Icerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale)[9]
Iphiclides podalirius (Scarce Swallowtail)[6]
Kilifia acuminata (acuminate scale)[9]
Labedera proxima[7]
Lacanobia thalassina (Pale-shouldered Brocade)[6]
Laspeyria flexula (Beautiful Hook-tip)[6]
Lepidosaphes beckii (citrus mussel scale)[9]
Lepidosaphes conchiformis (fig oystershell scale)[9]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[9]
Leucanella memusae[7]
Leucoptera scitella[7]
Limenitis archippus (viceroy)[10]
Limenitis arthemis (white admiral)[10]
Lithophane unimoda[7]
Lonomia achelous (Stinging caterpillar)[7]
Lycia hirtaria (Brindled Beauty Moth)[6]
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)[6]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[6]
Lyonetia prunifoliella[7]
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)[9]
Malacosoma californica[7]
Malacosoma neustria (Lackey moth)[6]
Mambarilla narosides[7]
Megalopyge lanata[7]
Megalopyge urens[7]
Melanaphis pyraria[6]
Melanaspis inopinata[9]
Mercetaspis halli (hall scale)[9]
Miresa clarissa[7]
Moodna ostrinella[7]
Morganella conspicua[9]
Mucor piriformis (Mucor rot)[10]
Mycosphaerella pyri[10]
Naenia typica (Gothic)[6]
Nematocampa limbata (filiment bearer)[7]
Neopinnaspis harperi (Harper scale)[9]
Neoris haraldi[7]
Neurotoma saltuum <Unverified Name>[6]
Nipaecoccus viridis (karoo thorn mealybug)[9]
Niphadolepis alianta[7]
Nola cucullatella (Short-cloaked Moth)[6]
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)[10]
Nymphalis polychloros (Large Tortoiseshell Butterfly)[7]
Oemona hirta[11]
Operophtera bruceata (bruce spanworm)[7]
Operophtera brumata (winter moth)[6]
Orsodacne cerasi <Unverified Name>[6]
Palaeolecanium bituberculatum (bituberculate scale)[6]
Pammene rhediella[6]
Panonychus ulmi (European red mite)[6]
Parlatoreopsis longispina (Asiatic pomegranate scale)[9]
Parlatoria desolator[9]
Parlatoria oleae (olive parlatoria scale)[9]
Parlatoria pittospori (mauve pittosporum scale)[9]
Parlatoria proteus (common parlatoria scale)[9]
Parornix anguliferella[7]
Parornix finitimella[7]
Parornix geminatella[7]
Parornix torquillella[7]
Parthenolecanium glandi[9]
Pasiphila rectangulata <Unverified Name>[6]
Pentatoma rufipes <Unverified Name>[6]
Perisomena caecigena (Autumn Emperor Moth)[7]
Phenacoccus graminicola (ryegrass mealybug)[9]
Phlogophora meticulosa (Angle Shades Moth)[6]
Phobetron hipparchia[7]
Phomopsis velata[10]
Phycita roborella[6]
Phyllobius oblongus[6]
Phyllobius pyri (Common Leaf Weevil)[6]
Phyllonorycter blancardella[7]
Phyllonorycter corylifoliella[7]
Phyllonorycter cydoniella[7]
Phyllonorycter malella[7]
Phyllonorycter mespilella[7]
Phyllonorycter oxyacanthae[7]
Physatocheila dumetorum[6]
Physatocheila smreczynskii <Unverified Name>[6]
Phytoptus pyri <Unverified Name>[6]
Plemyria rubiginata (Blue-bordered Carpet)[6]
Pogonocherus hispidulus[6]
Pogonocherus hispidus[6]
Pristiphora abbreviata (california pear sawfly)[6]
Proeulia auraria[7]
Proeulia chrysopteris[7]
Protorthodes rufula[7]
Pseudococcus calceolariae (citrophilus mealybug)[9]
Pseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug)[9]
Pseudococcus longispinus (long tailed mealybug)[11]
Pseudococcus maritimus (grape mealybug)[9]
Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine Parakeet)[12]
Psorosina hammondi[7]
Pulvinaria psidii (green shield scale)[6]
Pulvinaria vitis (cottony vine scale)[9]
Pyrochroa serraticornis <Unverified Name>[6]
Pyrrhura frontalis (Reddish-bellied Parakeet)[13]
Ramphus oxyacanthae <Unverified Name>[6]
Recurvaria nanella[7]
Resseliella oculiperda[6]
Rhodococcus turanicus[9]
Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae (apple grain aphid)[6]
Rhynchites aequatus[6]
Rhynchites auratus[6]
Rhynchites bacchus[6]
Rhynchites pauxillus[6]
Rhynchites sericeus <Unverified Name>[6]
Rhynchites tomentosus[6]
Ribautiana debilis[6]
Salicicola archangelskyae (Archangelskaya scale)[9]
Saperda scalaris[6]
Saturnia pyri (Great peacock moth)[7]
Schizoneura pyricola <Unverified Name>[6]
Scolytus rugulosus (shothole borer)[6]
Sesia bembeciformis (Lunar Hornet Moth)[6]
Sibine trimacula[7]
Siphoninus phillyreae (Ash Whitefly)[6]
Smerinthus cerisyi (Cerisy's sphinx moth)[7]
Smerinthus ocellata[7]
Sphaerolecanium prunastri (globose scale)[9]
Sphinx gordius (apple sphinx)[7]
Sphrageidus similis (Goldtail Moth)[6]
Spilonota prognathana[7]
Spodoptera praefica (yellowstripe armyworm)[7]
Spulerina astaurota[7]
Stigmella desperatella[7]
Stigmella minusculella[7]
Stigmella oxyacanthella[6]
Stigmella pyri[7]
Swammerdamia pyrella[7]
Synanthedon myopaeformis <Unverified Name>[6]
Synanthedon myopiformis[7]
Thiallela ligeralis[7]
Thrips obscuratus <Unverified Name>[11]
Tolype velleda[7]
Torymus druparum[6]
Trichosea champa[7]
Xyleborus dispar[10]
Yponomeuta padella (Common Hawthorn Ermel Moth)[7]
Zeuzera pyrina (leopard moth)[7]

Providers

Parasite of 
Gymnosporangium sabinae[10]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Agrilus sinuatus[10]
Agrilus vittaticollis[10]
Coslenchus costatus[14]
Filenchus polyhypnus <Unverified Name>[14]
Gymnosporangium asiaticum[10]
Gymnosporangium clavariiforme[10]
Macroposthonia xenoplax <Unverified Name>[14]
Mesocriconema xenoplax[10]
Polycesta californica[10]

Distribution

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database. 2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License 3Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts 4ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999) 5Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository. 6Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants 7HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández 8Norrbom, A.L. 2004. Fruit fly (Tephritidae) host plant database. Version Nov, 2004. 9Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009 10Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 11New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database 12CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE DIET OF IRANIAN BIRDS, Abolghasem Khaleghizadeh, Mohammad E. Sehhatisabet, Екологія, Беркут 15, Вип. 1-2. 2006. pp. 145-150 13DIET AND FEEDING BEHAVIOR OF THE REDDISH-BELLIED PARAKEET (PYRRHURA FRONTALIS) IN AN ARAUCARIA FOREST IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL, Giane C. Kristosch & Luiz O. Marcondes-Machado, ORNITOLOGIA NEOTROPICAL 12: 215–223, 2001 14Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
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