Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Rosales > Rosaceae > Malus > Malus pumila

Malus pumila (Common apple)

Synonyms: Malus communis subsp. mitis; Malus cylindracea; Malus dasyphylla var. domestica; Malus dioica; Malus domestica; Malus domestica subsp. caucasica; Malus domestica subsp. cerasifera; Malus domestica subsp. hybrida; Malus domestica subsp. intermedia; Malus domestica subsp. italo-taurica; Malus domestica subsp. macrocarpa; Malus domestica subsp. medio-asiatica; Malus domestica subsp. occidentali-europaea; Malus domestica subsp. pumila; Malus domestica subsp. rossica; Malus domestica var. calvillea; Malus domestica var. parmaenea; Malus domestica var. renettea; Malus fontanesiana; Malus frutescens; Malus glabra; Malus livida; Malus microcarpa; Malus niedzwetzkyana; Malus paradisiaca; Malus praecox var. paradisiaca; Malus pumila var. domestica; Malus pumila var. niedzwetzkyana; Malus pumila var. paradisiaca; Malus santonum; Malus sativa; Malus spumosa; Malus sylvestris; Malus sylvestris subsp. mitis; Malus sylvestris subsp. paradisiaca; Malus sylvestris var. paradisiaca; Malus sylvestris var. praecox; Malus tatarica; Malus turbinioides; Malus umbellata; Malus upsalensis; Malus viridis; Pyrenia malus; Pyrus acerba; Pyrus apetala; Pyrus apiosa; Pyrus armeniacifolia; Pyrus astracanica; Pyrus cavillea; Pyrus cestiana; Pyrus dioica; Pyrus divisa; Pyrus epirotica; Pyrus fontanesiana; Pyrus malus; Pyrus malus subsp. hortensis; Pyrus malus subsp. mitis; Pyrus malus subsp. paradisiaca; Pyrus malus var. mitis; Pyrus malus var. paradisiaca; Pyrus niedzwetzkyana; Pyrus oriostyla; Pyrus paradisiaca; Pyrus parasomila; Pyrus paris; Pyrus pollveria; Pyrus pomum; Pyrus prasomila; Pyrus pulverulenta; Pyrus rubelliana; Pyrus sylvestris; Pyrus upsaliensis; Sorbus malus

Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Malus pumila


Height [2]  23 feet (7 m)
Width [1]  25 feet (7.6 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Shade Percentage [1]  85 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Hermaphrodite
Hazards [2]  All members of this genus contain the toxin hydrogen cyanide in their seeds and possibly also in their leaves, but not in their fruits. Hydrogen cyanide is the substance that gives almonds their characteristic taste but it should only be consumed in very small quantities. Apple seeds do not normally contain very high quantities of hydrogen cyanide but, even so, should not be consumed in very large quantities. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.
Leaf Type [2]  Deciduous
Lifespan [3]  Perennial
Pollinators [2]  Insects, Lepidoptera
Specific Gravity [4]  0.646
Structure [2]  Tree
Usage [2]  Used as a rootstock for the cultivated apples, there are several named varieties; A yellow dye is obtained from the bark;
View Plants For A Future Record : Malus pumila

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Archipelago de Colon Biosphere Reserve 34336011 Galapagos Islands, Ecuador  
Avon Gorge Woodlands 376 England, United Kingdom
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd/ Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains 67265 Wales, United Kingdom
