Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Scophthalmidae > Scophthalmus > Scophthalmus maximus

Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)

Synonyms: Pleuronectes cyclops; Pleuronectes maximus; Pleuronectes turbot; Psetta maxima; Psetta maxima maxima; Rhombus aculeatus; Rhombus magnus; Rhombus maximus
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Wikipedia Abstract

The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a species of flatfish in the family Scophthalmidae. It is a demersal fish native to marine or brackish waters of the North Atlantic, Baltic Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.
View Wikipedia Record: Scophthalmus maximus


Adult Weight [1]  30.31 lbs (13.75 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  4 years
Male Maturity [1]  4 years
Maximum Longevity [2]  26 years
Migration [3]  Oceanodromous


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve V 1777 Spain  
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
SPA Pommersche Bucht 495241 Germany    
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  

Prey / Diet

Agonus cataphractus (Pogge)[4]
Alosa fallax (Twaite shad)[4]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[4]
Ammodytes tobianus (lesser sand eel)[4]
Aphrodita aculeata (Sea mouse)[4]
Arnoglossus laterna (Scald-fish)[4]
Atherina presbyter (common sand smelt)[4]
Branchiostoma floridae (Florida lancelet)[4]
Buglossidium luteum (Yellow sole)[4]
Callionymus lyra (european dragonet)[4]
Callionymus reticulatus (Reticulated dragonet)[4]
Chelidonichthys lucerna (Sapphirine gurnard)[4]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[4]
Crangon allmanni[4]
Crystallogobius linearis (Crystal goby)[4]
Echiichthys vipera (Lesser weever)[4]
Enchelyopus cimbrius (Rockling)[4]
Eutrigla gurnardus (Grey gurnard)[4]
Evadne nordmanni[4]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[4]
Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Witch flounder)[4]
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)[4]
Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (whiff)[4]
Limanda limanda (Sand dab)[4]
Lycodes vahlii (Vahl's eelpout)[4]
Macropipus tuberculatus (portunid crab)[4]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[4]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[4]
Nephrops norvegicus (Norway lobster)[4]
Pagurus bernhardus (Bernhard's hermit crab)[4]
Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp)[4]
Philocheras gorei[4]
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)[4]
Scomber scombrus (Split)[4]
Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)[4]
Solea solea (True sole)[4]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[4]
Temora longicornis[4]
Trachurus trachurus (Scad)[4]
Trisopterus esmarkii (Norway pout)[4]
Trisopterus luscus (Whiting-pout)[4]
Trisopterus minutus (poor cod)[4]


Gadus morhua (rock cod)[4]
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)[4]
Huso huso (Beluga)[4]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[4]
Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)[4]
Solea solea (True sole)[4]
Trachurus trachurus (Scad)[4]


Parasitized by 
Aponurus tschugunovi[5]
Aporocotyle simplex[5]
Ascaris acuta <Unverified Name>[5]
Ascaris collaris <Unverified Name>[5]
Asymphylodora demeli[5]
Bothitrema bothi[5]
Bothriocephalus gregarius <Unverified Name>[5]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[5]
Brachyphallus crenatus[5]
Camallanus lacustris[5]
Cryptocotyle concava[5]
Cucullanellus minutus <Unverified Name>[5]
Cucullanus heterochrous <Unverified Name>[5]
Derogenes varicus[5]
Dibothrium punctatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Diplostomum spathaceum[5]
Distomum histrix <Unverified Name>[5]
Echinorhynchus gadi[5]
Entobdella hippoglossi[5]
Galactosomum lacteum[5]
Grillotia erinaceus[5]
Gyrodactylus alviga[4]
Gyrodactylus nov <Unverified Name>[5]
Hemiurus luehei[5]
Hysterothylacium auctum <Unverified Name>[5]
Lecithochirium grandiporum[5]
Ligula intestinalis[5]
Megalocotyle rhombi[5]
Neoechinorhynchus rutili[5]
Podocotyle atomon[5]
Pomphorhynchus laevis[5]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[5]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[5]
Scolex polymorphus <Unverified Name>[5]
Stephanostomum hystrix <Unverified Name>[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Acquario di Genova
Oresundsakvariet (Oresund Aquarium)
Rotterdam Zoo
Universeum Science Center


Northeast Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean and along the European coasts to Arctic Circle; also found in most of the Baltic Sea. Subspecies <i>Psetta maxima maeotica</i> in the Black Sea.;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
3Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access