Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Rosales > Rosaceae > Crataegus > Crataegus monogyna

Crataegus monogyna (Common Hawthorn)

Synonyms: Crataegus aegeica; Crataegus aguilaris; Crataegus alemanniensis; Crataegus alemanniensis f. microalemanniensis; Crataegus alemanniensis var. heterodonta; Crataegus alemanniensis var. orientobaltica; Crataegus alemanniensis var. subborealis; Crataegus alutacea; Crataegus apiifolia; Crataegus azarella; Crataegus bergiana; Crataegus borealoides; Crataegus bracteolaris; Crataegus brevispina; Crataegus chlorocarpa; Crataegus cuneata; Crataegus curvisepala subsp. colorata; Crataegus curvisepaloides; Crataegus debeauxii; Crataegus dissecta; Crataegus diversifolia; Crataegus domicensis; Crataegus elegans; Crataegus floribunda; Crataegus gracilis; Crataegus heterophylla; Crataegus hirsuta; Crataegus inermis; Crataegus insegnae; Crataegus integerrima; Crataegus intermedia; Crataegus jacquinii; Crataegus krima; Crataegus krumbholzii; Crataegus kyrtostyla var. domicensis; Crataegus lamprophylla; Crataegus lasiocarpa; Crataegus latvica; Crataegus leiomonogyna; Crataegus lipskyi; Crataegus luzinii; Crataegus maroccana; Crataegus maura; Crataegus monogyna f. nordica; Crataegus monogyna subsp. aegeica; Crataegus monogyna subsp. aguilaris; Crataegus monogyna subsp. azarella; Crataegus monogyna subsp. brevispina; Crataegus monogyna subsp. inermis; Crataegus monogyna subsp. insegnae; Crataegus monogyna subsp. intermedia; Crataegus monogyna subsp. jacquinii; Crataegus monogyna subsp. latiloba; Crataegus monogyna subsp. leiomonogyna; Crataegus monogyna subsp. maura; Crataegus monogyna subsp. nordica; Crataegus monogyna subsp. plesivecensis; Crataegus monogyna subsp. polyacantha; Crataegus monogyna subsp. tauscheri; Crataegus monogyna var. brevispina; Crataegus monogyna var. lasiocarpa; Crataegus monogyna var. nordica; Crataegus monogyna var. plesivecensis; Crataegus monogyna var. tauscheri; Crataegus oligacantha; Crataegus orientobaltica; Crataegus oxyacantha; Crataegus oxyacantha subsp. maura; Crataegus oxyacantha subsp. monogyna; Crataegus oxyacantha var. brevispina; Crataegus oxyacantha var. ciliata; Crataegus oxyacantha var. coriacea; Crataegus oxyacantha var. fallax; Crataegus oxyacantha var. heterophylla; Crataegus oxyacantha var. maura; Crataegus oxyacantha var. miniata; Crataegus oxyacantha var. monogyna; Crataegus oxyacantha var. obovato-cuneatis; Crataegus oxyacantha var. saccardyana; Crataegus oxyacantha var. stenoloba; Crataegus oxyacanthoides; Crataegus panachaica; Crataegus parvifolia; Crataegus paucifoliata; Crataegus petiolulata; Crataegus polyacantha; Crataegus popovii; Crataegus praearmata; Crataegus pulchella; Crataegus segobricensis; Crataegus septempartita; Crataegus subborealis; Crataegus subintegriloba; Crataegus sublucens; Crataegus subsphaericea subsp. domicensis; Crataegus thyrsoidea; Crataegus villosa; Crataegus xeromorpha; Mespilus brevispina; Mespilus diversifolia; Mespilus elegans; Mespilus fissa; Mespilus insegnae; Mespilus maroccana; Mespilus maura; Mespilus monogyna; Mespilus oliveriana; Mespilus oxyacantha subsp. monogyna; Mespilus polyacantha; Oxyacantha apiifolia; Oxyacantha azarella; Oxyacantha elegans; Oxyacantha kyrtostyla; Oxyacantha monogyna

Wikipedia Abstract

The name Crataegus oxyacantha L. has been rejected as being of uncertain application, but is sometimes still used.
