Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Rosales > Rosaceae > Rubus > Rubus idaeus

Rubus idaeus (Raspberry)

Wikipedia Abstract

Rubus idaeus (raspberry, also called red raspberry or occasionally as European raspberry to distinguish it from other raspberries) is a red-fruited species of Rubus native to Europe and northern Asia and commonly cultivated in other temperate regions.
View Wikipedia Record: Rubus idaeus



Height [2]  6.6 feet (2 m)
Width [2]  4.9 feet (1.5 m)
Screening - Summer [1]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [1]  Porous
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 0 Low Temperature: -65 F° (-53.9 C°) → -60 F° (-51.1 C°)
Light Preference [4]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [4]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [4]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [4]  Moist
Flower Color [1]  White
Foliage Color [1]  Green
Fruit Color [1]  Red
Fruit Conspicuous [1]  Yes
Bloom Period [1]  Spring
Drought Tolerance [1]  High
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [1]  Medium
Flower Type [2]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [1]  88 days
Fruit/Seed Begin [1]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [1]  Summer
Growth Form [1]  Thicket Forming
Growth Period [1]  Spring
Growth Rate [1]  Moderate
Hazards [1]  Slight Toxicity
Leaf Type [2]  Deciduous
Lifespan [3]  Perennial
Pollinators [2]  Bees, Flies, Bats
Propagation [1]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed, Sprig
Root Depth [1]  12 inches (30 cm)
Seed Vigor [1]  High
Seeds Per [1]  269999 / lb (595247 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [1]  Erect
Structure [2]  Shrub
Usage [2]  A purple to dull blue dye is obtained from the fruit; A fibre obtained from the stems is used in making paper; The stems are harvested in the summer after the fruit has been eaten, the leaves are removed and the stems are steamed until the fibres can be stripped. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then hand beaten with mallets or ball milled for 3 hours. The paper is light brown in colour; A decongestant face-mask made from the fruit is used cosmetically to soothe reddened skin;
View Plants For A Future Record : Rubus idaeus

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bagni di Masino - Pizzo Badile - Val di Mello - Val Torrone - Piano di Preda Rossa 23828 Italy  
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Basegi Zapovednik Ia 93739 Perm, Russia
Bath and Bradford-on-Avon Bats 265 England, United Kingdom  
Beinn Eighe National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd/ Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains 67265 Wales, United Kingdom
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Caenlochan 12860 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Cedar Breaks National Monument III 6111 Utah, United States
Coram Biosphere Reserve 7460 Montana, United States
Costa del Pallio 729 Italy  
Craven Limestone Complex 13166 England, United Kingdom
Disgrazia - Sissone 7438 Italy  
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Eryri/ Snowdonia 48773 Wales, United Kingdom  
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Foinaven 36684 Scotland, United Kingdom
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Galichia Gora Zapovednik Ia 568 Lipetsk, Russia
Galloway Oakwoods 877 Scotland, United Kingdom
Georgian Bay Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glen Tanar 10329 Scotland, United Kingdom
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Hubbard Brook Biosphere Reserve 7809 New Hampshire, United States
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Massiccio del Monte Pollino e Monte Alpi 217581 Italy  
Merrick Kells 21494 Scotland, United Kingdom
Migneint–Arenig–Dduallt 49343 Wales, United Kingdom
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Monte di Scerscen - Ghiacciai di Scerscen - Monte Motta 23885 Italy  
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Morecambe Bay Pavements 6449 England, United Kingdom
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Mount Mitchell State Park   North Carolina, United States
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Parco Del Somma-Vesuvio e Miglio D'Oro National Park II 33648 Italy
Parco Regionale Orobie Valtellinesi 56377 Italy  
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Rum 26775 Scotland, United Kingdom
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Upper Nithsdale Woods 243 Scotland, United Kingdom
Val di Togno - Pizzo Scalino 7784 Italy  
Valsolda 808 Italy  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  