Black Wood of Rannoch 2720 Scotland, United Kingdom
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Burnham Beeches 946 England, United Kingdom  
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve 90 Michigan, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   North Carolina, United States
Dartmoor 57244 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Eryri/ Snowdonia 48773 Wales, United Kingdom  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Galichia Gora Zapovednik Ia 568 Lipetsk, Russia
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Georgian Bay Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Johnstown Flood National Memorial VI 175 Pennsylvania, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Lago Puelo National Park II 47607 Chubut, Argentina
Lands End and Cape Bank 74557 England, United Kingdom  
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Mount Mitchell State Park   North Carolina, United States
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve V 1777 Spain  
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Shiloh National Military Park III 4061 Tennessee, United States
Solent Maritime 27985 England, United Kingdom
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Ukrainskii Stepnoi Zapovednik Nature Zapovednik Ia 2920 Ukraine  
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Emblem of



Abagrotis alternata (greater red dart)[5]
Abagrotis barnesi[5]
Abagrotis placida (red cutworm)[5]
Abraxas grossulariata (Magpie Moth)[5]
Acanthopsyche bipars[5]
Acleris comariana (Strawberry Tortrix)[5]
Acleris cristana (Rufous-margined Button Moth)[5]
Acleris extensana[5]
Acleris fimbriana[5]
Acleris holmiana[5]
Acleris logiana[5]
Acleris maculidorsana[5]
Acleris maximana[5]
Acleris minuta[5]
Acleris nivisellana[5]
Acleris orphnocycla[5]
Acleris paradiseana[5]
Acleris rhombana (Rhomboid Tortrix)[5]
Acleris sparsana[5]
Acleris variegana (Garden rose tortricid moth)[5]
Acrobasis indigenella[5]
Acrobasis obtusella[5]
Acrobasis tricolorella[5]
Acronicta alni (Alder Moth)[5]
Acronicta clarescens (Clear Dagger Moth)[5]
Acronicta fragilis (fragile dagger)[5]
Acronicta funeralis (Funerary Dagger Moth)[5]
Acronicta grisea (gray dagger)[5]
Acronicta impleta (Yellow-haired Dagger Moth)[5]
Acronicta impressa (printed dagger)[5]
Acronicta intermedia[5]
Acronicta interrupta (Interrupted Dagger Moth)[5]
Acronicta morula (Ochre Dagger Moth)[5]
Acronicta perdita[5]
Acronicta pruni[5]
Acronicta psi (Grey Dagger Moth)[5]
Acronicta radcliffei (Radcliffe's Dagger Moth)[5]
Acronicta spinigera (Nondescript Dagger Moth)[5]
Acronicta strigosa (Marsh Dagger)[5]
Acronicta superans (Splendid Dagger Moth)[5]
Acronicta tridens (Dark Dagger)[5]
Actebia fennica (black army cutworm)[5]
Actias selene (Indian moon moth)[5]
Aculus schlechtendali[6]
Adoxophyes orana (Summer Fruit Tortrix)[5]
Agalope hyalina[5]
Agapeta hamana[5]
Aglaope infausta (almond-tree leaf skeletonizer moth)[5]
Aglaope labasi[5]
Agrotis crassa[5]
Agrotis trux (Crescent Dart)[5]
Alcis angulifera[5]
Alsophila aescularia (March Moth)[5]
Alsophila japonensis[5]
Alsophila pometaria (fall cankerworm)[5]
Amorbia humerosana[5]
Amphipyra pyramidea[5]