View Wikipedia Record: Crataegus monogyna


Height [3]  20 feet (6 m)
Width [3]  20 feet (6 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Moderate
Shade Percentage [1]  84 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Low
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 5 Low Temperature: -20 F° (-28.9 C°) → -10 F° (-23.3 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Light Preference [5]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [5]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [5]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [5]  Moist
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Flower Color [2]  Purple
Foliage Color [2]  Dark Green
Fruit Color [2]  Red
Fall Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Flower Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Dispersal Mode [6]  Endozoochory, Zoochory
Drought Tolerance [2]  High
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Medium
Flower Type [3]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [2]  4 months
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Slow
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [4]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Midges
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  24 inches (61 cm)
Scent [3]  The flowers have an unpleasant smell like decaying fish, though when freshly open they also have a pleasant balsamic undertone.
Seed Spread Rate [2]  None
Seed Vigor [2]  Low
Seeds Per [2]  24000 / lb (52911 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [7]  0.7
Structure [3]  Shrub
Usage [3]  A good hedge plant, it is very tolerant of being cut and of neglect and is able to regenerate if cut back severely, it makes a good thorny stock-proof barrier; The cultivar 'Stricta' has made a very good hedge 3.5 metres tall in an exposed maritime position at Rosewarne in N. Cornwall; Wood - very hard and tough, difficult to work. Used for tool handles etc. Valued in turning; A good fuel, giving out a lot of heat;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Crataegus monogyna

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Ashdown Forest 6744 England, United Kingdom
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Buchholz bei Bleiwäsche 786 Germany  
Burnham Beeches 946 England, United Kingdom  
Buskett - Girgenti Area 557 Malta  
Caenlochan 12860 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cairnsmore of Fleet, Silver Flowe, and Merrick Kells Biosphere Reserve 8794 Scotland, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Cernydd Carmel 892 Wales, United Kingdom
Craven Limestone Complex 13166 England, United Kingdom
Dahlberg 22 Germany  
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Dungeness 7966 England, United Kingdom
Eryri/ Snowdonia 48773 Wales, United Kingdom  
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Great Orme`s Head/ Pen y Gogarth 748 Wales, United Kingdom  
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Il-Ballut tal-Wardija (l/o San Pawl il-Bahar) 50 Malta  
Il-Maqluba (l/o Qrendi) 6 Malta  
Ingleborough Complex 14256 England, United Kingdom
Is-Simar (l/o San Pawl il-Bahar) 144 Malta  
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Killarney National Park II 25482 Ireland
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
L-Imgiebah / Tal-Mignuna Area 436 Malta  
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Migneint–Arenig–Dduallt 49343 Wales, United Kingdom
Monte Generoso 586 Italy  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Rdumijiet ta' Malta: Ir-Ramla tac-Cirkewwa sa Il-Ponta ta' Benghisa 5724 Malta  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve V 1777 Spain  
