Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Myrtales > Myrtaceae > Syzygium > Syzygium cumini
 

Syzygium cumini (Jambul)

Synonyms: Calyptranthes capitellata; Calyptranthes caryophyllifolia; Calyptranthes cumini; Calyptranthes cuminodora; Calyptranthes jambolana; Calyptranthes jambolifera; Calyptranthes oneillii; Caryophyllus corticosus; Caryophyllus jambos; Eugenia calyptrata; Eugenia caryophyllifolia; Eugenia cumini; Eugenia jambolana; Eugenia jambolana var. caryophyllifolia; Eugenia jambolana var. obtusifolia; Eugenia jambolifera; Eugenia obovata; Eugenia obtusifolia; Eugenia tsoi; Jambolifera chinensis; Jambolifera coromandelica; Jambolifera pedunculata; Myrtus corticosa; Myrtus cumini; Myrtus obovata; Syzygium caryophyllifolium; Syzygium cumini var. caryophyllifolium; Syzygium cumini var. obtusifolium; Syzygium cumini var. tsoi; Syzygium jambolanum; Syzygium jambolanum var. acuminata; Syzygium jambolanum var. elliptica; Syzygium jambolanum var. obovata; Syzygium obovatum; Syzygium obtusifolium

Wikipedia Abstract

Jambul (Syzygium cumini) is an evergreen tropical tree in the flowering plant family Myrtaceae. Jambul is native to Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and Indonesia. The name of the fruit is sometimes mistranslated as blackberry, which is a different fruit in an unrelated family. The tree was introduced to Florida, USA in 1911 by the USDA, and is also now commonly grown in Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago.
View Wikipedia Record: Syzygium cumini

Invasive Species

Syzygium cumini has been introduced to many different places where it has been utilised as a fruit producer, as an ornamental and also for its timber. It has the ability to form a dense cover, excluding all other species. This characteristic has allowed Syzygium cumini to become invasive in Hawaii where it prevents the re-establishment of native lowland forest and very invasive in the Cook Islands and in French Polynesia. This tree has not been evaluated for biological control, but vigorous efforts to exterminate it with herbicides are taking place in Hawaii.
View ISSG Record: Syzygium cumini

Attributes

Height [1]  63 feet (19.1 m)
Width [1]  55 feet (16.8 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  None
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-High
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Dense
Shade Percentage [1]  91 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 11 Low Temperature: 40 F° (4.4 C°) → 50 F° (10 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 11 Low Temperature: 40 F° (4.4 C°) → 50 F° (10 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [2]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [2]  Intermediate
Water Use [1]  Moderate to Low
Flower Color [2]  Green
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Black
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Medium
Fire Tolerance [2]  Medium
Frost Free Days [2]  1 year
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Year Round
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Janka Hardness [4]  1420 lbf (644 kgf) Medium
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  36 inches (91 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Moderate
Seed Vigor [2]  Medium
Seeds Per [2]  4000 / lb (8818 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [5]  0.56
Structure [3]  Tree
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Everglades and Dry Tortugas Biosphere Reserve   Florida, United States  
Gombe National Park II 8799 Tanzania
Mahale Mountains National Park II 398414 Tanzania

