Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Rosales > Rosaceae > Prunus > Prunus serotina

Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)

Synonyms: Cerasus serotina; Cerasus serotina var. asplenifolia; Cerasus virginiana; Cerasus virginica; Padus cartilaginea; Padus retusa; Padus serotina; Padus serotina var. asplenifolia; Padus serotina var. cartilaginea; Padus serotina var. pendula; Padus serotina var. pyramidalis; Padus virginiana; Prunus cartilaginea; Prunus novoleontis; Prunus virginiana

Wikipedia Abstract

Prunus serotina, commonly called black cherry, wild black cherry, rum cherry, or mountain black cherry, is a woody plant species belonging to the genus Prunus. The species is widespread and common in North America and South America.A mature black cherry can easily be identified in a forest by its very broken, dark grey to black bark, which has the appearance of very thick, burnt cornflakes.
View Wikipedia Record: Prunus serotina



Height [3]  59 feet (18 m)
Width [3]  26 feet (8 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-High
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Shade Percentage [1]  80 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 9 Low Temperature: 20 F° (-6.7 C°) → 30 F° (-1.1 C°)
Light Preference [5]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [2]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [2]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [5]  Moist
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Flower Color [2]  White
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Black
Flower Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Late Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Medium
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [2]  4 months
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Multiple Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Hazards [3]  The seeds and leaves of this species contain high quantities of hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This toxin is readily detected by its bitter taste. Usually present in too small a quantity to do any harm, any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten; In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.
Janka Hardness [4]  950 lbf (431 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Insects, Lepidoptera
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  36 inches (91 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Rapid
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  4800 / lb (10582 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [6]  0.5
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A green dye can be obtained from the leaves; A dark grey to green dye can be obtained from the fruit; Wood - close and straight-grained, light, strong, rather hard, highly shock resistant; It bends well, works well, finishes smoothly, glues well, seasons well, shrinks moderately and is moderately free from checking and warping; It weighs about 36lb per cubic foot and takes a beautiful polish; It is widely used for furniture, cabinet making, the interior finish of buildings etc;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Prunus serotina

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Appomattox Court House National Historical Park V 1687 Virginia, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Bluestone National Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 3517 West Virginia, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Booker T. Washington National Monument V 237 Virginia, United States
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve 90 Michigan, United States
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area V 7622 Georgia, United States
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 8248 Georgia, Tennessee, United States
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   North Carolina, United States
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge   Puerto Rico, United States
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Fort Caroline National Memorial III 137 Florida, United States
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fort Necessity National Battlefield III 1019 Pennsylvania, United States
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 10384 Virginia, United States
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Gauley River National Recreation Area V 10157 West Virginia, United States
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
George Washington Memorial Parkway V   Virginia, United States
Georgian Bay Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Grand Rapids Audubon Club Maher Sanctuary 80 Michigan, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Herbert Hoover National Historic Site   Iowa, United States
Hobcaw Barony (North Inlet) National Estuarine Research Reserve 7585 South Carolina, United States
Hope College Biology Nature Preserve 55 Michigan, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Hubbard Brook Biosphere Reserve 7809 New Hampshire, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Johnstown Flood National Memorial VI 175 Pennsylvania, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park III 2897 Georgia, United States
Little River National Wildlife Refuge   Oklahoma, United States
Little St. Simons Island   Georgia, United States
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Moores Creek National Battlefield III 100 North Carolina, United States
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Mount Mitchell State Park   North Carolina, United States
National Capital Parks - Central National Park   District of Columbia, United States
National Capital Region - East National Park   District of Columbia, United States
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Ocmulgee National Monument V 693 Georgia, United States
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Petersburg National Battlefield III 3338 Virginia, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Rock Creek Park   District of Columbia, United States
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Shiloh National Military Park III 4061 Tennessee, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Tennessee River Gorge   Tennessee, United States
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Thursley, Ash, Pirbright and Chobham 12696 England, United Kingdom
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States



