Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Asterales > Asteraceae > Taraxacum > Taraxacum campylodes
 

Taraxacum campylodes (Dandelion)

Synonyms: Leontodon taraxacum var. taraxacum; Leontodon vulgare; Taraxacum almaatense; Taraxacum dens-leonis; Taraxacum dens-leonis var. dens-leonis; Taraxacum officinale; Taraxacum officinale f. officinale; Taraxacum subspathulatum; Taraxacum vulgare; Taraxacum vulgare var. vulgare

Wikipedia Abstract

Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion (often simply called "dandelion"), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). It can be found growing in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of water ways, and other areas with moist soils. T. officinale is considered a weed, especially in lawns and along roadsides, but it is sometimes used as a medical herb and in food preparation.
View Wikipedia Record: Taraxacum campylodes

Invasive Species

Taraxacum officinale is one of the most wide-spread weeds of North America, Asia and Europe. On French sub-Antarctic islands, where Taraxacum officinale has been introduced, the disappearance of native plants over wide areas, due to the impact of rabbits and global warming, coincided with a demographic explosion of Taraxacum officinale and other introduced plants, resulting in the homogenisation of plant communities.
View ISSG Record: Taraxacum campylodes

Attributes

Height [4]  18 inches (0.45 m)
Width [4]  12 inches (0.3 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-High
Screening - Summer [3]  Porous
Screening - Winter [3]  Porous
Hardiness Zone Minimum [3]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Light Preference [5]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [5]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [5]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [5]  Moist
Water Use [3]  Moderate
Bee Flower Color [2]  UV-Green
Flower Color [3]  Yellow
Foliage Color [3]  Green
Fruit Color [3]  Brown
Flower Conspicuous [3]  Yes
Bloom Period [3]  Early Spring
Drought Tolerance [3]  Medium
Edible [4]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [4]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [3]  3 months 10 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [3]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [3]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [3]  Summer
Growth Form [3]  Single Crown
Growth Period [3]  Spring, Fall
Growth Rate [3]  Rapid
Hazards [4]  This plant has been mentioned in various books on poisonous plants but any possible toxins will be of very low concentration and toxicity; There are reports that some people have suffered dermatitis as a result of touching the plant, this is probably caused by the latex in the leaves and stems;
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [4]  Perennial
Pollinators [4]  Insects, Lepidoptera, Bats, Apomictic
Propagation [3]  Seed
Regrowth Rate [3]  Moderate
Root Depth [3]  6 inches (15 cm)
Scent [4]  The flowers have an unpleasant odour;
Seed Spread Rate [3]  Rapid
Seed Vigor [3]  High
Seeds Per [3]  562479 / lb (1240055 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [3]  Prostrate
Structure [6]  Herb
Usage [4]  The flowers are an ingredient of 'QR' herbal compost activator; This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost; A liquid plant feed can be made from the root and leaves; A low quality latex, which can be used for making rubber, can be obtained from the roots of this plant. A magenta-brown dye is obtained from the root; The plant releases ethylene gas, this stunts the growth of nearby plants and causes premature ripening of fruits; A distilled water made from the ligules (thin appendages at the base of the leaf blades) is used cosmetically to clear the skin and is particularly effective in fading freckles;
Vegetative Spread Rate [3]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Taraxacum campylodes

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Bagni di Masino - Pizzo Badile - Val di Mello - Val Torrone - Piano di Preda Rossa 23828 Italy  
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Basegi Zapovednik Ia 93739 Perm, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Bolshekhekhtsirsky Zapovednik Ia 112282 Khabarovsk, Russia
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Braulio Carrillo National Park II 117843 Costa Rica  
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 8248 Georgia, Tennessee, United States
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Desert Biosphere Reserve 68236 Utah, United States
El Rey National Park II 110298 Salta, Argentina
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fraser Biosphere Reserve 23050 Colorado, United States  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States
Hubbard Brook Biosphere Reserve 7809 New Hampshire, United States
Ilmensky Zapovednik Ia 84955 Chelyabinsk, Russia
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kedrovaya Pad Zapovednik Ia 44224 Primorsky Krai , Russia
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Lago Puelo National Park II 47607 Chubut, Argentina
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve Ib 386679 Alaska, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lanín National Park II 536819 Neuquen, Argentina
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Los Alerces National Park II 463045 Chubut, Argentina  
Los Glaciares National Park II 1329020 Santa Cruz, Argentina
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Monte di Scerscen - Ghiacciai di Scerscen - Monte Motta 23885 Italy  
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Parco Regionale Orobie Valtellinesi 56377 Italy  
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve IV 12219 Moscow, Russia
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Riverland Biosphere Reserve Ia 1490891 South Australia, Australia
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
San Dimas Biosphere Reserve 17161 California, United States  
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Tierra Del Fuego National Park II 172861 Argentina
Tigrovaia Balka Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 146860 Tajikistan  
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Ussuriysky Zapovednik Ia 99910 Primorsky Krai , Russia
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Ecosystems