Anaplectoides prasina (green arches)[5]
Ancylis achatana[5]
Ancylis nubeculana[5]
Ancylis selenana[5]
Angerona nigrisparsa[5]
Annaphila arvalis[5]
Anoplophora chinensis (Citrus Longhorned Beetle)[7]
Antaeotricha leucillana[5]
Antheraea yamamai (Japanese Silk Moth)[5]
Apamea alia[5]
Aphelocoma californica (Western Scrub-Jay)[8]
Apocheima cinerarius[5]
Apocheima hispidaria[5]
Aporia crataegi (Black-veined White Butterfly)[5]
Apotomis frigidana[5]
Archips argyrospila[5]
Archips asiaticus[5]
Archips betulana[5]
Archips crataegana[5]
Archips endoi[5]
Archips fuscocupreanus[5]
Archips grisea[5]
Archips ingentana[5]
Archips oporana[5]
Archips podana (Large Fruit-tree Tortrix)[5]
Archips purpurana[5]
Archips rosana (Rose Tortrix)[5]
Archips semiferanus[5]
Archips subsidiaria[5]
Archips termias[5]
Archips xylosteana (Variegated Golden Tortrix)[5]
Arctia caja (garden tiger moth)[5]
Argyresthia andereggiella[5]
Argyresthia conjugella (Apple Fruit Moth)[5]
Argyresthia cornella[5]
Argyresthia curvella (Apple Blossom Tineid)[5]
Argyresthia pruniella (Cherry Fruit Moth)[5]
Argyroploce umbrosana[5]
Argyrotaenia dorsalana[5]
Argyrotaenia franciscana[5]
Argyrotaenia ljungiana[5]
Argyrotaenia mariana[5]
Argyrotaenia quadrifasciana[5]
Argyrotaenia velutinana[5]
Asterococcus muratae[9]
Atethmia ambusta[5]
Athetis rionegrensis[5]
Automeris janus[5]
Balsa malana[5]
Biston betularia (peppered moth)[5]
Biston strataria (Oak Beauty)[5]
Biston thoracicaria[5]
Blastobasis decolorella[5]
Blastobasis lignea[5]
Blastodacna atra[5]
Blastodacna hellerella[5]
Bloxamia leucophthalma[8]
Bonagota cranaodes[5]
Brachionycha nubeculosa (Rannoch Sprawler)[5]
Bucculatrix pomifoliella[5]
Calepitrimerus baileyi[6]
Callipepla californica (Californian Quail)[8]
Callisto denticulella[5]
Calliteara pudibunda (Pale Tussock)[5]
Caloptilia zachrysa[5]
Camarosporium karstenii[8]
Campaea margaritata (Light Emerald Moth)[5]
Carposina fernaldana[5]
Carposina sasakii (Peach Fruit Moth)[5]
Carsia sororiata (Manchester Treble-Bar)[5]
Catocala blandula (Charming Underwing)[5]
Catocala clintonii[5]
Catocala crataegi (Hawthorn Underwing)[5]
Catocala grynea (Woody Underwing)[5]
Catocala ultronia (Dark Red Underwing)[5]
Celastrina argiolus (Holly Blue Butterfly)[8]
Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus (Indian wax scale)[9]
Cerura vinula (Puss Moth)[5]
Cheromettia apicata[5]
Chionaspis furfura (Harris's bark-louse)[9]
Chlorissa amphitritaria[5]
Chloroclystis rectangulata (Green Pug)[5]
Choreutis vinosa[5]
Choristoneura diversana[5]
Choristoneura fractivittana[5]
Choristoneura hebenstreitella (Mountain-ash tortricid)[5]
Choristoneura longicellana[5]
Choristoneura parallela[5]
Cilix asiatica[5]
Cilix glaucata[5]
Cleora insolita[5]
Cleora leucophaea[5]
Clepsis imitator[5]
Clepsis pallidana[5]
Cnephasia incertana (Light Grey Tortrix Moth)[5]
Cnephasia longana[5]
Cnephasia stephensiana (Grey Tortrix Moth)[5]
Coleophora anatipennella[5]
Coleophora cerasivorella[5]
Coleophora hemerobiella[5]
Coleophora multipulvella[5]
Coleophora paripennella[5]
Coleophora sacramenta[5]
Coleophora serratella (birch casebearer)[5]
Colocasia coryli (Nut-tree Tussock)[5]
Colotois pennaria (Feathered Thorn)[5]
Conistra vaccinii (Chestnut)[5]
