Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Rosales > Rosaceae > Sorbus > Sorbus aucuparia

Sorbus aucuparia (Mountain Ash)

Wikipedia Abstract

Sorbus aucuparia, more commonly called rowan and mountain-ash (although the latter name may be used for several other unrelated trees), is a species of deciduous tree or shrub in the rose family. It is a highly variable species, and botanists have used different definitions of the species to include or exclude trees native to certain areas; a recent definition includes trees native to most of Europe and parts of Asia, as well as northern Africa.
View Wikipedia Record: Sorbus aucuparia


Sorbus aucuparia subsp. aucuparia (European mountain ash) (Attributes)
Sorbus aucuparia subsp. fenenkiana
Sorbus aucuparia subsp. glabrata (Attributes)
Sorbus aucuparia subsp. maderensis (Madeira Mountain Ash) (Critically Endangered) (Attributes)
Sorbus aucuparia subsp. pohuashanensis (Attributes)
Sorbus aucuparia subsp. praemorsa (Attributes)


Height [3]  49 feet (15 m)
Width [3]  23 feet (7 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Shade Percentage [1]  80 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Low
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 6 Low Temperature: -10 F° (-23.3 C°) → 0 F° (-17.8 C°)
Light Preference [5]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [5]  Mostly Acid
Soil Fertility [5]  Mostly Infertile
Soil Moisture [5]  Moist
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Flower Color [2]  White
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Orange
Fall Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Flower Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Late Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  None
Flower Type [3]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [2]  3 months 20 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Hazards [3]  Large quantities of the raw fruit can cause vomiting, especially if people are not used to the fruit. Seeds probably contain hydrogen cyanide. this is the ingredient that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. Unless the seed is very bitter it should be perfectly safe in reasonable quantities. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [4]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Insects, Lepidoptera
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  28 inches (71 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Medium
Seeds Per [2]  125000 / lb (275578 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [6]  0.629
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  An oil is obtained from the seed; A cosmetic face-mask is made from the fruits and is used to combat wrinkled skin; A black dye is obtained from the young branches; All parts of the plant contain tannin and can be used as a black dye; Trees are very wind resistant and can be used in shelterbelt plantings; Wood - hard, fine grained, compact and elastic. It is highly recommended by wood turners and is also used to make hoops for barrels, cogs and furniture;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Sorbus aucuparia

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Basegi Zapovednik Ia 93739 Perm, Russia
Beinn Eighe National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Ben Lawers 12423 Scotland, United Kingdom
Ben Nevis 23023 Scotland, United Kingdom
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Bolshekhekhtsirsky Zapovednik Ia 112282 Khabarovsk, Russia
Buchholz bei Bleiwäsche 786 Germany  
Burnham Beeches 946 England, United Kingdom  
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cairnsmore of Fleet, Silver Flowe, and Merrick Kells Biosphere Reserve 8794 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Clyde Valley Woods 1074 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Craven Limestone Complex 13166 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Foinaven 36684 Scotland, United Kingdom
Foresta di Legnoli 820 Italy  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Galichia Gora Zapovednik Ia 568 Lipetsk, Russia
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Harbottle Moors 2314 England, United Kingdom  
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Ingleborough Complex 14256 England, United Kingdom
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kedrovaya Pad Zapovednik Ia 44224 Primorsky Krai , Russia
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Killarney National Park II 25482 Ireland
Krayner Teiche/Lutzketal 1542 Germany  
Magadansky Zapovednik 2332834 Russia  
Migneint–Arenig–Dduallt 49343 Wales, United Kingdom
Moorfoot Hills 21001 Scotland, United Kingdom
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Red Moss of Netherley 229 Scotland, United Kingdom
River Spey 14158 Scotland, United Kingdom
Rum 26775 Scotland, United Kingdom
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Sitka National Historical Park   Alaska, United States
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Ussuriysky Zapovednik Ia 99910 Primorsky Krai , Russia
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States
Wormley Hoddesdonpark Woods 829 England, United Kingdom
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  