Predators

Acronicta euphorbiae (Sweet Gale Moth)[7]
Aglais io <Unverified Name>[8]
Agrochola lychnidis <Unverified Name>[7]
Agrotis cinerea (Light Feathered Rustic)[7]
Agrotis ipsilon (black cutworm)[7]
Agrotis puta (Shuttle-shaped Dart)[7]
Agrotis trux (Crescent Dart)[7]
Agrotis vestigialis (Archer's Dart)[7]
Alophus triguttatus[7]
Andrena angustior[8]
Andrena barbilabris[8]
Andrena carantonica[8]
Andrena chrysosceles[8]
Andrena cineraria (Grey Mining Bee)[8]
Andrena clarkella (Clark's Mining Bee)[8]
Andrena flavipes (Yellow-legged Mining Bee)[8]
Andrena fulva (Tawny Mining Bee)[8]
Andrena haemorrhoa (Early Mining Bee)[8]
Andrena minutula[8]
Andrena nigroaenaea <Unverified Name>[8]
Andrena nitida[8]
Andrena subopaca[8]
Andrena thoracica[8]
Andrena tibialis[8]
Andrena varians[8]
Anthaxia salicis[8]
Anthophora plumipes (Spring Flower Bee)[8]
Aphantopus hyperantus (Ringlet Butterfly)[8]
Aphis fabae (Bean aphid)[7]
Aphis taraxacicola[7]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[9]
Araschnia levana (Map Butterfly)[8]
Arctia caja (garden tiger moth)[7]
Arctia villica (Cream-spot Tiger)[7]
Athetis pallustris (Marsh Moth)[7]
Atrococcus cracens (slender mealybug)[10]
Autographa bractea (Gold Spangle)[7]
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)[8]
Barycnemis bellator[8]
Barycnemis harpura[8]
Bellardia viarum <Unverified Name>[8]
Bibio johannis[8]
Bibio marci (St Mark's Fly)[8]
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)[9]
Bombus lapidarius (Stone Humble-bee)[8]
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)[8]
Bombus pascuorum (Common Carder-bee)[8]
Bombus pratorum (Early-nesting Humble-bee)[8]
Bombus sylvestris (Four-coloured Cuckoo-bee)[8]
Bombus terrestris (Large Earth Humble-bee)[8]
Byturus ochraceus <Unverified Name>[7]
Byturus tomentosus <Unverified Name>[7]
Campiglossa producta[7]
Camptogramma bilineata <Unverified Name>[8]
Caradrina flavirena <Unverified Name>[7]
Caradrina morpheus (Mottled Rustic)[7]
Carduelis cannabina (Common Linnet)[8]
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)[8]
Carduelis chloris (European Greenfinch)[8]
Carduelis citrinella (Citril Finch)[11]
Carduelis flammea (Common Redpoll)[8]
Carduelis spinus (Eurasian Siskin)[8]
Celypha rosaceana <Unverified Name>[8]
Cerastis rubricosa (Red Chestnut)[7]
Ceutorhynchus marginatus[7]
Ceutorhynchus punctiger <Unverified Name>[7]
Charanyca trigrammica (Treble Lines)[7]
Cheilosia barbata[8]
Cheilosia fraterna[8]
Cheilosia vulpina[8]
Chrysanthia geniculata <Unverified Name>[8]
Cnephasia asseclana (Flax Tortrix Moth)[7]
Cnephasia incertana (Light Grey Tortrix Moth)[7]
Cnephasia stephensiana (Grey Tortrix Moth)[7]
Colias philodice (clouded sulphur)[9]
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)[9]
Columba oenas (Stock Dove)[8]
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)[8]
Conistra erythrocephala (Red-headed Chestnut)[7]
Conistra ligula (Dark Chestnut)[7]
Conistra rubiginea (Dotted Chestnut)[7]
Coscinia cribraria (Speckled Footman)[7]
Cybosia mesomella (Four-dotted Footman Moth)[8]
Cystiphora taraxaci[7]
Dasysyrphus albostriatus[8]
Dasysyrphus venustus[8]
Delia radicum (cabbage maggot)[8]
Diacrisia sannio <Unverified Name>[8]
Diaphora mendica <Unverified Name>[7]
