Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Asterales > Asteraceae > Cichorium > Cichorium intybus
 

Cichorium intybus (chicory)

Infraspecies

Attributes

Height [3]  4.9 feet (1.5 m)
Width [3]  20 inches (0.5 m)
Screening - Summer [2]  Porous
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Hardiness Zone Minimum [2]  USDA Zone: 2 Low Temperature: -50 F° (-45.6 C°) → -40 F° (-40 C°)
Light Preference [4]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [4]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [4]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [4]  Mostly Dry
Water Use [2]  High
Bee Flower Color [1]  Blue
Flower Color [2]  Blue
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Flower Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Summer
Drought Tolerance [2]  Medium
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Medium
Flower Type [3]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [2]  90 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Bunch
Growth Period [2]  Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Hazards [3]  Excessive and continued use may impair function of the retina;
Leaf Type [2]  Deciduous
Lifespan [3]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Bees, Bats
Propagation [2]  Seed
Regrowth Rate [2]  Slow
Root Depth [2]  8 inches (20 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Rapid
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  426399 / lb (940050 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Structure [5]  Herb
Usage [3]  The roots have the potential to be used for the production of biomass for industrial use; They are rich in the starch 'inulin' which can easily be converted to alcohol; A blue dye has been obtained from the leaves; The flowers are an alternative ingredient of 'QR' herbal compost activator; This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Cichorium intybus

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Appomattox Court House National Historical Park V 1687 Virginia, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Bolshekhekhtsirsky Zapovednik Ia 112282 Khabarovsk, Russia
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Braunton Burrows 3328 England, United Kingdom
Breckland 18652 England, United Kingdom
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Burnham Beeches 946 England, United Kingdom  
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve 90 Michigan, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Dartmoor 57244 England, United Kingdom
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge   Puerto Rico, United States
Dornoch Firth and Morrich More 21499 Scotland, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fort Necessity National Battlefield III 1019 Pennsylvania, United States
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Galichia Gora Zapovednik Ia 568 Lipetsk, Russia
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Hackpen Hill 89 England, United Kingdom  
Hope College Biology Nature Preserve 55 Michigan, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Hoy 23474 Scotland, United Kingdom
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Los Glaciares National Park II 1329020 Santa Cruz, Argentina
Lower Derwent Valley 2263 England, United Kingdom
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Lundy 7573 England, United Kingdom  
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Mount Revelstoke National Park Ia 18 British Columbia, Canada
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Nez Perce National Historical Park V 2076 Idaho, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North Somerset and Mendip Bats 1387 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Oregon Caves National Monument V 456 Oregon, United States
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Parco Del Somma-Vesuvio e Miglio D'Oro National Park II 33648 Italy
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Pevensey Levels 8860 England, United Kingdom  
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve V 1777 Spain  
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Shortgrass Steppe LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Colorado, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Ukrainskii Stepnoi Zapovednik Nature Zapovednik Ia 2920 Ukraine  
Ussuriysky Zapovednik Ia 99910 Primorsky Krai , Russia
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Ecosystems

Predators

Apis mellifera (honey bee)[6]
Aporophyla australis[7]
Dactynotus cichorii <Unverified Name>[7]
Delia floralis (turnip maggot)[7]
Ensina sonchi[8]
Eriococcus devoniensis (heather scale)[9]
Eriococcus insignis (remarkable felt scale)[9]
Gueriniella serratulae[9]
Heliothis viriplaca <Unverified Name>[7]
Liriomyza strigata[7]
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)[6]
Nasonovia ribisnigri[7]
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)[6]
Ophiomyia pinguis[7]
Orthocephalus coriaceus[7]
Orthochaetes setiger[7]
Otiorhynchus ligustici[7]
Peliococcus turanicus (malicious mealybug)[9]
Pemphigus bursarius (Poplar gall aphid)[8]
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)[6]
Phenacoccus gypsophilae[9]
Phenacoccus pumilus (dwarf mealybug)[9]
Phenacoccus solenopsis (solenopsis mealybug)[9]
Phytomyza horticola <Unverified Name>[7]
Protrama flavescens[7]
Psila rosae <Unverified Name>[7]
Stenocarus umbrinus[7]
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)[6]
Trionymus multivorus (polyphagous mealybug)[9]
Vespula maculifrons (eastern yellowjacket)[6]
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)[6]
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)[6]

Providers

Pollinated by 
Vespula maculifrons (eastern yellowjacket)[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ditylenchus dipsaci (Bud and stem nematode)[10]
Golovinomyces cichoracearum[8]
Microbotryum cichorii[8]
Shelter for 
Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug)[6]
Lithobius forficatus (Brown centipede)[6]
Melanoplus differentialis (Differential Grasshopper)[6]
Phidippus audax (Daring Jumping Spider)[6]
Pterostichus melanarius (Common black ground beetle)[6]
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)[6]
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Distribution