Predators

Acrocercops allactopa[6]
Acrocercops argodesma[6]
Acrocercops chrysophila[6]
Acrocercops eugeniella[6]
Acrocercops loxias[6]
Acrocercops phaeospora[6]
Acrocercops sphaerodelta[6]
Acrocercops telestis[6]
Anastrepha sororcula[7]
Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly)[7]
Anastrepha zenildae[7]
Anisodes samoana[6]
Antheraea paphia[6]
Antispila anna[6]
Aonidiella aurantii (California red scale)[8]
Aonidiella orientalis (Oriental Scale)[8]
Aporandria specularia[6]
Arna bipunctapex[6]
Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale)[8]
Barasa acronyctoides[6]
Bos frontalis (gaur)[9]
Canis aureus (Golden Jackal)[10]
Carea angulata[6]
Carea chlorostigma[6]
Ceroplastes rubens (pink wax scale)[8]
Chionaspis lumbiniana[8]
Chloromachia augustaria[6]
Chrysocraspeda abhadraca[6]
Chrysocraspeda iole[6]
Chrysocraspeda olearia[6]
Chrysomphalus aonidum (circular black scale)[11]
Coccus colemani[8]
Coenodomus hockingi[6]
Comocritis circulata[6]
Conopomorpha litchiella[6]
Cusiala raptaria[6]
Ectropis bhurmitra[12]
Eucalymnatus tessellatus (tessellated scale)[8]
Eucoenogenes melanancalis[6]
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)[13]
Flos apidanus[6]
Geometra flavifrontaria[6]
Hylesia falcifera[6]
Hyposidra talaca[12]
Icerya aegyptiaca[8]
Idiophantis acanthopa[6]
Idiophantis discura[6]
Kilifia acuminata (acuminate scale)[8]
Kunugia latipennis[6]
Lymantria mathura (Rosy Gypsy Moth)[6]
Macaca radiata (bonnet macaque)[14]
Macarostola eugeniella[6]
Macarostola zehntneri[6]
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)[8]
Melursus ursinus (Sloth Bear)[15]
Meridarchis reprobata[6]
Meridarchis scyrodes[6]
Metanastria aconyta[6]
Metanastria hyrtaca[6]
Micraphe lateritia[6]
Microcolona citroplecta[6]
Oenospila flavifusata[6]
Olene dalbergiae[6]
Olene inclusa[6]
Opogona xanthocrita[6]
Parasa latistriga[6]
Phthorimaea operculella (Potato tuberworm)[6]
Planococcus minor (Pacific mealybug)[8]
Promalactis semantris[6]
Protopulvinaria pyriformis (pyriform scale)[8]
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)[16]
Pteropus tonganus (Pacific flying fox)[17]
Ptochophyle togata[6]
Pulvinaria psidii (green shield scale)[8]
Rousettus leschenaulti (Leschenault's rousette)[16]
Saissetia zanzibarensis[8]
Selepa celtis[6]
Semnopithecus entellus (Hanuman langur)[18]
Semnostoma barathrota[6]
Sorolopha camarotis[6]
Statherotis agitata[6]
Stenoma promotella[6]
Strepsicrates glaucothoe[6]
Strepsicrates rhothia[6]
Trabala vishnou[6]
Trachypithecus johnii (hooded leaf monkey)[19]
Vinsonia stellifera (stellate scale)[11]
Vulpes bengalensis (Bengal Fox)[20]

Distribution

Trop. & Subtrop. Asia to N. Queensland;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Govaerts R., 2003-11-11, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database. 2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture 3Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935 4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts 5Jérôme Chave, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Timothy R. Baker, Tomás A. Easdale, Hans ter Steege, Campbell O. Webb, 2006. Regional and phylogenetic variation of wood density across 2,456 neotropical tree species. Ecological Applications 16(6), 2356 - 2367 6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández 7Norrbom, A.L. 2004. Fruit fly (Tephritidae) host plant database. Version Nov, 2004. 8Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009 9Studies on the food and feeding habits of Gaur Bos gaurus H. Smith (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae) in two protected areas of Goa, Suman D. Gad & S.K. Shyama, Journal of Threatened Taxa | 1(2): 128-130 | February 2009 106.2 Golden jackal, Canis aureus, Y.V. Jhala and P.D. Moehlman, Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 430 pp. 11Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants 12Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19 13FRUGIVORY BY KOELS IN HONG KONG, Richard T. Corlett and Ice Ko Wai Ping, Memoirs of the Hong Kong Natural History Society, No. 20, 1995, pp. 221-222 14DIET COMPOSITION OF THE BONNET MACAQUE (Macaca radiata) IN A TROPICAL DRY EVERGREEN FOREST OF SOUTHERN INDIA, R. Krishnamani, Tropical Biodiversity 2(2):285 (1994) 15Feeding ecology of sloth bears in a disturbed area in central India, H.S. Bargali, Naim Akhtar,and N.P.S. Chauhan, Ursus 15(2):212-217 (2004) 16Sudhakaran, M.R. & P.S. Doss (2012). Food and foraging preferences of three pteropo- did bats in southern India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(1): 2295-2303 17Pteropus tonganus, Carrie A. Miller and Don E. Wilson, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 552, pp. 1-6 (1997) 18Feeding and Ranging Patterns of Forest Hanuman Langurs (Presbytis entellus), Paul Newton, International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1992 19Ecology and Conservation of Nilgiri Langur (Trachypithecus johnii), S.F. Wesley Sunderraj, Envis Bulletin: Wildlife and Protected Areas (2001) 1(1), 49–59 208.2 Indian fox, Vulpes bengalensis, A.J.T. Johnsingh and Y.V. Jhala, Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 430 pp.
Invasive Status provided by Global Invasive Species Database Downloaded on 10 May 2011.
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access