Diarsia rubi (Small Square-spot)[7]
Dolerus aeneus <Unverified Name>[8]
Dolerus gonager <Unverified Name>[8]
Dolichovespula maculata (baldfaced hornet)[9]
Egle ciliata[8]
Empis bistortae[8]
Empis ciliata[8]
Empis opaca[8]
Empis pennipes[8]
Empis stercorea[8]
Empis trigramma[8]
Empis variegata[8]
Ensina sonchi[8]
Episyrphus balteatus (Marmelade Fly)[8]
Eriopygodes imbecilla[7]
Eristalis arbustorum[8]
Eristalis interrupta[8]
Eristalis lineata[8]
Eristalis picea <Unverified Name>[8]
Eristalis rupium[8]
Eristalis similis <Unverified Name>[8]
Euclidia glyphica (Burnet Companion Moth)[8]
Eumichtis lichenea[7]
Eupeodes luniger[8]
Eupithecia vulgata (Common Pug Moth)[7]
Euplagia quadripunctaria <Unverified Name>[7]
Eurois occulta (great gray dart)[7]
Eutomostethus ephippium <Unverified Name>[8]
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)[8]
Glocianus punctiger <Unverified Name>[7]
Gonepteryx rhamni (Brimstone Butterfly)[8]
Halictus maculatus[8]
Helina reversio[8]
Helophilus pendulus (Striped Hover Fly)[8]
Hemithea aestivaria (Common Emerald)[7]
Hepialus humuli (Ghost Moth)[7]
Hepialus sylvina[7]
Hilara maura[8]
Hippocamelus bisulcus (Chilean Guemal)[12]
Hoplodrina ambigua (Vine’s Rustic)[7]
Hoplodrina superstes[7]
Idaea aversata (Riband Wave Moth)[8]
Idaea biselata (Small Fan-footed Wave Moth)[7]
Idaea contiguaria (Weaver's Wave)[7]
Idaea degeneraria (Portland Ribbon Wave)[7]
Idaea dilutaria (Silky Wave)[7]
Idaea dimidiata (Single-dotted Wave Moth)[7]
Idaea emarginata (Small Scallop)[7]
Idaea fuscovenosa (Dwarf Cream Wave Moth)[8]
Idaea humiliata (Isle of Wight Wave)[7]
Idaea muricata (Purple-bordered Gold Moth)[7]
Idaea ochrata (Bright Wave)[7]
Idaea seriata (Small Dusty Wave)[7]
Idaea straminata (Plain Wave)[7]
Idaea subsericeata (Satin Wave Moth)[8]
Idaea sylvestraria (Dotted Border Wave)[7]
Lacanobia oleracea (Bright-line Brown-Eye Moth)[8]
Lasioglossum fulvicorne[8]
Lasioglossum morio (Brassy Mining Bee)[8]
Lasioglossum punctatissimum[8]
Lepus townsendii (White-tailed Jackrabbit)[13]
Leucozona lucorum[8]
Liriomyza strigata[7]
Liriomyza taraxaci[8]
Lycaena phlaeas (Small Copper Butterfly)[8]
Lycia zonaria <Unverified Name>[7]
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)[8]
Macrophya albicincta <Unverified Name>[8]
Maniola jurtina (Meadow Brown Butterfly)[8]
Marmota flaviventris (yellow-bellied marmot)[14]
Melanogaster hirtella <Unverified Name>[8]
Melanoplus borealis borealis[15]
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)[9]
Meligethes difficilis <Unverified Name>[8]
Meligethes ovatus <Unverified Name>[8]
Meligramma cincta <Unverified Name>[8]
Meliscaeva cinctella[8]
Mesoleptus laevigatus[8]
Microplitis ocellatae[8]
Muscina prolapsa[8]
Mydaea setifemur[8]
Mythimna ferrago <Unverified Name>[7]
Myzus cymbalariae (Cymbalaria aphid)[7]
Naenia typica (Gothic)[7]
Neoascia podagrica[8]
Nephrotoma appendiculata (spotted crane fly)[8]
Nomada flava[8]
Nomada lathburiana[8]
Ochropleura flammatra (Black Collar)[7]
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)[9]
Oedemera lurida <Unverified Name>[8]
Oedemera virescens <Unverified Name>[8]
Onesia sepulcralis[8]
Ophiomyia beckeri[7]
Ophiomyia cunctata[7]
Ophiomyia pulicaria[7]
