Animalia > Chordata > Amphibia > Anura > Bufonidae > Anaxyrus americanus > Anaxyrus americanus americanus
 

Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)

Synonyms: Bufo americanus; Bufo americanus americanus; Bufo copei; Bufo terrestris americanus; Bufo terrestris copei

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  22 grams
Female Maturity [2]  2 years 6 months
Male Maturity [2]  2 years 6 months
Diet [1]  Omnivore
Gestation [2]  8 days
Hibernates [1]  Yes
Litter Size [2]  6,000
Maximum Longevity [2]  36 years
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve 90 Michigan, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area V 7622 Georgia, United States
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
De Soto National Wildlife Refuge IV 8007 Iowa, Nebraska, United States
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Fathom Five National Marine Park II   Ontario, Canada
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
George Washington Memorial Parkway V   Virginia, United States
Georgian Bay Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Guilford Courthouse National Military Park V 216 North Carolina, United States
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Herbert Hoover National Historic Site   Iowa, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Horicon National Wildlife Refuge IV 21369 Wisconsin, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Hubbard Brook Biosphere Reserve 7809 New Hampshire, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kejimkujik Seaside Adjunct National Park II 4970 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial III 96 Indiana, United States
Little River National Wildlife Refuge   Oklahoma, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Manassas National Battlefield Park III 5132 Virginia, United States
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Mount Mitchell State Park   North Carolina, United States
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Ocmulgee National Monument V 693 Georgia, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rock Creek Park   District of Columbia, United States
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saint Croix International Historic Site   Maine, United States
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site III 139 New Hampshire, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Tennessee River Gorge   Tennessee, United States
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada

Ecosystems

Prey / Diet

Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)[3]
Aedes albopictus (forest day mosquito)[3]
Antheraea polyphemus (polyphemus moth)[3]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[3]
Argiope aurantia (black-and-yellow argiope)[3]
Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug)[3]
Calliphora vomitoria (Blue bottle fly)[3]
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (black carpenter ant)[3]
Corydalus cornutus (dobsonfly)[3]
Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick)[3]
Dolichovespula maculata (baldfaced hornet)[3]
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)[3]
Hippodamia convergens (convergent lady beetle)[3]
Hyalella azteca (Scud)[3]
Ischnura posita (Fragile forktail)[3]
Lithobius forficatus (Brown centipede)[3]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[3]
Macrocyclops albidus (Copepod)[3]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[3]
Melanoplus differentialis (Differential Grasshopper)[3]
Micrathena gracilis (Spined micrathena)[3]
Misumena vatia (flower spider)[3]
Narceus americanus (North american millipede)[3]
Odontopus calceatus (Sassafras weevil)[3]
Phanaeus vindex (Dung beetle)[3]
Phidippus audax (Daring Jumping Spider)[3]
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)[3]
Pterophylla camellifolia (common true katydid)[3]
Pterostichus melanarius (Common black ground beetle)[3]
Rabidosa rabida (Rabid wolf spider)[3]
Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite)[3]
Tenodera aridifolia (Chinese mantid)[3]
Triatoma sanguisuga (Eastern blood-sucking cone)[3]
Vespula maculifrons (eastern yellowjacket)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)16
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)2
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)3
Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)1
Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander)12
Ameiurus melas (Black bullhead)1
Ameiurus natalis (Yellow bullhead)3
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)5
Anguilla rostrata (American eel)3
Anthus trivialis (Tree Pipit)1
Apus apus (Common Swift)1
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)5
Ardea herodias (Great Blue Heron)2
Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup)1
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)7
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)6
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)9
Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)8
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)11
Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer)1
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)7
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)17
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)10
Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)2
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)3
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)1
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)16
Etheostoma olmstedi (Tessellated darter)2
Eurycea guttolineata (Three-lined Salamander)9
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)8
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)1
Hypentelium nigricans (Northern hog sucker)2
Ictalurus punctatus (Channel catfish)2
Larus delawarensis (Ring-billed Gull)3
Libellula lydia (Common whitetail)1
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)6
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)16
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)23
Megaceryle alcyon (Belted Kingfisher)1
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)17
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)10
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)5
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)8
Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)13
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)13
Notemigonus crysoleucas (Golden shiner minnow)3
Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt)9
Perca flavescens (Yellow perch)1
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)6
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)1
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)7
Picromerus bidens (Spined Stink Bug )1
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)18
Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)9
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)11
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Strawberry bass)2
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)7
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)14
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)5
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)4
Scalopus aquaticus (Eastern Mole)9
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)4
Semotilus atromaculatus (Horned dace)3
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)9
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)11
Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch)2
Strix varia (Barred Owl)2
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)9
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)1
Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle)6
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)5
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)12
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)17
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)3
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)3
Zicrona caerulea (Blue Shield Bug)1
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)4