Acalitus essigi (redberry mite)[5]
Acleris rufana[6]
Acronicta auricoma (Scarce Dagger)[6]
Acronicta brumosa (Charred Dagger Moth)[6]
Acronicta longa (Long-winged Dagger Moth)[6]
Acronicta menyanthidis (Light Knot Grass)[6]
Acronicta spinigera (Nondescript Dagger Moth)[6]
Acrophylla titan (Titan Stick Insect)[7]
Acrophylla wuelfingi (Wülfing's Stick Insect)[7]
Adelges abietis (Aphid)[8]
Agromyza filipendulae[5]
Agromyza potentillae[5]
Agromyza sulfuriceps[5]
Agrotis gladiaria (claybacked cutworm)[6]
Agrotis segetum (Turnip Moth)[5]
Alces alces (moose)[8]
Amphorophora idaei[5]
Anaplectoides prasina (green arches)[6]
Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly)[9]
Ancylis apicana[6]
Ancylis comptana (Strawberry leafroller)[6]
Andrena haemorrhoa (Early Mining Bee)[10]
Angerona prunaria[6]
Anthonomus rubi[10]
Anthophora abrupta (miner bee)[11]
Aphantopus hyperantus (Ringlet Butterfly)[10]
Aphis idaei (Small Raspberry Aphid)[10]
Apioporthe vepris[7]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[10]
Apolygus spinolae[10]
Arge gracilicornis <Unverified Name>[10]
Argolamprotes micella[6]
Argynnis paphia (Silver-washed Fritillary)[6]
Atrococcus bejbienkoi (Bei-Bienko's mealybug)[12]
Aulacaspis rosae (rosa scale)[12]
Batophila aerata <Unverified Name>[5]
Batophila rubi <Unverified Name>[5]
Blastobasis decolorella[6]
Blepharita satura (Beautiful Arches)[5]
Bombus hortorum (Small Garden Humble-bee)[10]
Bombus vestalis (Vestal Cuckoo-bee)[10]
Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse)[8]
Brenthis daphne (Marbled Fritillary)[6]
Brenthis ino (Lesser Marbled Fritillary)[6]
Brunnipila clandestina[7]
Byturus tomentosus <Unverified Name>[10]
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Carnation Tortrix)[5]
Caliroa cerasi (pearslug)[5]
Calliteara pudibunda (Pale Tussock)[6]
Callophrys rubi (Green Hairstreak Butterfly)[6]
Calypte anna (Anna's Hummingbird)[7]
Carpodacus sipahi (Scarlet Finch)[13]
Carposina adreptella[6]
Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush)[8]
Celastrina argiolus (Holly Blue Butterfly)[5]
Cenopalpus spinosus[5]
Cerastis tenebrifera (reddish speckled dart)[6]
Chlorochlamys chloroleucaria (Blackberry Looper)[6]
Claremontia alternipes <Unverified Name>[5]
Cleora cinctaria (Ringed Carpet)[6]
Clossiana dia[7]
Clypeosphaeria mamillana[7]
Cnephasia asseclana (Flax Tortrix Moth)[6]
Coccura comari (Kunow's mealybug)[12]
Conistra vaccinii (Chestnut)[6]
Creontiades dilutus[7]
Crocallis elinguaria (Scalloped Oak Moth)[6]
Dasineura plicatrix[5]
Diachrysia balluca (Green-patched Looper)[6]
Discostroma corticola[7]
Dolycoris baccarum <Unverified Name>[10]
Edwardsiana rosae (Rose leafhopper)[5]
Empoasca decipiens[5]
Empria longicornis <Unverified Name>[5]
Empria tridens <Unverified Name>[5]
Erastria coloraria[6]
Eriophyes rubicolens <Unverified Name>[5]
Eueretagrotis perattentus (Two-Spot Dart)[6]
Euphyia unangulata[5]
Eupithecia miserulata (Common Eupithecia)[6]
Eupithecia pusillata[6]
Eupithecia satyrata (Satyr Pug Moth)[6]
Eupithecia vulgata (Common Pug Moth)[5]
Euplexia lucipara (Small Angle Shades)[6]
Eutorna phaulocoma <Unverified Name>[14]
Euxoa scandens (white cutworm)[6]
Evacanthus interruptus <Unverified Name>[10]
Exidiopsis calcea[7]
Fixsenia pruni[6]
Gymnoscelis rufifasciata (Double-striped Pug)[6]
Gynaephora selenitica[6]
Habrosyne pyritoides (Buff Arches)[6]
Habrosyne scripta (Lettered Habrosyne)[6]
Hartigia nigra <Unverified Name>[5]
Hedya dimidioalba[5]
Hepialus humuli (Ghost Moth)[5]
Herminia grisealis (Small Fan-foot)[5]
Herminia tarsicrinalis (Shaded Fan-foot)[5]
Herminia tarsipennalis[5]
Herpotrichia herpotrichoides[7]
Heterotoma planicornis[10]
Hyalopeziza millepunctata[7]
Hydraecia micacea (potato stem worm)[5]
Hyppa rectilinea (Saxon)[5]
Incurvaria rubiella[6]
Lacanobia contigua (Beautiful Brocade)[6]
Lacanobia thalassina (Pale-shouldered Brocade)[6]
Lampronia corticella <Unverified Name>[5]
Lampronia flavimitrella <Unverified Name>[5]
Lampronia rubiella <Unverified Name>[5]
Lasiocampa quercus (Oak Eggar)[6]
Lasiocampa trifolii (Grass Eggar)[5]