Orthochaetes setiger[7]
Otiorhynchus ligustici[7]
Papilio machaon (Old World swallowtail)[8]
Parasemia plantaginis (Wood Tiger Moth)[8]
Parasyrphus annulatus[8]
Parasyrphus punctulatus[8]
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)[8]
Pechipogo plumigeralis <Unverified Name>[7]
Peridroma saucia (variegated cutworm)[7]
Perizoma taeniatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Phanacis taraxaci (dandelion gall wasp)[7]
Phaonia angelicae[8]
Phaonia hybrida[8]
Phaonia lugubris[8]
Phaonia perdita[8]
Phenacoccus madeirensis (Mexican mealybug)[10]
Phenacoccus solenopsis (solenopsis mealybug)[10]
Phorbia fumigata[8]
Photedes minima (Small Dotted Buff)[7]
Phragmatobia fuliginosa (ruby tiger moth)[7]
Phyllocoptes rigidus <Unverified Name>[7]
Phytomyza farfarella <Unverified Name>[7]
Phytomyza horticola <Unverified Name>[7]
Phytomyza marginella[7]
Phytomyza syngenesiae <Unverified Name>[7]
Phytomyza wahlgreni[7]
Pieris brassicae (Large White)[8]
Pieris napi (Green-veined White Butterfly)[8]
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)[9]
Pipiza luteitarsis[8]
Platycheirus scutatus[8]
Polia bombycina (Pale Shining Brown)[7]
Pollenia vagabunda[8]
Polymixis flavicincta (Large Ranunculus)[7]
Polymixis xanthomista (Black-banded Polymixis)[7]
Protaetia cuprea (Rose Chafer)[8]
Pseudococcus dolichomelos (false trochanter mealybug)[10]
Puto pilosellae (hairy mealybug)[10]
Pyrgus malvae (Grizzled Skipper)[8]
Ramularia taraxaci[8]
Rhagonycha fulva <Unverified Name>[8]
Rhamphomyia nigripennis[8]
Rhamphomyia sulcata[8]
Rhamphomyia umbripennis[8]
Rhingia campestris[8]
Rhyacia simulans (Dotted Rustic)[7]
Sarcophaga carnaria (Camouflaged Flesh Fly)[8]
Scopula emutaria[7]
Scopula floslactata (Cream Wave Moth)[8]
Scopula imitaria (Small Blood-vein)[7]
Scopula immorata (Lewes Wave)[7]
Scopula nigropunctata (Sub-angled Wave)[7]
Scopula rubiginata (Tawny Wave)[7]
Sericomyia lappona[8]
Sericomyia silentis[8]
Serinus serinus (European Serin)[8]
Sideridis albicolon[7]
Spaelotis ravida (Stout Dart)[7]
Sphecius speciosus (cicada killer)[9]
Spilosoma luteum <Unverified Name>[7]
Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm)[7]
Standfussiana lucernea (Northern Rustic)[7]
Stenocarus umbrinus[7]
Stenomacrus silvaticus[8]
Streptopelia turtur (European Turtle-Dove)[8]
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)[9]
Tamias minimus (least chipmunk)[16]
Tamias ruficaudus (red-tailed chipmunk)[17]
Thomomys talpoides (northern pocket gopher)[18]
Thymelicus lineola (European skipper)[8]
Torymus chloromerus[8]
Trama rara[7]
Trionymus multivorus (polyphagous mealybug)[10]
Trypeta immaculata[7]
Urocitellus columbianus (Columbian ground squirrel)[19]
Uroleucon taraxaci[7]
Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady)[8]
Xanthia ocellaris (Pale-lemon Sallow)[7]
Xanthorhoe designata (Flame Carpet Moth)[7]
Xanthorhoe ferrugata (red twin spot)[8]
Xestia ashworthii <Unverified Name>[7]
Xestia ditrapezium <Unverified Name>[7]
Xestia rhomboidea (Square-spotted Clay)[7]
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)[9]
Carduelis tristis (American Goldfinch)[9]
Melanoplus differentialis (Differential Grasshopper)[9]
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)[9]

