Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Brassicales > Brassicaceae > Cardamine > Cardamine flexuosa

Cardamine flexuosa (Wavy Bittercress)

Synonyms: Barbarea arisanensis; Cardamine arisanensis; Cardamine decurrens; Cardamine drymeja; Cardamine flexuosa var. debilis; Cardamine flexuosa var. flexuosa; Cardamine flexuosa var. ovatifolia; Cardamine hirsuta subsp. sylvatica; Cardamine hirsuta var. omeiensis; Cardamine occulata; Cardamine scutata subsp. flexuosa; Cardamine sylvatica; Cardamine zollingeri; Nasturtium obliquum; Pteroneurum decurrens

Wikipedia Abstract

Cardamine flexuosa, commonly known as Wavy Bittercress, is an herbaceous annual, biennial, or short-lived perennial plant in the cabbage family (Cruciferae).
View Wikipedia Record: Cardamine flexuosa

Invasive Species

Woodland bittercress, Cardamine flexuosa is a highly variable perrenial herb which flowers vigourously and forms dense root mats that can exclude other species. Seeds possibly remain viable in the seed bank for up to seven years requiring intensive management for control/eradication.
View ISSG Record: Cardamine flexuosa


Height [1]  18 inches (0.45 m)
Light Preference [2]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [2]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [2]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [2]  Damp
Edible [1]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [1]  Hermaphrodite
Lifespan [1]  Annual/Perennial
Pollinators [1]  Bats
Structure [3]  Herb
View Plants For A Future Record : Cardamine flexuosa

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Avon Gorge Woodlands 376 England, United Kingdom
Årenäs-Tostekulla 130 Sweden  
Beinn Eighe National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Ben Nevis 23023 Scotland, United Kingdom
Ben Wyvis 13313 Scotland, United Kingdom
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Braunton Burrows 3328 England, United Kingdom
Briesensee und Klingeberg 196 Germany  
Cairnsmore of Fleet, Silver Flowe, and Merrick Kells Biosphere Reserve 8794 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Craven Limestone Complex 13166 England, United Kingdom
Dartmoor 57244 England, United Kingdom
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Dizkalni un Kalkupes ieleja 2773 Latvia  
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
East Caithness Cliffs 1094 Scotland, United Kingdom
Essex Estuaries 114016 England, United Kingdom
Everglades and Dry Tortugas Biosphere Reserve   Florida, United States  
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary 38085 Scotland, United Kingdom
Foinaven 36684 Scotland, United Kingdom
Glen Coe 7329 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Ingleborough Complex 14256 England, United Kingdom
Inverpolly 29349 Scotland, United Kingdom
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Lands End and Cape Bank 74557 England, United Kingdom  
Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs 5883 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
Moorfoot Hills 21001 Scotland, United Kingdom
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve V 1777 Spain  
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Shingle Islands 192 Scotland, United Kingdom
Sliteres nacionalais parks 39895 Latvia  
Sonnenburger Wald und Ahrendskehle 1155 Germany  
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Strathglass Complex 58277 Scotland, United Kingdom
Sunart 25320 Scotland, United Kingdom
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  



Anthocharis cardamines (Orange Tip Butterfly)[4]
Camptogramma bilineata <Unverified Name>[5]
Ceutorhynchus cochleariae[5]
Liriomyza watti[6]
Phyllotreta tetrastigma <Unverified Name>[5]
Pieris canidia (Indian Cabbage White)[7]
Pieris napi (Green-veined White Butterfly)[4]


Parasitized by 
Erysiphe cruciferarum[7]
Hyaloperonospora parasitica[7]
Ramularia cardamines[7]




Attributes / relations provided by
1Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
2ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
3Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
4Ecology of Commanster
5Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
6New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access