Acasis viretata[7]
Acronicta alni (Alder Moth)[7]
Acronicta auricoma (Scarce Dagger)[7]
Acronicta cuspis (Large Dagger)[7]
Acronicta pruni[7]
Acronicta psi (Grey Dagger Moth)[8]
Acronicta tridens (Dark Dagger)[7]
Aculus aucupariae <Unverified Name>[9]
Aglais io <Unverified Name>[8]
Aglia tau (Tau Emperor)[7]
Agrilus sinuatus[9]
Agrochola helvola (Flounced Chestnut)[7]
Alcis repandata (Mottled Beauty)[7]
Allophyes oxyacanthae <Unverified Name>[9]
Alnetoidia alneti[9]
Alsophila aescularia (March Moth)[8]
Amphipyra berbera (Svensson's Copper Underwing)[7]
Anomoia purmunda[9]
Anthonomus conspersus[9]
Aphis pomi (Apple aphid)[9]
Aporia crataegi (Black-veined White Butterfly)[7]
Archiearis parthenias (Orange Underwing)[7]
Arctia caja (garden tiger moth)[8]
Arge nigripes <Unverified Name>[9]
Argyresthia conjugella (Apple Fruit Moth)[7]
Argyresthia semifusca[7]
Argyresthia sorbiella[7]
Argyresthia spiniella[7]
Autographa macrogamma[7]
Autographa pulchrina (Beautiful Golden Y)[7]
Bison bonasus (European bison)[10]
Bombycilla garrulus (Bohemian Waxwing)[8]
Botryobasidium ellipsosporum[11]
Cabera pusaria (Common White Wave Moth)[7]
Cacopsylla albipes[9]
Cacopsylla sorbi[8]
Caliroa cerasi (pearslug)[9]
Callimorpha dominula <Unverified Name>[8]
Calliteara pudibunda (Pale Tussock)[7]
Capua vulgana[8]
Chionaspis furfura (Harris's bark-louse)[12]
Chionaspis salicis (black willow bark louse)[12]
Chloris chloris (European Greenfinch)[8]
Chloroclysta miata[7]
Chloroclysta siterata (Red-green Carpet)[7]
Choreutis pariana <Unverified Name>[9]
Cilix glaucata[9]
Cleora cinctaria (Ringed Carpet)[7]
Closterotomus biclavatus[8]
Closterotomus fulvomaculatus[8]
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Hawfinch)[11]
Coleophora anatipennella[9]
Coleophora cerasivorella[7]
Coleophora serratella (birch casebearer)[9]
Coleophora siccifolia[9]
Coleophora trigeminella[9]
Colocasia coryli (Nut-tree Tussock)[7]
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)[8]
Conistra vaccinii (Chestnut)[7]
Contarinia floriperda[9]
Contarinia sorbi[8]
Cosmia trapezina (Dun-bar)[7]
Cossus cossus (Goat Moth)[7]
Crocallis elinguaria (Scalloped Oak Moth)[7]
Croesus septentrionalis <Unverified Name>[9]
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)[8]
Cydia tenebrosana <Unverified Name>[9]
Cytospora microspora[11]
Daedaleopsis confragosa[11]
Daldinia concentrica (King Alfred's Cake)[11]
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (California scale)[12]
Diaspidiotus pyri[12]
Diaspidiotus zonatus[12]
Diloba caeruleocephala[7]
Dineura testaceipes <Unverified Name>[9]
Dysaphis aucupariae (Wild service aphid)[9]
Dysaphis sorbi[8]
Edwardsiana crataegi (Canary fly)[9]
Edwardsiana lanternae[9]
Edwardsiana rosae (Rose leafhopper)[9]
Electrophaes corylata (Broken-barred Carpet Moth)[7]
Ematurga atomaria (Common Heath Moth)[7]
Epidiaspis leperii (European pear scale)[12]
Eriogaster lanestris (Small Eggar)[7]
Eriophyes sorbeus <Unverified Name>[9]
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)[11]
Eulithis testata (chevron moth)[9]
Eupithecia exiguata (Mottled Pug)[7]
Eupithecia irriguata (Marbled Pug)[9]
Euproctis similis[7]
Eupsilia transversa (Satellite)[7]
Fagocyba cruenta[9]
Garrulus glandarius (Eurasian Jay)[11]
Gastropacha quercifolia (Lappet)[7]
Geometra papilionaria (Large Emerald)[7]
Gonioctena pallida <Unverified Name>[9]
Grapholita andabatana[7]
Gymnopilus junonius (Spectacular Rustgill)[11]
Gymnoscelis rufifasciata (Double-striped Pug)[9]
Hapalopilus nidulans (Cinnamon Bracket)[11]
Hedya dimidioalba[9]
Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae (New Zealand Pigeon)[11]
Hesperiphona vespertina (Evening Grosbeak)[11]
Hohenbuehelia atrocoerulea[11]
Hohenbuehelia fluxilis[11]
Hoplocampa alpina <Unverified Name>[9]
Hydrelia flammeolaria[9]
Incurvaria pectinea[8]
Iphiclides podalirius (Scarce Swallowtail)[7]
Jodis lactearia (Little Emerald)[7]
Kuehneromyces mutabilis (Sheathed Woodtuft)[11]
Lacanobia contigua (Beautiful Brocade)[7]
Lacanobia thalassina (Pale-shouldered Brocade)[7]
Lasiocampa quercus (Oak Eggar)[7]
Lentinus ciliatus (Fringed Polypore)[11]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[12]
Leucoptera malifoliella <Unverified Name>[9]
Leucoptera scitella[7]
Lithomoia solidaginis (goldenrod brindle)[7]
Lithophane hepatica[7]
Lochmaea crataegi <Unverified Name>[9]
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)[8]
Lygocoris viridis <Unverified Name>[9]
Lyonetia clerkella[8]
Magdalis barbicornis[9]