Providers

Pollinated by 
Agapostemon coloradinus[20]
Agapostemon radiatus <Unverified Name>[21]
Agapostemon splendens[20]
Aglais io <Unverified Name>[8]
Andrena angustior[8]
Andrena barbilabris[8]
Andrena carantonica[8]
Andrena chrysosceles[8]
Andrena cineraria (Grey Mining Bee)[8]
Andrena clarkella (Clark's Mining Bee)[8]
Andrena dunningi[21]
Andrena flavipes (Yellow-legged Mining Bee)[8]
Andrena fulva (Tawny Mining Bee)[8]
Andrena haemorrhoa (Early Mining Bee)[8]
Andrena minutula[8]
Andrena nigroaenaea <Unverified Name>[8]
Andrena nitida[8]
Andrena subopaca[8]
Andrena thoracica[8]
Andrena tibialis[8]
Andrena varians[8]
Anthaxia salicis[8]
Anthophora plumipes (Spring Flower Bee)[8]
Aphantopus hyperantus (Ringlet Butterfly)[8]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[9]
Araschnia levana (Map Butterfly)[8]
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)[8]
Bellardia viarum <Unverified Name>[8]
Bibio johannis[8]
Bibio marci (St Mark's Fly)[8]
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)[9]
Bombus impatiens[21]
Bombus lapidarius (Stone Humble-bee)[8]
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)[8]
Bombus pascuorum (Common Carder-bee)[8]
Bombus pratorum (Early-nesting Humble-bee)[8]
Bombus sylvestris (Four-coloured Cuckoo-bee)[8]
Bombus terrestris (Large Earth Humble-bee)[8]
Bombylius major (Bee fly)[21]
Bombylius pulchellus[21]
Ceratosmia lignaria <Unverified Name>[21]
Cheilosia barbata[8]
Cheilosia fraterna[8]
Cheilosia vulpina[8]
Chloralictus versatus <Unverified Name>[21]
Colias philodice (clouded sulphur)[9]
Dasysyrphus albostriatus[8]
Dasysyrphus venustus[8]
Delia radicum (cabbage maggot)[8]
Dolerus aeneus <Unverified Name>[8]
Empis variegata[8]
Episyrphus balteatus (Marmelade Fly)[8]
Eristalis aeneus <Unverified Name>[21]
Eristalis arbustorum[8]
Eristalis interrupta[8]
Eristalis lineata[8]
Eristalis picea <Unverified Name>[8]
Eristalis rupium[8]
Eristalis similis <Unverified Name>[8]
Euclidia glyphica (Burnet Companion Moth)[8]
Eupeodes luniger[8]
Gonepteryx rhamni (Brimstone Butterfly)[8]
Halictus maculatus[8]
Helophilus pendulus (Striped Hover Fly)[8]
Lasioglossum fulvicorne[8]
Lasioglossum morio (Brassy Mining Bee)[8]
Lasioglossum punctatissimum[8]
Leucozona lucorum[8]
Lycaena phlaeas (Small Copper Butterfly)[8]
Maniola jurtina (Meadow Brown Butterfly)[8]
Melanogaster hirtella <Unverified Name>[8]
Meligethes difficilis <Unverified Name>[8]
Meligethes ovatus <Unverified Name>[8]
Meligramma cincta <Unverified Name>[8]
Meliscaeva cinctella[8]
Mesoleptus laevigatus[8]
Microplitis ocellatae[8]
Myopa vesiculosa[21]
Neoascia podagrica[8]
Nephrotoma appendiculata (spotted crane fly)[8]
Nomada denticulata[21]
Nomada flava[8]
Nomada lathburiana[8]
Odontalictus ligatus <Unverified Name>[21]
Oedemera virescens <Unverified Name>[8]
Opandrena cressonii <Unverified Name>[21]
Opandrena miserabilis <Unverified Name>[21]
Osmia pumila[21]
Papilio machaon (Old World swallowtail)[8]
Parasyrphus annulatus[8]
Parasyrphus punctulatus[8]
Phaonia hybrida[8]
Phorbia acra <Unverified Name>[21]
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)[9]
Pipiza luteitarsis[8]
Platycheirus scutatus[8]
Pseudopyrellia cornicina <Unverified Name>[21]
Pyrgus malvae (Grizzled Skipper)[8]
Rhagonycha fulva <Unverified Name>[8]
Rhingia campestris[8]
Sarcophaga carnaria (Camouflaged Flesh Fly)[8]
Scaeva selenitica[8]
Sericomyia lappona[8]
Sericomyia silentis[8]
Thymelicus lineola (European skipper)[8]
Torymus chloromerus[8]
Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady)[8]
Vanessa huntera <Unverified Name>[21]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ensina sonchi[8]
Liriomyza taraxaci[8]
Ramularia taraxaci[8]
Shelter for 
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)[9]
Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick)[9]
Dynastes tityus (Eastern hercules beetle)[9]
Lithobius forficatus (Brown centipede)[9]
Misumena vatia (flower spider)[9]
Phanaeus vindex (Dung beetle)[9]
Phidippus audax (Daring Jumping Spider)[9]
Pterostichus melanarius (Common black ground beetle)[9]
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)[9]
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)[9]
Carduelis tristis (American Goldfinch)[9]
Melanoplus differentialis (Differential Grasshopper)[9]
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)[9]