Cornicacoecia lafauryana[5]
Coryphodema tristis[5]
Cosmia pyralina (Lunar-spotted Pinion)[5]
Cosmia trapezina (Dun-bar)[5]
Cossus cossus (Goat Moth)[5]
Creontiades dilutus[8]
Crisicoccus matsumotoi[9]
Crocigrapha normani[5]
Cryphia ochsi[5]
Ctenopseustis obliquana[5]
Culcula panterinaria[5]
Cusiala stipitaria[5]
Cydia pomonella (Codling moth)[5]
Cyligramma latona (Cream striped owl)[5]
Cylindrobasidium laeve[8]
Cystidia couaggaria[5]
Cytospora microspora[8]
Dasychira basiflava (Yellow-based Tussock)[5]
Dasychira cinnamomea[5]
Dasychira complicata[5]
Dasychira dorsipennata[5]
Dasychira leucophaea[5]
Dasychira vagans[5]
Datana integerrima (walnut caterpillar)[5]
Datana major (azalea caterpillar)[5]
Diaspidiotus ancylus (Howard scale)[9]
Diaspidiotus forbesi (cherry scale)[9]
Diaspidiotus pyri[9]
Dichomeris ligulella (Palmerworm)[5]
Dichomeris tostella[5]
Diloba caeruleocephala[5]
Ditula angustiorana (Red-barred Tortrix)[5]
Diurnea fagella[5]
Doratifera vulnerans (Mottled cup moth)[5]
Drosicha contrahens[9]
Drosicha corpulenta[9]
Drosicha maskelli[9]
Dysmicoccus wistariae (taxus mealybug)[9]
Ectropis excellens[5]
Ectropis obliqua[5]
Edwardsiana rosae (Rose leafhopper)[8]
Elegia inconspicuella[5]
Enarmonia albicana[5]
Enarmonia formosana (Cherry-bark Moth)[5]
Ennomos autumnaria (Large Thorn)[5]
Epidiaspis leperii (European pear scale)[9]
Epiphyas eucyrta[5]
Epiphyas liadelpha[5]
Erannis defoliaria (Mottled Umber Moth)[5]
Erannis golda[5]
Eriococcus lagerstroemiae (crapemyrtle scale)[9]
Eriogaster lanestris (Small Eggar)[5]
Eriophyes mali <Unverified Name>[6]
Eriosoma lanigerum (Woolly apple aphid)[10]
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)[8]
Estigmene acrea (saltmarsh caterpillar)[5]
Euchlaena serrata[5]
Euclea delphinii (spiny oak slug)[5]
Eulia loxonephes[5]
Eulithis diversilineata (grapevine looper)[5]
Eulogia ochrifrontella[5]
Eupithecia exiguata (Mottled Pug)[5]
Eupithecia misturata[5]
Eupithecia pusillata[5]
Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Brown-tail)[5]
Euproctis fraterna[5]
Euproctis kargalika[5]
Euproctis similis[5]
Eupsilia sidus[5]
Eupsilia transversa (Satellite)[5]
Eupsilia tristigmata[5]
Eutrapela clemataria[5]
Euxoa messoria (darksided cutworm)[5]
Euxoa scandens (white cutworm)[5]
Euxoa temera[5]
Euxoa tessellata (striped cutworm)[5]
Euzophera bigella[5]
Euzophera pinguis (Tabby Knot-horn)[5]
Euzophera semifuneralis[5]
Evippe syrictis[5]
Exapate congelatella[5]
Feltia jaculifera (Dingy cutworm)[5]
Feltia subgothica (Dingy cutworm)[5]
Ferrisia virgata (grey mealybug)[9]
Filatima epulatrix[5]
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)[8]
Garrulus glandarius (Eurasian Jay)[8]
Gastropacha quercifolia (Lappet)[5]
Gelechia rhombella[5]
Globulisebacina rolleyi[8]
Graphania mutans (Grey-brown Cutworm)[5]
Graphiphora augur (Double Dart)[5]
Grapholita inopinata[5]
Gymnoscelis rufifasciata (Double-striped Pug)[5]
Haploa colona[5]
Haploa lecontei (Leconte's Haploa)[5]
Harrisimemna trisignata (Harris' three spot)[5]
Hedya chionosema[5]
Hedya dimidioalba[5]
Hedya ochroleucana[5]
Hedya pruniana[5]
Hemithea aestivaria (Common Emerald)[5]
Herculia fulvocilialis[5]
Heterocrasa expansalis[5]