Predators

Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)[3]
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[3]
Chelydra serpentina (Common Snapping Turtle)[3]
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)[3]
Corydalus cornutus (dobsonfly)[3]
Gambusia holbrooki (Bore-drain fish)[3]
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)[3]
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)[3]
Nerodia sipedon (Northern Water Snake)[3]
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)[3]
Strix varia (Barred Owl)[3]
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)[3]

Providers

Shelter 
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Common Ragweed)[3]
Ampelocissus latifolia (American ivy)[3]
Carex stricta (upright sedge)[3]
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)[3]
Chenopodium album (lambsquarters goosefoot)[3]
Diphasiastrum digitatum (fan clubmoss)[3]
Fragaria virginiana (Virginia Strawberry)[3]
Lemna minor (common duckweed)[3]
Lonicera japonica (Chinese honeysuckle)[3]
Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (cinnamon fern)[3]
Phragmites australis (common reed)[3]
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)[3]
Potamogeton lucens (long-leaf pondweed)[3]
Pteridium aquilinum (northern bracken fern)[3]
Sambucus nigra (European black elderberry)[3]
Symphyotrichum dumosum (Small White Aster)[3]
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)[3]
Trifolium pratense (Red Clover)[3]
Typha latifolia (Reedmace)[3]
Verbascum thapsus (great mullein)[3]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Allassostomoides chelydrae[4]
Clinostomum metacercaria <Unverified Name>[4]
Cosmocercoides dukae <Unverified Name>[4]
Cosmocercoides variabilis <Unverified Name>[4]
Cylindrotaenia americana <Unverified Name>[4]
Distoichometra bufonis <Unverified Name>[4]
Gorgoderina bilobata <Unverified Name>[4]
Haematoloechus medioplexus <Unverified Name>[4]
Haematoloechus varioplexus <Unverified Name>[4]
Megalodiscus rankini <Unverified Name>[4]
Megalodiscus temperatus[4]
Ophiotaenia saphenus <Unverified Name>[4]
Oswaldocruzia andersoni <Unverified Name>[4]
Oswaldocruzia audebertae <Unverified Name>[4]
Oswaldocruzia canadensis <Unverified Name>[4]
Oswaldocruzia pipiens <Unverified Name>[4]
Oswaldocruzia stevensi <Unverified Name>[4]
Rhabdias americanus <Unverified Name>[4]
Rhabdias bufonis <Unverified Name>[4]
Rhabdias ranae <Unverified Name>[4]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Binder Park Zoo
Boonshoft Museum of Discovery
Chicago Zoological Park
Children's Zoo at Celebration Square
Detroit Zoological Society
Dickerson Park Zoo
ECHO Lake Aquarium & Science Center
Erie Zoological Gardens
Henson Robinson Zoo
John Ball Zoological Garden
John G. Shedd Aquarium
Kansas City Zoo
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens
Little Rock Zoological Gardens
Maryland Zoo in Baltimore
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquarium
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
Museum of Science - Live Animal Center
Nashville Zoo at Grassmere
Nat'l Mississippi River Museum & Aquar
National Aquarium in Baltimore Inc
Natural History Museum of Adirondacks
North Carolina Zoological Park
Oceanario de Lisboa
Parc Merveilleux
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium
Potawatomi Zoo
Racine Zoological Gardens
Saint Louis Zoological Park
St. Paul's Como Zoo
Staten Island Zoo
Toledo Zoological Gardens
Toronto Zoo
Utica Zoo
Virginia Living Museum
Virginia Zoological Park
Western North Carolina Nature Center

Distribution

North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 4Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Images provided by Google Image Search
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access