Lasioptera rubi[10]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[12]
Lepus americanus (Snowshoe Hare)[8]
Lepyrus capucinus[5]
Lithophane hepatica[6]
Lophiotrema curreyi[7]
Luperus longicornis <Unverified Name>[5]
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)[10]
Lygus rugulipennis[5]
Macrothylacia rubi (Fox Moth)[6]
Malacosoma californica[6]
Martes americana (American Marten)[8]
Meganola albula <Unverified Name>[5]
Melanchra assimilis[6]
Melanchra persicariae (Dot Moth)[6]
Melanchra pisi (Broom Moth)[6]
Mesoleuca albicillata (Beautiful Carpet Moth)[6]
Metallus albipes <Unverified Name>[5]
Metallus gei <Unverified Name>[5]
Metallus pumilus <Unverified Name>[5]
Mimeuria ulmiphila[5]
Myodes rutilus (northern red-backed vole)[8]
Nematocampa limbata (filiment bearer)[6]
Oriolus oriolus (Eurasian Golden Oriole)[13]
Orthosia gothica (Hebrew Character)[6]
Orthosia gracilis (Powdered Quaker)[6]
Orthosia rubescens[6]
Otiorhynchus rugifrons[5]
Otiorhynchus rugosostriatus[5]
Otiorhynchus singularis[10]
Otiorhynchus sulcatus (European strawberry weevil)[5]
Pamphilius hortorum <Unverified Name>[10]
Panonychus ulmi (European red mite)[5]
Papaipema cataphracta (burdock borer)[6]
Paraleptosphaeria praetermissa[7]
Pegomya rubivora (raspberry cane maggot)[5]
Pemphigus rubiradicis[5]
Pennisetia hylaeiformis (Raspberry Clearwing)[6]
Peritelus sphaeroides[5]
Phialina separabilis[7]
Phoma idaei[7]
Phomopsis muelleri[7]
Phragmatobia fuliginosa (ruby tiger moth)[6]
Phyllocoptes gracilis <Unverified Name>[5]
Phyllopertha horticola[7]
Plagodis pulveraria (Barred Umber Moth)[6]
Planotortrix notophaea[14]
Platycampus luridiventris <Unverified Name>[5]
Platynota idaeusalis[6]
Poecile montanus (Willow Tit)[7]
Polia nebulosa (Grey Arches)[6]
Polygonia c-album (Comma Butterfly)[6]
Priophorus morio[5]
Pristiphora pallidiventris <Unverified Name>[5]
Protodeltote pygarga <Unverified Name>[5]
Pseudothyatira cymatophoroides (Tufted Thyatirid Moth)[6]
Psyche casta[6]
Pyrenopeziza rubi[7]
Pyrgus malvae (Grizzled Skipper)[6]
Resseliella fruticosi[5]
Resseliella oculiperda[5]
Resseliella theobaldi[5]
Rhynchites germanicus[5]
Ribautiana debilis[5]
Rusina ferruginea (Brown Rustic)[6]
Sarcophaga carnaria (Camouflaged Flesh Fly)[10]
Saturnia pavonia (Emperor moth)[5]
Schizothyrium speireum[7]
Schreckensteinia festaliella (blackberry skeletonizer)[6]
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)[7]
Scoliopteryx libatrix (herald moth)[6]
Serraca punctinalis[5]
Sonronius dahlbomi[10]
Spaelotis clandestina (Clandestine Dart)[6]
Sparganothis umbrana[6]
Sphaerulina westendorpii[10]
Sphinx ligustri (Sphinx moth)[6]
Spialia sertorius (Red-underwing Skipper)[7]
Spilosoma lubricipeda (White Ermine Moth)[6]
Spilosoma lutea (Buff Ermine)[6]
Spilosoma luteum <Unverified Name>[5]
Spodoptera dolichos[6]
Sterictiphora furcata <Unverified Name>[5]
Stigmella aurella[5]
Stigmella splendidissimella[10]
Strymon melinus (cotton square borer)[7]
Stypella mirabilis[7]
Sydowiella depressula[7]
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)[7]
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)[7]
Sylvia communis (Common Whitethroat)[7]
Synanthedon tipuliformis (Currant borer/Clearwing moth)[6]
Synchlora aerata[6]
Tamias minimus (least chipmunk)[15]
Taxonus agrorum <Unverified Name>[10]
Tenthredo mesomelas <Unverified Name>[5]
Tetrastes bonasia (Hazel Grouse)[13]
Thyatira batis (Peach Blossom Moth)[6]
Tischeria gaunacella[6]
Trichordestra tacoma[6]
Triposporium elegans[7]
Truncatella laurocerasi[7]
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)[7]
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)[7]
Udea flavidalis[14]
Ursus americanus (black bear)[16]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[8]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[8]
Xanthorhoe lacustrata[6]
Xanthotype sospeta[6]
Xestia baja (Dotted Clay)[6]
Xestia smithii (Smith's Dart)[6]
Xestia triangulum <Unverified Name>[5]
Xylena exsoleta (Sword-grass)[6]
Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow)[8]