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Val Codera 2021 Italy  
Xlendi - Wied tal-Kantra Area 732 Malta  


Emblem of



Abraxas grossulariata (Magpie Moth)[8]
Abroma temperata[8]
Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale <Unverified Name>[9]
Acronicta menyanthidis (Light Knot Grass)[8]
Acronicta psi (Grey Dagger Moth)[9]
Acronicta rumicis (Knot Grass)[8]
Acronicta strigosa (Marsh Dagger)[8]
Acronicta tridens (Dark Dagger)[8]
Agrilus sinuatus[8]
Agriopis aurantiaria <Unverified Name>[8]
Agriopis marginaria <Unverified Name>[9]
Agrochola helvola (Flounced Chestnut)[8]
Agrochola macilenta (Yellow-line Quaker)[8]
Alcis repandata (Mottled Beauty)[8]
Allophyes oxyacanthae <Unverified Name>[8]
Alnetoidia alneti[8]
Alsophila aescularia (March Moth)[9]
Ampedus pomorum <Unverified Name>[9]
Amphipyra pyramidea[8]
Amphipyra tragopoginis (mouse)[8]
Anaspis fasciata <Unverified Name>[9]
Anaspis frontalis <Unverified Name>[9]
Ancylis achatana[9]
Andrena chrysosceles[9]
Andrena cineraria (Grey Mining Bee)[9]
Andrena tibialis[9]
Andrena varians[9]
Anomoia purmunda[8]
Anthonomus bituberculatus[8]
Anthonomus chevrolati[8]
Anthonomus pedicularius[9]
Anthonomus rubi (Strawberry Blossom Weevil)[8]
Anthonomus ulmi[8]
Antitype chi (Grey Chi)[8]
Aphis pomi (Apple aphid)[8]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[9]
Apocheima hispidaria[8]
Aporia crataegi (Black-veined White Butterfly)[10]
Aporophyla lutulenta (Deep Brown Dart)[8]
Aporophyla nigra (Black Rustic)[8]
Araschnia levana (Map Butterfly)[9]
Arge ustulata <Unverified Name>[9]
Argosarchus horridus (The Horrid Stick Insect)[11]
Argynnis paphia (Silver-washed Fritillary)[10]
Argyresthia bonnetella <Unverified Name>[8]
Athrips mouffetella[8]
Athrips rancidella[8]
Atractotomus mali[12]
Autographa jota (Plain Golden Y)[8]
Aythya ferina (Common Pochard)[12]
Aythya fuligula (Tufted Duck)[12]
Basidiodendron rimosum[12]
Bibio lanigerus[9]
Biston betularia (peppered moth)[8]
Blastobasis decolorella[8]
Blastodacna hellerella[8]
Blepharita satura (Beautiful Arches)[8]
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)[9]
Bombus pratorum (Early-nesting Humble-bee)[9]
Brachionycha nubeculosa (Rannoch Sprawler)[8]
Brachylomia viminalis (Minor Shoulder-knot)[8]
Brassicogethes viridescens[9]
Bucculatrix crataegi[10]
Byturus tomentosus <Unverified Name>[9]
Cacopsylla affinis[8]
Cacopsylla melanoneura[8]
Cacopsylla peregrina[8]
Calepitrimerus armatus <Unverified Name>[8]
Caliroa annulipes <Unverified Name>[8]
Caliroa cerasi (pearslug)[9]
Callophrys rubi (Green Hairstreak Butterfly)[9]
Campaea margaritata (Light Emerald Moth)[9]
Carcina quercana[8]
Chalcosyrphus nemorum[9]
Chionaspis furfura (Harris's bark-louse)[13]
Chlorissa viridata[8]
Chloroclysta truncata <Unverified Name>[8]
Chlorops hypostigma[9]
Choreutis pariana <Unverified Name>[8]
Choristoneura hebenstreitella (Mountain-ash tortricid)[9]
Cicadetta abscondita[8]
Cidnopus pilosus <Unverified Name>[9]
Cilix glaucata[8]
Clepsis consimilana[9]
Clytus arietis (wasp beetle)[9]
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Hawfinch)[12]
Coleophora siccifolia[8]
Colocasia coryli (Nut-tree Tussock)[8]
Colotois pennaria (Feathered Thorn)[8]
Conistra ligula (Dark Chestnut)[8]
Contarinia anthobia[8]
Cosmia pyralina (Lunar-spotted Pinion)[8]
Cryptocephalus frontalis <Unverified Name>[8]
Cryptocephalus nitidulus <Unverified Name>[8]
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)[12]
Cydia janthinana <Unverified Name>[8]
Dasineura crataegi[8]
Dasineura oxyacanthae[8]
Diarsia dahlii (Barred Chestnut)[8]
Diarsia mendica (Ingrailed Clay)[8]
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (California scale)[13]