Distribution

1 - Europe, ; 1 - Europe, ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, ; 7 - Northern America, ; 2 - Africa, 27 - Southern Africa, ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 36 - China, ; 4 - Asia-Tropical, 42 - Malesia, ; 5 - Australasia, 50 - Australia, ; 5 - Australasia, 51 - New Zealand, ; 7 - Northern America, 79 - Mexico, ; 7 - Northern America, 79 - Mexico, ; 8 - Southern America, 81 - Caribbean, ; 8 - Southern America, 84 - Brazil, ; 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, ; 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, ; 6 - Pacific, 63 - North-Central Pacific, Hawaii (HAW), ; 4 - Asia-Tropical, 40 - Indian Subcontinent, India (IND), ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 32 - Middle Asia, Kirgizistan (KGZ), ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 38 - Eastern Asia, Korea (KOR), ; 4 - Asia-Tropical, 42 - Malesia, Malaya (MLY), ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 33 - Caucasus, North Caucasus (NCS), ; 5 - Australasia, 50 - Australia, Tasmania (TAS), ; 3 - Asia-Temperate, 33 - Caucasus, Transcaucasus (TCS), ; 4 - Asia-Tropical, 41 - Indo-China, Vietnam (VIE), ; 7 - Northern America, 71 - Western Canada, Alberta (ABT), Alberta (ABT-OO); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northeast (AGE), Buenos Aires (AGE-BA); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northeast (AGE), Chaco (AGE-CH); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northeast (AGE), Corrientes (AGE-CN); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northeast (AGE), Argentina Distrito Federal (AGE-DF); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northeast (AGE), Entre Ríos (AGE-ER); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northeast (AGE), Formosa (AGE-FO); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northeast (AGE), La Pampa (AGE-LP); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northeast (AGE), Misiones (AGE-MI); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina South (AGS), Chubut (AGS-CB); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina South (AGS), Neuquén (AGS-NE); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina South (AGS), Rio Negro (AGS-RN); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina South (AGS), Santa Cruz (AGS-SC); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina South (AGS), Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) (AGS-TF); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northwest (AGW), Catamarca (AGW-CA); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northwest (AGW), Jujuy (AGW-JU); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northwest (AGW), La Rioja (AGW-LR); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northwest (AGW), Mendoza (AGW-ME); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northwest (AGW), Salta (AGW-SA); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northwest (AGW), Santiago del Estero (AGW-SE); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northwest (AGW), San Juan (AGW-SJ); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northwest (AGW), San Luis (AGW-SL); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Argentina Northwest (AGW), Tucuman (AGW-TU); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., Alabama (ALA), Alabama (ALA-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 31 - Russian Far East, Amur (AMU), Amur (AMU-OO); 7 - Northern America, 76 - Southwestern U.S.A., Arizona (ARI), Arizona (ARI-OO); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., Arkansas (ARK), Arkansas (ARK-OO); 7 - Northern America, 70 - Subarctic America, Alaska (ASK), Alaska (ASK-OO); 8 - Southern America, 83 - Western South America, Bolivia (BOL), Bolivia (BOL-OO); 7 - Northern America, 71 - Western Canada, British Columbia (BRC), British Columbia (BRC-OO); 8 - Southern America, 84 - Brazil, Brazil South (BZS), Rio Grande do Sul (BZS-RS); 8 - Southern America, 84 - Brazil, Brazil South (BZS), Santa Catarina (BZS-SC); 7 - Northern America, 76 - Southwestern U.S.A., California (CAL), California (CAL-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 36 - China, Xinjiang (CHX), Xinjiang (CHX-OO); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile Central (CLC), Biobío (CLC-BI); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile Central (CLC), Coquimbo (CLC-CO); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile Central (CLC), La Araucania (CLC-LA); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile Central (CLC), Maule (CLC-MA); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile Central (CLC), O'Higgins (CLC-OH); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile Central (CLC), Santiago (CLC-SA); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile Central (CLC), Valparaíso (CLC-VA); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile North (CLN), Antofagasta (CLN-AN); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile North (CLN), Atacama (CLN-AT); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile South (CLS), Aisén (CLS-AI); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile South (CLS), Los Lagos (CLS-LL); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Chile