Pollinated by 
Andrena crataegi[7]
Andrena haemorrhoa (Early Mining Bee)[10]
Andrena vicina[7]
Anthophora terminalis[7]
Aphantopus hyperantus (Ringlet Butterfly)[10]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[10]
Bombus beaticola[7]
Bombus bifarius[7]
Bombus flavifrons[7]
Bombus hortorum (Small Garden Humble-bee)[10]
Bombus morrisoni[7]
Bombus occidentalis (Western Bumble Bee)[7]
Bombus vestalis (Vestal Cuckoo-bee)[10]
Byturus tomentosus <Unverified Name>[10]
Eristalis arbustorum[7]
Eupeodes americanus (American hover fly)[7]
Gnophaela vermiculata (Police-Car Moth)[7]
Pseudomasaris vespoides[7]
Volucella bombylans[7]


Parasitized by 
Agrilus ruficollis[7]
Anthonomus rubi (Strawberry Blossom Weevil)[10]
Coleroa chaetomium[7]
Lasioptera rubi (Blackberry Stem Gall Midge)[10]
Phragmidium rubi-idaei (Raspberry Rust)[10]
Podosphaera aphanis[7]
Sphaerulina westendorpii[10]
Stigmella splendidissimella[10]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


Bassegi Zapovednik;



Attributes / relations provided by
1USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
4ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
5Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection
9Norrbom, A.L. 2004. Fruit fly (Tephritidae) host plant database. Version Nov, 2004.
10Ecology of Commanster
11Anthophora abrupta Say (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae), Jason R. Graham, Jamie Ellis, Glenn Hall, Catherine Zettel Nalen, University of Florida, December 2011
12Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
13del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
14New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
15Tamias minimus, B. J. Verts and Leslie N. Carraway, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 653, pp. 1–10 (2001)
16Exploring the Denali Food Web, ParkWise, National Park Service
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access