Dicallomera fascelina <Unverified Name>[8]
Diloba caeruleocephala[8]
Diplocarpon mespili (Hawthorn Leaf Blight)[9]
Dysaphis angelicae[8]
Dysaphis apiifolia (Parsley aphid)[8]
Dysaphis crataegi[8]
Dysaphis ranunculi[8]
Dysstroma truncata (Common Marbled Carpet Moth)[9]
Ectropis crepuscularia (small engrailed)[9]
Edwardsiana crataegi (Canary fly)[9]
Edwardsiana plurispinosa[8]
Edwardsiana rosae (Rose leafhopper)[9]
Electrophaes corylata (Broken-barred Carpet Moth)[9]
Empis ciliata[9]
Empis livida[9]
Empis pennipes[9]
Empis trigramma[9]
Ennomos quercinaria (August Thorn)[8]
Epidiaspis leperii (European pear scale)[13]
Epirrita autumnata <Unverified Name>[8]
Epirrita christyi <Unverified Name>[9]
Epirrita dilutata <Unverified Name>[8]
Epirrita filigrammaria <Unverified Name>[8]
Erannis defoliaria (Mottled Umber Moth)[9]
Eriogaster lanestris (Small Eggar)[10]
Eriophyes albaespinae <Unverified Name>[8]
Eriophyes crataegi <Unverified Name>[8]
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)[12]
Eulecanium ciliatum (ciliate oak scale)[13]
Eupithecia abbreviata (Brindled Pug)[8]
Eupithecia dodoneata (Oak-tree Pug)[8]
Eupithecia exiguata (Mottled Pug)[8]
Eupithecia insigniata (Pinion-spotted Pug)[8]
Eupithecia subfuscata (gray pug)[8]
Eupithecia virgaureata (Golden-rod Pug)[8]
Eupithecia vulgata (Common Pug Moth)[9]
Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Brown-tail)[8]
Eusphalerum semicoleoptratum <Unverified Name>[9]
Fagocyba cruenta[8]
Fomitiporia punctata[12]
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)[12]
Fuscoporia ferrea[12]
Fuscoporia ferruginosa (Rusty Porecrust)[12]
Garyus altus[11]
Gastropacha quercifolia (Lappet)[10]
Graphiphora augur (Double Dart)[8]
Graphomya maculata[9]
Gymnoscelis rufifasciata (Double-striped Pug)[8]
Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae (New Zealand Pigeon)[12]
Hemithea aestivaria (Common Emerald)[8]
Heterotoma planicornis[9]
Hypomecis punctinalis <Unverified Name>[8]
Idaea aversata (Riband Wave Moth)[8]
Idaea contiguaria (Weaver's Wave)[8]
Idaea dimidiata (Single-dotted Wave Moth)[8]
Incurvaria masculella <Unverified Name>[9]
Iphiclides podalirius (Scarce Swallowtail)[10]
Jodis lactearia (Little Emerald)[8]
Lacanobia thalassina (Pale-shouldered Brocade)[8]
Lasiocampa quercus (Oak Eggar)[8]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[13]
Lithomoia solidaginis (goldenrod brindle)[8]
Lochmaea crataegi <Unverified Name>[9]
Lomographa bimaculata (White-pinion Spotted)[8]
Lomographa temerata (Clouded Silver)[8]
Lucilia sericata (Green blowfly)[9]
Lycia hirtaria (Brindled Beauty Moth)[9]
Lycia lapponaria <Unverified Name>[8]
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)[9]
Magdalis ruficornis (Plum Weevil)[9]
Malacosoma neustria (Lackey moth)[10]
Melanaspis inopinata[13]
Miris striatus[9]
Mniotype adusta <Unverified Name>[8]
Monilinia johnsonii[12]
Mordella aculeata <Unverified Name>[9]
Mormo maura (Old Lady)[8]
Muscardinus avellanarius (hazel dormouse)[14]
Myathropa florea <Unverified Name>[9]
Naenia typica (Gothic)[8]
Neurotoma saltuum <Unverified Name>[9]
Noctua comes (Lesser Yellow Underwing)[8]
Noctua fimbriata (Broad-bordered Yellow Underwing)[8]
Noctua interjecta (Least Yellow Underwing)[8]
Noctua janthina (Lesser Broad-bordered Yellow Underwing)[8]
Nola cucullatella (Short-cloaked Moth)[10]
Nymphalis polychloros (Large Tortoiseshell Butterfly)[8]
Odontopera bidentata (Scalloped Hazel)[8]
Omoeacalles crisioides[11]
Operophtera brumata (winter moth)[10]
Opisthograptis luteolata (Brimstone Moth)[9]
Orgyia antiqua (Rusty Tussock Moth)[8]
Orgyia recens <Unverified Name>[8]
Orsodacne cerasi <Unverified Name>[8]
Orsodacne lineola <Unverified Name>[8]
Orthosia cruda (Small Quaker)[8]