1 - Europe, ; 1 - Europe, ; 1 - Europe, ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, ; 7 - Northern America, ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 36 - China, ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 36 - China, ; 4 - Asia-Tropical, 42 - Malesia, ; 5 - Australasia, 50 - Australia, ; 5 - Australasia, 51 - New Zealand, ; 7 - Northern America, 79 - Mexico, ; 8 - Southern America, 84 - Brazil, ; 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 34 - Western Asia, Afghanistan (AFG), ; 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northeast (AGE), ; 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina South (AGS), ; 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northwest (AGW), ; 2 - Africa, 21 - Macaronesia, Azores (AZO), ; 1 - Europe, 14 - Eastern Europe, Belarus (BLR), ; 1 - Europe, 14 - Eastern Europe, Baltic States (BLT), ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 30 - Siberia, Buryatiya (BRY), ; 7 - Northern America, 76 - Southwestern U.S.A., California (CAL), ; 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile Central (CLC), ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 30 - Siberia, Chita (CTA), ; 2 - Africa, 21 - Macaronesia, Cape Verde (CVI), ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 34 - Western Asia, Cyprus (CYP), ; 1 - Europe, 11 - Middle Europe, Czechoslovakia (CZE), ; 1 - Europe, 10 - Northern Europe, Denmark (DEN), ; 2 - Africa, 24 - Northeast Tropical Africa, Eritrea (ERI), ; 2 - Africa, 24 - Northeast Tropical Africa, Ethiopia (ETH), ; 1 - Europe, 10 - Northern Europe, Finland (FIN), ; 1 - Europe, 10 - Northern Europe, Great Britain (GRB), ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 35 - Arabian Peninsula, Gulf States (GST), ; 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, India (IND), ; 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, India (IND), ; 1 - Europe, 10 - Northern Europe, Ireland (IRE), ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 30 - Siberia, Irkutsk (IRK), ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 34 - Western Asia, Iran (IRN), ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 34 - Western Asia, Iraq (IRQ), ; 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Juan Fernández Is. (JNF), ; 1 - Europe, 14 - Eastern Europe, Krym (KRY), ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 34 - Western Asia, Lebanon-Syria (LBS), ; 2 - Africa, 20 - Northern Africa, Libya (LBY), ; 2 - Africa, 20 - Northern Africa, Morocco (MOR), ; 2 - Africa, 20 - Northern Africa, Morocco (MOR), ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 33 - Caucasus, North Caucasus (NCS), ; 1 - Europe, 10 - Northern Europe, Norway (NOR), ; 5 - Australasia, 51 - New Zealand, New Zealand North (NZN), ; 5 - Australasia, 51 - New Zealand, New Zealand South (NZS), ; 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, Pakistan (PAK), ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 34 - Western Asia, Palestine (PAL), ; 1 - Europe, 14 - Eastern Europe, Central European Russia (RUC), ; 1 - Europe, 14 - Eastern Europe, East European Russia (RUE), ; 1 - Europe, 14 - Eastern Europe, North European Russia (RUN), ; 1 - Europe, 14 - Eastern Europe, South European Russia (RUS), ; 1 - Europe, 14 - Eastern Europe, Northwest European Russia (RUW), ; 1 - Europe, 10 - Northern Europe, Sweden (SWE), ; 5 - Australasia, 50 - Australia, Tasmania (TAS), ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 33 - Caucasus, Transcaucasus (TCS), ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 34 - Western Asia, Turkey (TUR), ; 1 - Europe, 14 - Eastern Europe, Ukraine (UKR), ; 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Uruguay (URU), ; 4 - Asia-Tropical, 41 - Indo-China, Vietnam (VIE), ; 2 - Africa, 20 - Northern Africa, Western Sahara (WSA), ; 7 - Northern America, 71 - Western Canada, Alberta (ABT), Alberta (ABT-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 34 - Western Asia, Afghanistan (AFG), Afghanistan (AFG-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 34 - Western Asia, Afghanistan (AFG), Afghanistan (AFG-OO); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northeast (AGE), Buenos Aires (AGE-BA); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northeast (AGE), Argentina Distrito Federal (AGE-DF); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northeast (AGE), Entre Ríos (AGE-ER); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northeast (AGE), La Pampa (AGE-LP); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina South (AGS), Neuquén (AGS-NE); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina South (AGS), Rio Negro (AGS-RN); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northwest (AGW), Jujuy (AGW-JU); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northwest (AGW), Mendoza (AGW-ME); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northwest (AGW), Salta (AGW-SA); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northwest (AGW), Tucuman (AGW-TU); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., Alabama (ALA), Alabama (ALA-OO); 1 - Europe, 13 - Southeastern Europe, Albania (ALB), Albania (ALB-OO); 1 - Europe, 13 - Southeastern Europe, Albania (ALB), Albania (ALB-OO); 2 - Africa, 20 - Northern Africa, Algeria (ALG), Algeria (ALG-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 30 - Siberia, Altay (ALT), Altay (ALT-OO); 7 - Northern America, 76 - Southwestern U.S.A., Arizona (ARI), Arizona (ARI-OO); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., Arkansas (ARK), Arkansas (ARK-OO); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, Assam (ASS), Assam (ASS-AS); 1 - Europe, 11 - Middle Europe, Austria (AUT), Austria (AUT-AU); 1 - Europe, 11 - Middle Europe, Austria (AUT), Austria (AUT-AU); 1 - Europe, 11 - Middle Europe, Austria (AUT), Liechtenstein (AUT-LI); 2 - Africa, 21 - Macaronesia, Azores (AZO), Açôres (AZO-OO); 1 - Europe, 12 - Southwestern Europe, Baleares (BAL), Baleares (BAL-OO); 1 - Europe, 11 - Middle Europe, Belgium (BGM), Belgium (BGM-BE); 1 - Europe, 11 - Middle Europe, Belgium (BGM), Belgium (BGM-BE); 1 - Europe, 11 - Middle Europe, Belgium (BGM), Luxembourg (BGM-LU); 1 - Europe, 14 - Eastern Europe, Belarus (BLR), Belarus (BLR-OO); 1 - Europe, 14 - Eastern Europe, Baltic States (BLT), Latvia (BLT-LA); 1 - Europe, 14 - Eastern Europe, Baltic States (BLT), Lithuania (BLT-LI); 7 - Northern America, 71 - Western Canada, British Columbia (BRC), British Columbia (BRC-OO); 1 - Europe, 13 - Southeastern Europe, Bulgaria (BUL), Bulgaria (BUL-OO); 1 - Europe, 13 - Southeastern Europe, Bulgaria (BUL), Bulgaria (BUL-OO); 8 - Southern America, 84 - Brazil, Brazil South (BZS), Santa Catarina (BZS-SC); 7 - Northern America, 76 - Southwestern U.S.A., California (CAL), California (CAL-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 36 - China, Manchuria (CHM), Heilongjiang (CHM-HJ); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 36 - China, Manchuria (CHM), Liaoning (CHM-LN); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 36 - China, China North-Central (CHN), Beijing (CHN-BJ); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 36 - China, China North-Central (CHN), Shaanxi (CHN-SA); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 36 - China, China North-Central (CHN), Shandong (CHN-SD); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 36 - China, Qinghai (CHQ), Qinghai (CHQ-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 36 - China, China Southeast (CHS), Jiangxi (CHS-JX); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 36 - China, Tibet (CHT), Tibet (CHT-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 36 - China, Xinjiang (CHX), Xinjiang (CHX-OO); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile Central (CLC), Biobío (CLC-BI); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile Central (CLC), Coquimbo (CLC-CO); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile Central (CLC), La Araucania (CLC-LA); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile Central (CLC), Maule (CLC-MA); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile Central (CLC), O'Higgins (CLC-OH); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile Central (CLC), Santiago (CLC-SA); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile Central (CLC), Valparaíso (CLC-VA); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile North (CLN), Atacama (CLN-AT); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile South (CLS), Los Lagos (CLS-LL); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile South (CLS), Magellanes (CLS-MG); 7 - Northern America, 75 - Northeastern U.S.A., Connecticut (CNT), Connecticut (CNT-OO); 7 - Northern America, 73 - Northwestern U.S.A., Colorado (COL), Colorado (COL-OO); 1 - Europe, 12 - Southwestern Europe, Corse (COR), Corse (COR-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 30 - Siberia, Chita (CTA), Chita (CTA-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 34 - Western Asia, Cyprus (CYP), Cyprus (CYP-OO); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., Delaware (DEL), Delaware (DEL-OO); 1 - Europe, 10 - Northern Europe, Denmark (DEN), Denmark (DEN-OO); 1 - Europe, 10 - Northern Europe, Denmark (DEN), Denmark (DEN-OO); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Desventurados Is. (DSV), Desventurados Is. (DSV-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 34 - Western Asia, East Aegean Is. (EAI), East Aegean Is. (EAI-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 34 - Western Asia, East Aegean Is. (EAI), East Aegean Is. (EAI-OO); 6 - Pacific, 61 - South-Central Pacific, Easter Is. (EAS), Easter Is. (EAS-OO); 2 - Africa, 20 - Northern