Magdalis cerasi[9]
Magdalis ruficornis (Plum Weevil)[9]
Megastigmus brevicaudis[9]
Meles meles (European Badger)[8]
Micropera sorbi[11]
Monilinia aucupariae[11]
Muscardinus avellanarius (hazel dormouse)[13]
Noctua fimbriata (Broad-bordered Yellow Underwing)[9]
Nola cucullatella (Short-cloaked Moth)[7]
Numonia advenella <Unverified Name>[9]
Odontopera bidentata (Scalloped Hazel)[7]
Oemona hirta[14]
Opisthograptis luteolata (Brimstone Moth)[7]
Orsodacne cerasi <Unverified Name>[9]
Oxyporus populinus[11]
Pamphilius sylvaticus <Unverified Name>[8]
Pandemis cinnamomeana[7]
Panonychus ulmi (European red mite)[9]
Paraswammerdamia lutarea <Unverified Name>[9]
Paraswammerdamia nebulella <Unverified Name>[8]
Parornix anguliferella[7]
Parornix scoticella[7]
Parus major (Great Tit)[11]
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)[8]
Peniophorella pallida[11]
Periparus ater (Coal Tit)[8]
Phalera bucephala (Buff-tip)[9]
Phanerochaete velutina[11]
Phenacoccus aceris (apple mealybug)[9]
Phoenicurus ochruros (Black Redstart)[11]
Pholiota squarrosa (Shaggy Scalycap)[11]
Phomopsis sorbicola[11]
Phyllobius argentatus[9]
Phyllobius pyri (Common Leaf Weevil)[9]
Phyllonorycter lantanella[9]
Phyllonorycter mespilella[7]
Phyllonorycter sorbi[7]
Phyllosticta sorbi[8]
Physatocheila smreczynskii <Unverified Name>[9]
Phytodecta pallida <Unverified Name>[9]
Phytoptus pyri <Unverified Name>[9]
Phytoptus sorbi <Unverified Name>[9]
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)[11]
Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak)[11]
Plagodis pulveraria (Barred Umber Moth)[7]
Pleurotus cornucopiae (Branching Oyster)[11]
Pleurotus dryinus[8]
Pleurotus pulmonarius (Pale Oyster)[11]
Podosesia syringae (Lilac borer)[7]
Poecile montanus (Willow Tit)[8]
Poecile palustris (Marsh Tit)[8]
Poecilocampa populi (December Moth)[7]
Pogonocherus hispidus[9]
Polia bombycina (Pale Shining Brown)[7]
Polydrusus cervinus[9]
Polydrusus pilosus[9]
Polyporus leptocephalus (Blackfoot Polypore)[11]
Polyporus melanopus[11]
Priophorus morio[9]
Pristiphora denudata <Unverified Name>[9]
Pristiphora geniculata (mountain-ash sawfly)[8]
Protolampra sobrina (Cousin German)[7]
Psallus ambiguus[8]
Pseudochermes fraxini (felted ash coccus)[12]
Psyche casta[7]
Ptilodon capucina (Coxcomb Prominent)[7]
Pulvinaria hydrangeae (cottony hydrangea scale)[8]
Pulvinaria vitis (cottony vine scale)[12]
Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Eurasian Bullfinch)[11]
Quadraspidiotus zonatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Recurvaria leucatella (Lesser Budmoth)[9]
Rhabdospora inaequalis[11]
Rhagium bifasciatum (two-banded longhorn beetle)[9]
Rheumaptera undulata[7]
Rhogogaster chlorosoma <Unverified Name>[8]
Rhogogaster punctulata <Unverified Name>[8]
Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae (apple grain aphid)[9]
Rhynchites aequatus[9]
Rhynchites caeruleus[9]
Rhynchites cupreus[9]
Rhynchites olivaceus[9]
Saperda scalaris[9]
Saturnia pavonia (Emperor moth)[9]
Scolytus rugulosus (shothole borer)[9]
Scopula incanata[7]
Semioscopis steinkellneriana[7]
Semiothisa alternaria[7]
Septoria sorbi[8]
Septosporium bulbotrichum[11]
Sphinx ligustri (Sphinx moth)[9]
Stauropus fagi (Lobster Moth)[7]
Steccherinum fimbriatum[11]
Stigmella nylandriella[7]
Stigmella oxyacanthella[9]
Stigmella sorbi[9]
Strophosomus capitatus[9]
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)[8]
Swammerdamia compunctella[7]
Swammerdamia lutarea[7]
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)[15]
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)[11]
Sylvia communis (Common Whitethroat)[11]
Synanthedon myopaeformis <Unverified Name>[9]
Tatianaerhynchites aequatus <Unverified Name>[8]
Tenthredo fagi <Unverified Name>[9]
Tenthredo livida <Unverified Name>[8]
Tetrastes bonasia (Hazel Grouse)[16]
Tortrix viridana (Green tortrix)[9]
Torymus druparum[9]
Trachycera suavella[7]
Trichiosoma sorbi <Unverified Name>[9]
Trichiura crataegi (Pale Eggar)[7]
Trichosea ludifica[7]
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)[15]
Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)[15]
Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)[8]
Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush)[15]
Vanessa atalanta (red admiral)[8]
Venturia inaequalis (Apple Scab)[8]
Venusia cambrica (welsh wave)[7]
Xylodon radula (Toothed Crust)[11]
Yponomeuta evonymella (Full-spotted Ermel Moth)[7]
Yponomeuta padella (Common Hawthorn Ermel Moth)[7]