Orthosia gothica (Hebrew Character)[8]
Orthosia incerta (Clouded Drab)[8]
Orthosia miniosa (Blossom Underwing)[8]
Ourapteryx sambucaria (Swallow-tailed Moth)[9]
Ovatus crataegarius (Mint aphid)[8]
Pachyderris triangulatus <Unverified Name>[11]
Palaeolecanium bituberculatum (bituberculate scale)[8]
Pammene rhediella[8]
Pamphilius sylvaticus <Unverified Name>[9]
Paracolax tristalis <Unverified Name>[8]
Paradiarsia sobrina <Unverified Name>[8]
Paraswammerdamia lutarea <Unverified Name>[8]
Paraswammerdamia nebulella <Unverified Name>[9]
Parasyrphus annulatus[9]
Parlatoria oleae (olive parlatoria scale)[13]
Parornix anglicella[10]
Parus major (Great Tit)[12]
Pasiphila rectangulata <Unverified Name>[9]
Peniophora boidinii[12]
Phellinus pomaceus (Cushion Bracket)[12]
Phenacoccus aceris (apple mealybug)[8]
Phigalia pilosaria (Pale Brindled Beauty)[8]
Phyllobius oblongus[9]
Phyllobius pyri (Common Leaf Weevil)[9]
Phyllobius vespertinus[8]
Phyllocoptes eupadi <Unverified Name>[9]
Phyllocoptes goniothorax <Unverified Name>[9]
Phyllonorycter corylifoliella[10]
Phyllonorycter oxyacanthae[10]
Physatocheila dumetorum[8]
Physatocheila smreczynskii <Unverified Name>[8]
Phytoptus calicobius <Unverified Name>[8]
Plagodis pulveraria (Barred Umber Moth)[9]
Platycercus caledonicus (Green Rosella)[12]
Pleosporius bullatus <Unverified Name>[11]
Podosphaera clandestina[9]
Poecilocampa populi (December Moth)[8]
Polia nebulosa (Grey Arches)[8]
Polia trimaculosa[8]
Polydrusus cervinus[9]
Polydrusus formosus[9]
Polydrusus marginatus[9]
Polydrusus mollis[9]
Prociphilus pini[9]
Psallus ambiguus[9]
Ptilodon capucina (Coxcomb Prominent)[8]
Pulvinaria vitis (cottony vine scale)[13]
Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Eurasian Bullfinch)[12]
Ramphus oxyacanthae <Unverified Name>[8]
Resseliella crataegi (Hawthorn Stem Midge )[9]
Rhagium bifasciatum (two-banded longhorn beetle)[9]
Rhingia campestris[9]
Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae (apple grain aphid)[8]
Rhopalosiphum rufulum[8]
Rhynchites aequatus[8]
Rhynchites auratus[8]
Rhynchites bacchus[9]
Rhynchites caeruleus[8]
Rhynchites pauxillus[8]
Salicicola archangelskyae (Archangelskaya scale)[13]
Saturnia pavonia (Emperor moth)[8]
Scathophaga stercoraria (Common Yellow Dung Fly)[9]
Scopula immutata (Lesser Cream Wave Moth)[8]
Scythropia crataegella[8]
Siphoninus phillyreae (Ash Whitefly)[9]
Siphonius phillyreae <Unverified Name>[11]
Sistotremella perpusilla[12]
Skeletocutis carneogrisea[12]
Spilosoma luteum <Unverified Name>[8]
Spuleria flavicaput <Unverified Name>[8]
Stauropus fagi (Lobster Moth)[8]
Stigmella crataegella[10]
Stigmella hybnerella[10]
Stigmella oxyacanthella[9]
Stigmella regiella[10]
Strongylopterus hylobioides <Unverified Name>[11]
Swammerdamia pyrella[9]
Taphrina crataegi[9]
Tatianaerhynchites aequatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Tenthredo temula <Unverified Name>[9]
Thalera fimbrialis (Sussex Emerald)[8]
Thecla betulae (Brown Hairstreak)[8]
Theria primaria (Early Moth)[8]
Thrips major[8]
Torymus varians (apple seed chalcid)[8]
Trachycera suavella[10]
Trichiura crataegi (Pale Eggar)[10]
Turdus iliacus (Redwing)[15]
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)[15]
Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)[12]
Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)[15]
Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush)[15]
Typhula spathulata[12]
Valeria oleagina (Green-brindled Dot)[8]
Venturia inaequalis (Apple Scab)[9]
Volvariella bombycina (Silky Rosegill)[12]
Vuilleminia cystidiata[12]
Xenasma tulasnelloideum[12]
Xestia baja (Dotted Clay)[8]
Xestia castanea (Grey Rustic)[8]
Xestia ditrapezium <Unverified Name>[8]