Acronicta clarescens (Clear Dagger Moth)[7]
Acronicta distans[7]
Acronicta funeralis (Funerary Dagger Moth)[7]
Acronicta furcifera[7]
Acronicta hasta (Forked Dagger Moth)[7]
Acronicta interrupta (Interrupted Dagger Moth)[7]
Acronicta lobeliae (Lobelia Dagger Moth)[7]
Acronicta pruni[7]
Acronicta radcliffei (Radcliffe's Dagger Moth)[7]
Acronicta spinigera (Nondescript Dagger Moth)[7]
Agrotis vancouverensis (Vancouver Dart)[7]
Anacamptodes humaria[7]
Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly)[8]
Anastrepha obliqua (west indian fruit fly)[8]
Ancylis apicana[7]
Ancylis burgessiana[7]
Antepione thisoaria[7]
Apamea castanea[7]
Aphelia alleniana[7]
Archips cerasivorana[7]
Archips semistructa[7]
Argyrotaenia quadrifasciana[7]
Artace cribraria[7]
Aseptis adnixa[7]
Automeris cecrops[7]
Automeris louisiana[7]
Automeris randa[7]
Automeris zephyria[7]
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)[9]
Brachycaudus prunicola schwartzi[10]
Bucculatrix pomifoliella[7]
Callosamia angulifera (Tulip tree silk moth)[7]
Caloptilia invariabilis[7]
Caloptilia serotinella (Cherry Leaf Roller)[7]
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (black carpenter ant)[11]
Carsia sororiata (Manchester Treble-Bar)[7]
Catocala ultronia (Dark Red Underwing)[7]
Celastrina argiolus (Holly Blue Butterfly)[12]
Cerura scitiscripta (Black-etched Prominent)[7]
Chaetaglaea sericea[7]
Chionaspis furfura (Harris's bark-louse)[13]
Chlorosea nevadaria[7]
Choristoneura longicellana[7]
Citheronia phoronea[7]
Coleophora atlantica[7]
Coleophora multipulvella[7]
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)[11]
Coscinocera hercules (Hercules moth)[7]
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)[11]
Dasychira cinnamomea[7]
Dasychira dorsipennata[7]
Dasychira meridionalis[7]
Dermea cerasi[12]
Diaspidiotus juglansregiae (English walnut scale)[13]
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (California scale)[13]
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)[11]
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)[11]
Dumetella carolinensis (Grey Catbird)[9]
Dyspteris abortivaria[7]
Epiglaea decliva[7]
Euchlaena effecta[7]
Euchlaena obtusaria[7]
Euchlaena pectinaria[7]
Eucirroedia pampina (Scalloped Sallow)[7]
Eupackardia calleta (Calleta Silkmoth)[7]
Eupithecia miserulata (Common Eupithecia)[7]
Eupsilia cirripalea[7]
Eupsilia morrisoni[7]
Eupsilia sidus[7]
Eupsilia tristigmata[7]
Eurois astricta (great brown dart)[7]
Eutrapela clemataria[7]
Filatima serotinella[7]
Furcula borealis[7]
Haploa lecontei (Leconte's Haploa)[7]
Harkenclenus titus[7]
Hedya separatana[7]
Hemileuca lucina[7]
Hemileuca maia (Buck moth)[7]
Heterocampa biundata[7]
Homorthodes furfurata[7]
Hyalophora columbia (Columbia Silkmoth)[7]
Hyperaeschra georgica[7]
Hyppa xylinoides[7]
Imbrasia gueinzii[7]
Incisalia henrici (Henry's Elfin)[7]
Iridopsis larvaria[7]
Lacanobia atlantica[7]
Lacinipolia lorea[7]
Lambdina fiscellaria (hemlock looper)[7]
Leucanella contempta[7]
Limenitis archippus (viceroy)[12]
Limenitis arthemis (white admiral)[12]
Lithophane antennata (green fruitworm)[7]
Lithophane laticinerea[7]
Lithophane torrida[7]
Lithophane unimoda[7]
Lomographa semiclarata[7]
Lomographa vestaliata[7]
Lycia ursaria[7]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[10]
Malacosoma americana[11]
Malacosoma californica[7]
Malacosoma incurva[7]
Marmara serotinella[7]
Marmota monax (woodchuck)[11]
Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker)[9]
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)[11]
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)[11]
Mesothea incertata[7]
Metarranthis amyrisaria[7]
Metarranthis angularia[7]
Metarranthis duaria[7]
Metarranthis hypochraria[7]
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)[11]
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)[11]
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)[11]
Myzus persicae (Green peach aphid)[10]
Nematocampa limbata (filiment bearer)[7]
Neotoma magister (Appalachian woodrat)[14]
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)[11]
Olethreutes inornatana[7]
Orthosia alurina[7]
Orthosia pacifica[7]
Orthosia rubescens[7]
Orthotaenia undulana[7]
Panopoda rufimargo[7]
Paonias astylus (Huckleberry Sphinx)[7]
Paonias myops (small-eyed sphinx)[7]
Papilio canadensis (Canadian Tiger Swallowtail)[12]
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)[7]
Papilio troilus (spicebush swallowtail)[7]
Paradiarsia littoralis[7]
Parornix geminatella[7]
Pero honestaria[7]
Pero nerisaria[7]
Pero occidentalis[7]
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)[11]
Phigalia titea (Spiny Looper)[7]
Phyllonorycter crataegella[7]
Phytoptus padi <Unverified Name>[10]
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)[9]
Piranga rubra (Summer Tanager)[9]
Plagodis phlogosaria (Straight-lined Plagodis)[7]
Plagodis serinaria[7]
Prolimacodes badia (Skiff Moth)[7]
Pyrrharctia isabella (banded woollybear)[7]
Rhagoletis cingulata (cherry fruit fly)[15]
Rheumaptera prunivorata (Ferguson's Scallop Shell)[12]
Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae (water lily aphid)[10]
Rothschildia cincta[7]
Rothschildia hesperus[7]
Rothschildia jacobaeae[7]
Rothschildia jorulla[7]
Rothschildia lebeau[7]
Rothschildia orizaba[7]
Rothschildia zacateca[7]
Sabulodes caberata (Omnivorous looper)[7]
Schizura leptinoides[7]
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)[11]
Scopula limboundata (Large Lace-border)[7]
Sericaglaea signata[7]
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)[11]
Smerinthus jamaicensis (twin-spotted sphinx)[7]
Somatolophia haydenata[7]
Sparganothis umbrana[7]
Sphinx chersis (Great Ash Sphinx)[7]
Sphinx drupiferarum (plum tree sphinx)[7]
Spilosoma latipennis[7]
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)[11]
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)[12]
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)[12]
Synanthedon pictipes[7]
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)[11]
Tetracis cachexiata (White Slant-line)[7]
Tolype velleda[7]
Trichordestra legitima (striped garden caterpillar)[7]
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)[12]
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)[9]
Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)[12]
Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird)[9]
Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo)[9]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[11]
Xenotemna pallorana[7]
Xystopeplus rufago[7]
Zale lunata (Lunate Zale)[7]
Zale lunifera (Bold-based Zale)[7]
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)[11]
Actias luna (luna moth)[11]
Antheraea polyphemus (polyphemus moth)[11]
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)[11]
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)[11]
Hemaris thysbe (common clear-wing)[11]
Lymantria dispar[11]
Papilio glaucus[11]
Pterophylla camellifolia (common true katydid)[11]
Turdus migratorius[11]