Holcocera maligemmella[5]
Holcocerus arenicola[5]
Homohadena badistriga[5]
Homona magnanima[5]
Homonopsis foederatana[5]
Homonopsis illotana[5]
Hoplocampa testudinea (European apple sawfly)[8]
Howardia biclavis (mining scale)[9]
Hyalarcta huebneri[5]
Hydrelia sylvata (Waved Carpet)[5]
Idaea allongata[5]
Illiberis pruni[5]
Illiberis sinensis[5]
Inurois fletcheri[5]
Iphiclides podalirius (Scarce Swallowtail)[5]
Iridopsis larvaria[5]
Itame coortaria[5]
Ixoreus naevius (Varied Thrush)[8]
Jodis lactearia (Little Emerald)[5]
Lacanobia thalassina (Pale-shouldered Brocade)[5]
Lacinipolia meditata[5]
Lacinipolia renigera (bristly cutworm)[5]
Lamoria anella (Grey Slipper Moth)[5]
Langia zenzeroides[5]
Laothoe populi (Poplar Hawk-moth)[5]
Larerannis miracula[5]
Lasiocampa quercus (Oak Eggar)[5]
Lepidosaphes conchiformis (fig oystershell scale)[9]
Lepidosaphes coreana (Korean comma scale)[9]
Lepidosaphes cupressi[9]
Lepidosaphes pistaciae (yellow pistachio scale)[9]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[9]
Lepidosaphes yamahoi[9]
Leucoptera scitella[5]
Limenitis archippus (viceroy)[8]
Limenitis arthemis (white admiral)[8]
Limenitis lorquini (Lorquin's Admiral)[8]
Lithophane antennata (green fruitworm)[5]
Lithophane baileyi[5]
Lithophane bethunei[5]
Lithophane georgii[5]
Lithophane hepatica[5]
Lithophane laticinerea[5]
Lithophane torrida[5]
Lochmaeus manteo (Variable Oakleaf Caterpillar Moth)[5]
Lomographa subspersata[5]
Lomographa temerata (Clouded Silver)[5]
Lomographa vestaliata[5]
Lopholeucaspis japonica (Japanese maple scale)[9]
Lycia hirtaria (Brindled Beauty Moth)[5]
Lycia ursaria[5]
Lycia ypsilon[5]
Lymantria ampla[5]
Lymantria concolor[5]
Lymantria obfuscata[5]
Lyonetia clerkella (Apple Leaf Miner Moth)[5]
Lyonetia prunifoliella[5]
Mahasena yuna[5]
Malacosoma californica[5]
Malacosoma indica[5]
Malacosoma neustria (Lackey moth)[5]
Mamestra brassicae (Cabbage Moth)[5]
Marmara elotella[5]
Marmara pomonella (Apple Fruitminer)[5]
Medasina nikkonis[5]
Megalopyge crispata (Crinkled flannel moth)[5]
Melanaspis tenebricosa (gloomy scale)[9]
Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker)[8]
Metarranthis hypochraria[5]
Metathrinca rosaria[5]
Moodna ostrinella[5]
Mucor piriformis (Mucor rot)[8]
Naenia typica (Gothic)[5]
Narosoideus flavidorsalis[5]
Nematocampa limbata (filiment bearer)[5]
Nemoria bistriaria (Red-fringed Emerald)[5]
Neopheosia fasciata[5]
Neosphaleroptera nubilana[5]
Neotoma magister (Appalachian woodrat)[11]
Nola cucullatella (Short-cloaked Moth)[5]
Nychiodes palaestinensis[5]
Nymphalis polychloros (Large Tortoiseshell Butterfly)[5]
Odites malivora[5]
Odites ricinella[5]
Odontopera bidentata (Scalloped Hazel)[5]
Olethreutes malana[5]
Oligocentria semirufescens (Red-washed Prominent Moth)[5]
Operophtera bruceata (bruce spanworm)[5]
Operophtera brumata (winter moth)[5]
Operophtera fagata (Northern Winter Moth)[5]
Ophthalmitis irrorataria[5]
Opisthograptis luteolata (Brimstone Moth)[5]
Oraesia emarginata[5]
Oreana unicolorella[5]
Orgyia prisca[5]
Orgyia thyellina[5]
Orthodes cynica[5]
Orthosia gothica (Hebrew Character)[5]
Orthosia gracilis (Powdered Quaker)[5]
Orthosia incerta (Clouded Drab)[5]
Orthosia lizetta[5]