South (CLS), Magellanes (CLS-MG); 7 - Northern America, 75 - Northeastern U.S.A., Connecticut (CNT), Connecticut (CNT-OO); 7 - Northern America, 73 - Northwestern U.S.A., Colorado (COL), Colorado (COL-OO); 6 - Pacific, 61 - South-Central Pacific, Cook Is. (COO), Cook Is. (COO-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 30 - Siberia, Chita (CTA), Chita (CTA-OO); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., Delaware (DEL), Delaware (DEL-OO); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Desventurados Is. (DSV), Desventurados Is. (DSV-OO); 6 - Pacific, 61 - South-Central Pacific, Easter Is. (EAS), Easter Is. (EAS-OO); 8 - Southern America, 83 - Western South America, Ecuador (ECU), Ecuador (ECU-OO); 8 - Southern America, 80 - Central America, El Salvador (ELS), El Salvador (ELS-OO); 6 - Pacific, 60 - Southwestern Pacific, Fiji (FIJ), Fiji (FIJ-OO); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., Florida (FLA), Florida (FLA-OO); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., Georgia (GEO), Georgia (GEO-OO); 7 - Northern America, 70 - Subarctic America, Greenland (GNL), Greenland (GNL-OO); 8 - Southern America, 80 - Central America, Guatemala (GUA), Guatemala (GUA-OO); 6 - Pacific, 63 - North-Central Pacific, Hawaii (HAW), Hawaiian Is. (HAW-HI); 8 - Southern America, 80 - Central America, Honduras (HON), Honduras (HON-OO); 7 - Northern America, 73 - Northwestern U.S.A., Idaho (IDA), Idaho (IDA-OO); 7 - Northern America, 74 - North-Central U.S.A., Illinois (ILL), Illinois (ILL-OO); 7 - Northern America, 75 - Northeastern U.S.A., Indiana (INI), Indiana (INI-OO); 7 - Northern America, 74 - North-Central U.S.A., Iowa (IOW), Iowa (IOW-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 30 - Siberia, Irkutsk (IRK), Irkutsk (IRK-OO); 7 - Northern America, 74 - North-Central U.S.A., Kansas (KAN), Kansas (KAN-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 32 - Middle Asia, Kazakhstan (KAZ), Kazakhstan (KAZ-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 32 - Middle Asia, Kazakhstan (KAZ), Kazakhstan (KAZ-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 32 - Middle Asia, Kirgizistan (KGZ), Kirgizistan (KGZ-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 31 - Russian Far East, Khabarovsk (KHA), Khabarovsk (KHA-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 30 - Siberia, Krasnoyarsk (KRA), Krasnoyarsk (KRA-OO); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., Kentucky (KTY), Kentucky (KTY-OO); 7 - Northern America, 72 - Eastern Canada, Labrador (LAB), Labrador (LAB-OO); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 41 - Indo-China, Laos (LAO), Laos (LAO-OO); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., Louisiana (LOU), Louisiana (LOU-OO); 7 - Northern America, 75 - Northeastern U.S.A., Maine (MAI), Maine (MAI-OO); 7 - Northern America, 71 - Western Canada, Manitoba (MAN), Manitoba (MAN-OO); 7 - Northern America, 75 - Northeastern U.S.A., Masachusettes (MAS), Masachusettes (MAS-OO); 2 - Africa, 29 - Western Indian Ocean, Madagascar (MDG), Madagascar (MDG-OO); 7 - Northern America, 75 - Northeastern U.S.A., Michigan (MIC), Michigan (MIC-OO); 7 - Northern America, 74 - North-Central U.S.A., Minnesota (MIN), Minnesota (MIN-OO); 7 - Northern America, 73 - Northwestern U.S.A., Montana (MNT), Montana (MNT-OO); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 42 - Malesia, Maluku (MOL), Maluku (MOL-OO); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., Maryland (MRY), Maryland (MRY-OO); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., Mississippi (MSI), Mississippi (MSI-OO); 7 - Northern America, 74 - North-Central U.S.A., Missouri (MSO), Missouri (MSO-OO); 7 - Northern America, 72 - Eastern Canada, New Brunswick (NBR), New Brunswick (NBR-OO); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., North Carolina (NCA), North Carolina (NCA-OO); 7 - Northern America, 74 - North-Central U.S.A., North Dakota (NDA), North Dakota (NDA-OO); 7 - Northern America, 74 - North-Central U.S.A., Nebraska (NEB), Nebraska (NEB-OO); 7 - Northern America, 76 - Southwestern U.S.A., Nevada (NEV), Nevada (NEV-OO); 7 - Northern America, 72 - Eastern Canada, Newfoundland (NFL), Newfoundland (NFL-NE); 7 - Northern America, 72 - Eastern Canada, Newfoundland (NFL), St.Pierre-Miquelon (NFL-SP); 7 - Northern America, 72 - Eastern Canada, Nova Scotia (NSC), Nova Scotia (NSC-OO); 5 - Australasia, 50 - Australia, New South Wales (NSW), New South Wales (NSW-NS); 5 - Australasia, 50 - Australia, New South Wales (NSW), New South Wales (NSW-NS); 5 - Australasia, 50 - Australia, Northern Territory (NTA), Northern Territory (NTA-OO); 5 - Australasia, 50 - Australia, Northern Territory (NTA), Northern Territory (NTA-OO); 6 - Pacific, 60 - Southwestern Pacific, Niue (NUE), Niue (NUE-OO); 7 - Northern America, 70 - Subarctic America, Nunavut (NUN), Nunavut (NUN-OO); 7 - Northern America, 75 - Northeastern U.S.A., New Hampshire (NWH), New Hampshire (NWH-OO); 7 - Northern America, 75 - Northeastern U.S.A., New Jersey (NWJ), New Jersey (NWJ-OO); 7 - Northern America, 77 - South-Central U.S.A., New Mexico (NWM), New Mexico (NWM-OO); 7 - Northern America, 70 - Subarctic America, Northwest Territories (NWT), Northwest Territories (NWT-OO); 7 - Northern America, 75 - Northeastern U.S.A., New York (NWY), New York (NWY-OO); 7 - Northern America, 75 - Northeastern U.S.A., Ohio (OHI), Ohio (OHI-OO); 7 - Northern America, 74 - North-Central U.S.A., Oklahoma (OKL), Oklahoma (OKL-OO); 7 - Northern America, 72 - Eastern Canada, Ontario (ONT), Ontario (ONT-OO); 7 - Northern America, 73 - Northwestern U.S.A., Oregon (ORE), Oregon (ORE-OO); 8 - Southern America, 80 - Central America, Panamá (PAN), Panamá (PAN-OO); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Southern South America, Paraguay (PAR), Paraguay (PAR-OO); 7 - Northern America, 72 - Eastern Canada, Prince Edward I. (PEI), Prince Edward I. (PEI-OO); 7 - Northern America, 75 - Northeastern U.S.A., Pennsylvania (PEN), Pennsylvania (PEN-OO); 8 - Southern America, 83 - Western South America, Peru (PER), Peru (PER-OO); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 42 - Malesia, Philippines (PHI), Philippines (PHI-OO); 6 - Pacific, 61 - South-Central Pacific, Pitcairn Is. (PIT), Pitcairn Is. (PIT-OO); 8 - Southern America, 81 - Caribbean, Puerto Rico (PUE), Puerto Rico (PUE-OO); 5 - Australasia, 50 - Australia, Queensland (QLD), Queensland (QLD-QU); 7 - Northern America, 72 - Eastern Canada, Québec (QUE), Québec (QUE-OO); 7 - Northern America, 75 - Northeastern U.S.A., Rhode I. (RHO), Rhode I. (RHO-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 31 - Russian Far East, Sakhalin (SAK), Sakhalin (SAK-OO); 7 - Northern America, 71 - Western Canada, Saskatchewan (SAS), Saskatchewan (SAS-OO); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., South Carolina (SCA), South Carolina (SCA-OO); 7 - Northern America, 74 - North-Central U.S.A., South Dakota (SDA), South Dakota (SDA-OO); 5 - Australasia, 50 - Australia, South Australia (SOA), South Australia (SOA-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 38 - Eastern Asia, Taiwan (TAI), Taiwan (TAI-OO); 2 - Africa, 25 - East Tropical Africa, Tanzania (TAN), Tanzania (TAN-OO); 5 - Australasia, 50 - Australia, Tasmania (TAS), Tasmania (TAS-OO); 7 - Northern America, 78 - Southeastern U.S.A., Tennessee (TEN), Tennessee (TEN-OO); 7 - Northern America, 77 - South-Central U.S.A., Texas (TEX), Texas (TEX-OO); 4 - Asia-Tropical, 41 - Indo-China, Thailand (THA), Thailand (THA-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 32 - Middle Asia, Turkmenistan (TKM), Turkmenistan (TKM-OO); 3 - Asia-Temperate, 32 - Middle Asia, Tadzhikistan (TZK), Tadzhikistan (TZK-OO); 8 - Southern America, 85 - Sout; Bassegi Zapovednik; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Flann C., 2012-07-06, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000) 2Arnold SEJ, Faruq S, Savolainen V, McOwan PW, Chittka L, 2010 FReD: The Floral Reflectance Database — A Web Portal for Analyses of Flower Colour. PLoS ONE 5(12): e14287. 3USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture 4Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License 5ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999) 6Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935 7Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants 8Ecology of Commanster 9Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 10Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009 11The diet of the Citril Finch (Serinus citrinella) in the Pyrenees and the role of Pinus seeds as a key resource, A. Borras, T. Cabrera, J. Cabrera and J.C. Senar, J. Ornithol. 144, 345-353 (2003) 12Diet and habitat of the huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) in Bernardo O’ Higgins National Park, Chile, Jasper van Winden, MSc-thesis, April 2006, Utrecht University 13Lepus townsendii, Burton K. Lim, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 288, pp. 1-6 (1987) 14Predicting seasonal diet in the yellow-bellied marmot: success and failure for the linear programming model, G.P. Edwards, Oecologia (1997) 112:320-330 15BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF MELANOPLUS BOREALIS (ORTHOPTERA: ACRIDIDAE) IN FAIRBANKS, ALASKA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO FEEDING HABITS, Tohko Kaufmann, The Michigan Entomologist, Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 3-13 (1971) 16Tamias minimus, B. J. Verts and Leslie N. Carraway, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 653, pp. 1–10 (2001) 17Tamias ruficaudus, Troy L. Best, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 452, pp. 1-7 (1993) 18Thomomys talpoides, B. J. Verts and Leslie N. Carraway, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 618, pp. 1-11 (1999) 19Spermophilus columbianus, Charles L. Elliott and Jerran T. Flinders, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 372, pp. 1-9 (1991) 20Clements, R. E., and F. L. Long. 1923, Experimental pollination. An outline of the ecology of flowers and insects. Washington, D.C., USA, Carnegie Institute of Washington. 21Robertson, C. Flowers and insects lists of visitors of four hundred and fifty three flowers. 1929. The Science Press Printing Company Lancaster, PA.
Invasive Status provided by Global Invasive Species Database Downloaded on 10 May 2011.
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 Carlsbad Caverns National Park
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access