Pollinated by 
Agapostemon radiatus <Unverified Name>[16]
Andrena erythrogastra <Unverified Name>[16]
Andrena illinoensis <Unverified Name>[16]
Andrena personata[12]
Andrena pruni[16]
Andrena sayi[16]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[16]
Augochlora viridula <Unverified Name>[16]
Batyle suturalis[12]
Blera umbratilis[16]
Boettcheria cimbicis[16]
Bombias separatus <Unverified Name>[16]
Bombus americanorum[16]
Bombus impatiens[16]
Brachyopa vacua[16]
Chloralictus cressonii <Unverified Name>[16]
Chloralictus illinoensis <Unverified Name>[16]
Chloralictus pilosus <Unverified Name>[16]
Chloralictus sparsus <Unverified Name>[16]
Chloralictus versatus <Unverified Name>[16]
Chloralictus zephyrus <Unverified Name>[16]
Cnephia pecuarum (southern buffalo gnat)[16]
Coelioxys alternata[12]
Colletes inaequalis[16]
Colletes nudus[12]
Cremastogaster lineolata <Unverified Name>[16]
Cryptocephalus insertus[12]
Curtisapis coriacea <Unverified Name>[16]
Cynomyia cadaverina <Unverified Name>[16]
Dolerus sericeus <Unverified Name>[16]
Eristalis aeneus <Unverified Name>[16]
Eristalis dimidiatus[16]
Formica fusca (silky ant)[16]
Gonia capitata[16]
Halictus lerouxii[16]
Lucilia caesar (Greenbottle Blow Fly)[16]
Lucilia sericata (Green blowfly)[16]
Mallota cimbiciformis[16]
Microplitis croceipes[12]
Molorchus bimaculatus[16]
Myolepta strigilata[16]
Myopa vesiculosa[16]
Nomada illinoensis[16]
Nomada parva[12]
Opandrena cressonii <Unverified Name>[16]
Opandrena miserabilis <Unverified Name>[16]
Orthoneura nitida <Unverified Name>[16]
Orthonevra pictipennis[16]
Oxybelus inornatus[12]
Oxystoglossa similis <Unverified Name>[16]
Pentaria trifasciata[12]
Perilampus fulvicornis[12]
Phorbia acra <Unverified Name>[16]
Phorbia platura <Unverified Name>[16]
Phormia regina (Black blowfly)[16]
Phyllopertha horticola[12]
Physoconops sylvosus[12]
Polistes fuscatus (Paper wasp)[16]
Pseudopyrellia cornicina <Unverified Name>[16]
Rhamphomyia sordida[16]
Scatophaga furcata <Unverified Name>[16]
Scatopse notata[16]
Seladonia fasciata <Unverified Name>[16]
Siphona geniculata[16]
Sphaerophoria cylindrica[16]
Sphegina rufiventris[16]
Stratiomys normula[16]
Syntomopus americanus[12]
Syritta pipiens (thick-legged hoverfly)[16]
Syrphus ribesii (Summer Fly)[16]
Tetralonia dilecta <Unverified Name>[16]
Trachandrena claytoniae <Unverified Name>[16]
Trachandrena crataegi <Unverified Name>[16]
Trachandrena forbesii <Unverified Name>[16]
Trachandrena hippotes <Unverified Name>[16]
Trachandrena nuda <Unverified Name>[16]
Trachandrena rugosa <Unverified Name>[16]
Trichopsomyia apisaon[16]
Triepeolus donatus[12]
Vanessa huntera <Unverified Name>[16]
Zaodontomerus calcaratus <Unverified Name>[16]