Orthosia rubescens[5]
Orthosia stabilis[5]
Pachysphinx modesta (modest sphinx, poplar sphinx)[5]
Palthis angulalis (Dark-spotted Palthis)[5]
Pammene argyrana[5]
Pammene rhediella[5]
Pammene spiniana[5]
Pandemis cerasana (Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix)[5]
Pandemis chlorograpta[5]
Pandemis cinnamomeana[5]
Pandemis corylana[5]
Pandemis dumetana[5]
Pandemis limitata[5]
Pandemis pyrusana[5]
Panonychus ulmi (European red mite)[8]
Papilio canadensis (Canadian Tiger Swallowtail)[8]
Papilio eurymedon (Pale swallowtail)[5]
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)[5]
Papilio rutulus (Western tiger swallowtail)[5]
Parachronistis albiceps[5]
Parasa hilarata[5]
Parasa indetermina (stinging rose caterpillar)[5]
Parasa latistriga[5]
Parasa sinica[5]
Parlatoreopsis chinensis (Chinese obscure scale)[9]
Parlatoreopsis pyri[9]
Parlatoria cinerea (apple parlatoria)[9]
Parlatoria desolator[9]
Parlatoria oleae (olive parlatoria scale)[9]
Parlatoria pergandii (black parlatoria scale)[9]
Parlatoria proteus (common parlatoria scale)[9]
Parlatoria theae (tea parlatoria scale)[9]
Parlatoria yanyuanensis[9]
Parornix anguliferella[5]
Parornix geminatella[5]
Parornix petiolella[5]
Pasiphila rectangulata <Unverified Name>[10]
Pempelia heringii (Pear Fruit Borer)[5]
Peribatodes rhomboidaria (Willow Beauty)[5]
Phalera flavescens[5]
Phenacoccus graminicola (ryegrass mealybug)[9]
Phigalia sinuosaria[5]
Phigalia titea (Spiny Looper)[5]
Phigalia verecundaria[5]
Phlogophora meticulosa (Angle Shades Moth)[5]
Phobetron hipparchia[5]
Phobetron pithecium (hag moth)[5]
Phomopsis velata[8]
Phragmatobia fuliginosa (ruby tiger moth)[5]
Phthonosema tendinosaria[5]
Phyllonorycter blancardella[5]
Phyllonorycter corylifoliella[5]
Phyllonorycter crataegella[5]
Phyllonorycter cydoniella[5]
Phyllonorycter elmaella[5]
Phyllonorycter epichares[5]
Phyllonorycter ganodes[5]
Phyllonorycter malella[5]
Phyllonorycter mespilella[5]
Phyllonorycter pyrifoliella[5]
Phyllonorycter ringoniella[5]
Phyllonorycter sorbicola[5]
Phyllonorycter spinicolella[5]
Phytomyza heringiana[8]
Plagodis phlogosaria (Straight-lined Plagodis)[5]
Planociampa modesta[5]
Planococcus ficus (grapevine mealybug)[9]
Planococcus mali[6]
Planotortrix excessana (Greenheaded leafroller)[5]
Platynota flavedana[5]
Platynota idaeusalis[5]
Poecilocampa populi (December Moth)[5]
Porphyrinia cochylioides[5]
Prochoerodes forficaria[5]
Proeulia auraria[5]
Prosoeuzophera impletella[5]
Protalcis concinnata[5]
Proteoteras aesculana (Maple Twig Borer)[5]
Protorthodes rufula[5]
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale)[9]
Pseudexentera mali[5]
Pseudococcus calceolariae (citrophilus mealybug)[9]
Pseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug)[9]
Pseudococcus longispinus (long tailed mealybug)[6]
Pseudosciaphila branderiana[5]
Pseudotelphusa incana[5]
Psorosina hammondi[5]
Ptilodon capucina (Coxcomb Prominent)[5]
Ptycholoma circumclusana[5]
Ptycholoma lecheana[5]
Recurvaria leucatella (Lesser Budmoth)[5]
Recurvaria nanella[5]
Rhodometra sacraria (Vestal)[5]
Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae (apple grain aphid)[8]
Rhopobota naevana (Holly tortrix moth)[5]