Xestia triangulum <Unverified Name>[8]
Xestia xanthographa (Square-spot Rustic)[8]
Yponomeuta padella (Common Hawthorn Ermel Moth)[10]
Zeuzera pyrina (leopard moth)[8]
Zygina angusta[8]
Zygina ordinaria[8]
Zygina schneideri[8]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Tubaria dispersa[9]
Pollinated by 
Anaspis fasciata <Unverified Name>[9]
Anaspis frontalis <Unverified Name>[9]
Andrena chrysosceles[9]
Andrena cineraria (Grey Mining Bee)[9]
Andrena tibialis[9]
Andrena varians[9]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[9]
Araschnia levana (Map Butterfly)[9]
Bibio lanigerus[9]
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)[9]
Bombus pratorum (Early-nesting Humble-bee)[9]
Brassicogethes viridescens[9]
Byturus tomentosus <Unverified Name>[9]
Callophrys rubi (Green Hairstreak Butterfly)[9]
Chalcosyrphus nemorum[9]
Chlorops hypostigma[9]
Clytus arietis (wasp beetle)[9]
Empis ciliata[9]
Eusphalerum semicoleoptratum <Unverified Name>[9]
Graphomya maculata[9]
Lucilia sericata (Green blowfly)[9]
Melanostoma scalare[9]
Mordella aculeata <Unverified Name>[9]
Myathropa florea <Unverified Name>[9]
Parasyrphus annulatus[9]
Rhagium bifasciatum (two-banded longhorn beetle)[9]
Rhingia campestris[9]
Scathophaga stercoraria (Common Yellow Dung Fly)[9]
Syritta pipiens (thick-legged hoverfly)[9]
Tenthredo temula <Unverified Name>[9]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Coltricia confluens[12]
Tubaria dispersa[9]
Parasitized by 
Anthonomus pedicularius[9]
Aphanobasidium bourdotii[12]
Diplocarpon mespili[9]
Entoloma clypeatum[12]
Fuscoporia ferrea (Cinnamon Porecrust)[12]
Gymnosporangium clavariiforme[12]
Gymnosporangium confusum[12]
Ileostylus micranthus (Mistletoe)[12]
Incurvaria masculella <Unverified Name>[9]
Paraswammerdamia nebulella <Unverified Name>[9]
Parornix anglicella[9]
Phellinus pomaceus[12]
Phyllactinia mali[12]
Phyllocoptes goniothorax <Unverified Name>[9]
Phyllonorycter oxyacanthae[9]
Podosphaera clandestina[9]
Resseliella crataegi[9]
Stigmella oxyacanthella[9]
Taphrina crataegi[9]
Venturia inaequalis[9]
Viscum album (European mistletoe)[12]
Shelter for 
Emberiza citrinella (Yellowhammer)[9]
Garrulus glandarius (Eurasian Jay)[9]
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)[9]
Lanius excubitor (Northern Shrike)[9]
Streptopelia turtur (European Turtle-Dove)[9]
Sylvia curruca (Lesser Whitethroat)[9]




Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
5ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
6Paula S, Arianoutsou M, Kazanis D, Tavsanoglu Ç, Lloret F, Buhk C, Ojeda F, Luna B, Moreno JM, Rodrigo A, Espelta JM, Palacio S, Fernández-Santos B, Fernandes PM, and Pausas JG. 2009. Fire-related traits for plant species of the Mediterranean Basin. Ecology 90: 1420.
Paula S. & Pausas J.G. 2013. BROT: a plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species. Version 2013.06.
7Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
8Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
9Ecology of Commanster
10HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
11New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
12Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
13Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
14Juškaitis R. 2008. The Common Dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius: Ecology, Population Structure and Dynamics. Institute of Ecology of Vilnius University Publishers, Vilnius.
15Differential seed dispersal patterns generated by a common assemblage of vertebrate frugivores in three fleshy-fruited trees, Isabel MARTÍNEZ, Daniel GARCÍA & José Ramón OBESO, Écoscience, 15 (2): 189-199 (2008)
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access