Pollinated by 
Aglais io <Unverified Name>[8]
Vanessa atalanta (red admiral)[8]


Parasitized by 
Contarinia sorbi[8]
Gymnosporangium cornutum[11]
Incurvaria pectinea[8]
Lyonetia clerkella (Apple Leaf Miner Moth)[8]
Melampyrum sylvaticum[11]
Monilinia aucupariae[11]
Ochropsora ariae[11]
Oxyporus populinus (Poplar Bracket)[11]
Paraswammerdamia nebulella <Unverified Name>[8]
Pholiota squarrosa[11]
Phyllosticta sorbi[8]
Pleurotus dryinus (Veiled Oyster)[8]
Septoria sorbi[8]
Venturia inaequalis[8]
Viscum album (European mistletoe)[11]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


Bassegi Zapovednik; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
5ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
6Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
7HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
8Ecology of Commanster
9Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
10Food eaten by the free-living European bison in Białowieża Forest, Zofia GĘBCZYŃSKA, Marek GĘBCZYŃSKI and Ewa MARTYNOWICZ, Acta Theriologica 36 (3-4), 307-313, 1991.
11Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
12Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
13Juškaitis R. 2008. The Common Dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius: Ecology, Population Structure and Dynamics. Institute of Ecology of Vilnius University Publishers, Vilnius.
14New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
15Birds and berries: a study of an ecological interaction. Calton, Great Britain, Snow B.K., Snow D.W., 1988, T & AD Poyser. 268 p.
16del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Chippewa Nature Center
Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access