Rhopobota ustomaculana (Loch Rannoch Tortrix)[5]
Saturnia pavonia (Emperor moth)[5]
Saturnia pyri (Great peacock moth)[5]
Satyrium calanus (Banded hairstreak)[5]
Schizothyrium pomi[8]
Schizura leptinoides[5]
Scopula limboundata (Large Lace-border)[5]
Scythropia crataegella[5]
Selenia tetralunaria (Purple Thorn)[5]
Septoria ralfsii[8]
Smerinthus jamaicensis (twin-spotted sphinx)[5]
Smerinthus ocellata[5]
Soritia pulchella[5]
Spaelotis clandestina (Clandestine Dart)[5]
Sparganothis pilleriana[5]
Sparganothis reticulatana (Reticulated Sparganothis)[5]
Sphingomorpha chlorea[5]
Sphinx drupiferarum (plum tree sphinx)[5]
Sphinx gordius (apple sphinx)[5]
Sphinx ligustri (Sphinx moth)[5]
Sphinx perelegans (elegant sphinx)[5]
Spilonota lechriaspis (Apple fruit licker)[5]
Spilonota ocellana (Eyespotted bud moth)[5]
Spilonota prognathana[5]
Spilosoma lubricipeda (White Ermine Moth)[5]
Spodoptera praefica (yellowstripe armyworm)[5]
Spulerina astaurota[5]
Stauropus fagi (Lobster Moth)[5]
Stenoptilia bipunctidactyla[5]
Stigmella desperatella[5]
Stigmella malella (Banded Apple Pigmy)[5]
Strymon melinus (cotton square borer)[8]
Swammerdamia beirnei[5]
Swammerdamia pyrella[5]
Synanthedon hector[5]
Synanthedon pictipes[5]
Synanthedon typhiaeformis[5]
Synanthedon vespiformis (Yellow-legged Clearwing)[5]
Synchlora aerata[5]
Syndemis afflictana[5]
Syndemis musculana[5]
Tetanolita palligera[5]
Theria rupicapraria[5]
Thosea cana[5]
Timocratica albella[5]
Tischeria malifoliella (Apple leaf trumpet miner)[5]
Tolype velleda[5]
Tortrix capensana[5]
Tortrix sinapina[5]
Trichosea ludifica[5]
Triphosa dubitata (Tissue)[5]
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)[8]
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)[8]
Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)[8]
Ulodemis trigrapha[5]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[8]
Vitula serratilineella[5]
Wilemania nitobei[5]
Xyleborus dispar[8]
Xylena cineritia[5]
Xylena curvimacula (dot-and-dash swordgrass moth)[5]
Xylena exsoleta (Sword-grass)[5]
Xylena nupera (red swordgrass moth)[5]
Xylena vetusta (Red Sword-grass)[5]
Yponomeuta orientalis[5]
Yponomeuta padella (Common Hawthorn Ermel Moth)[5]
Zethenia albonotaria[5]
Zeuzera pyrina (leopard moth)[5]


Parasitized by 
Agrilus vittaticollis[8]
Bjerkandera adusta (Smoky Bracket)[8]
Laetiporus sulphureus (Chicken of the Woods)[8]
Ochropsora ariae[8]
Podosphaera leucotricha[8]
Polycesta californica[8]
Viscum album (European mistletoe)[8]


Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
4Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
5HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
6New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
7Citrus Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), Jamba Gyeltshen and Amanda Hodges, University of Florida
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
10Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
11Neotoma magister, Steven B. Castleberry, Michael T. Mengak, and W. Mark Ford, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 789, pp. 1-5 (2006)
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Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access