Africa, Egypt (EGY), Egypt (EGY-OO); 1 - Europe, 10 - Northern Europe, Finland (FIN), Finland (FIN-OO); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., Florida (FLA), Florida (FLA-OO); 1 - Europe, 12 - Southwestern Europe, France (FRA), Channel Is. (FRA-CI); 1 - Europe, 12 - Southwestern Europe, France (FRA), France (FRA-FR); 1 - Europe, 12 - Southwestern Europe, France (FRA), France (FRA-FR); 1 - Europe, 12 - Southwestern Europe, France (FRA), Monaco (FRA-MO); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., Georgia (GEO), Georgia (GEO-OO); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., Georgia (GEO), Georgia (GEO-OO); 1 - Europe, 11 - Middle Europe, Germany (GER), Germany (GER-OO); 1 - Europe, 11 - Middle Europe, Germany (GER), Germany (GER-OO); 1 - Europe, 10 - Northern Europe, Great Britain (GRB), Great Britain (GRB-OO); 1 - Europe, 13 - Southeastern Europe, Greece (GRC), Greece (GRC-OO); 1 - Europe, 11 - Middle Europe, Hungary (HUN), Hungary (HUN-OO); 1 - Europe, 11 - Middle Europe, Hungary (HUN), Hungary (HUN-OO); 7 - Northern America, 73 - Northwestern U.S.A., Idaho (IDA), Idaho (IDA-OO); 7 - Northern America, 74 - North-Central U.S.A., Illinois (ILL), Illinois (ILL-OO); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, India (IND), Andhra Pradesh (IND-AP); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, India (IND), Bihar (IND-BI); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, India (IND), Delhi (IND-DE); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, India (IND), Gujarat (IND-GU); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, India (IND), Kerala (IND-KE); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, India (IND), Karnataka (IND-KT); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, India (IND), Madhya Pradesh (IND-MP); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, India (IND), Maharashtra (IND-MR); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, India (IND), Orissa (IND-OR); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, India (IND), Punjab (IND-PU); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, India (IND), Rajasthan (IND-RA); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, India (IND), Tamil Nadu (IND-TN); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, India (IND), Uttar Pradesh (IND-UP); 7 - Northern America, 75 - Northeastern U.S.A., Indiana (INI), Indiana (INI-OO); 7 - Northern America, 74 - North-Central U.S.A., Iowa (IOW), Iowa (IOW-OO); 1 - Europe, 10 - Northern Europe, Ireland (IRE), Ireland (IRE-IR); 1 - Europe, 10 - Northern Europe, Ireland (IRE), Northern Ireland (IRE-NI); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 30 - Siberia, Irkutsk (IRK), Irkutsk (IRK-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 34 - Western Asia, Iran (IRN), Iran (IRN-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 34 - Western Asia, Iran (IRN), Iran (IRN-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 34 - Western Asia, Iran (IRN), Iran (IRN-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 34 - Western Asia, Iraq (IRQ), Iraq (IRQ-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 34 - Western Asia, Iraq (IRQ), Iraq (IRQ-OO); 1 - Europe, 13 - Southeastern Europe, Italy (ITA), Italy (ITA-IT); 1 - Europe, 13 - Southeastern Europe, Italy (ITA), Italy (ITA-IT); 1 - Europe, 13 - Southeastern Europe, Italy (ITA), San Marino (ITA-SM); 1 - Europe, 13 - Southeastern Europe, Italy (ITA), Vatican City (ITA-VC); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Juan Fernández Is. (JNF), Juan Fernández Is. (JNF-OO); 7 - Northern America, 74 - North-Central U.S.A., Kansas (KAN), Kansas (KAN-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 32 - Middle Asia, Kazakhstan (KAZ), Kazakhstan (KAZ-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 32 - Middle Asia, Kazakhstan (KAZ), Kazakhstan (KAZ-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 32 - Middle Asia, Kirgizistan (KGZ), Kirgizistan (KGZ-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 32 - Middl; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Arnold SEJ, Faruq S, Savolainen V, McOwan PW, Chittka L, 2010 FReD: The Floral Reflectance Database — A Web Portal for Analyses of Flower Colour. PLoS ONE 5(12): e14287. 2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture 3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License 4ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999) 5Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935 6Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 7Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants 8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 9Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009 10Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Images provided by Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access