Parasitized by 
Apiosporina morbosa[12]
Ganoderma applanatum (Artist’s Bracket)[11]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[11]
Shelter for 
Micrathena gracilis (Spined micrathena)[11]
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)[11]
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)[11]
Actias luna (luna moth)[11]
Antheraea polyphemus (polyphemus moth)[11]
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)[11]
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)[11]
Hemaris thysbe (common clear-wing)[11]
Lymantria dispar[11]
Papilio glaucus[11]
Pterophylla camellifolia (common true katydid)[11]
Turdus migratorius[11]

Range Map

Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;



Attributes / relations provided by 1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database. 2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture 3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License 4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts 5Ellenberg, H., Weber, H.E., Dull, R., Wirth, V., Werner, W., Paulissen, D. (1991) Zeigerwerte von Pflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Scripta Geobotanica 18, 1–248 6Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service 7HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández 8Norrbom, A.L. 2004. Fruit fly (Tephritidae) host plant database. Version Nov, 2004. 9Characteristics of Some Fruiting Plant Species in Northwest Arkansas, and the Avian Assemblages that Feed on Them, John W. Prather, Kimberly G. Smith, Michael A. Mlodinow, Cecilia M. Riley, Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science,Vol. 54, 2000, pp. 103-108 10Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants 11Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 12Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 13Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009 14Neotoma magister, Steven B. Castleberry, Michael T. Mengak, and W. Mark Ford, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 789, pp. 1-5 (2006) 15Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew) (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae), H.V. Weems, Jr., Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, March 2001. Latest revision: January 2012 16Robertson, C. Flowers and insects lists of visitors of four hundred and fifty three flowers. 1929. The Science Press Printing Company Lancaster, PA.
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve Carlsbad Caverns National Park Chippewa Nature Center Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Maher Sanctuary, Grand Rapids Audubon Club Hope College Biology Nature Preserve GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access