Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Apiales > Apiaceae > Heracleum sphondylium > Heracleum sphondylium subsp. granatense
 

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. granatense

Synonyms: Heracleum granatense; Heracleum sphondylium var. rotundatum; Pastinaca granatensis

Attributes

Height [1]  5.9 feet (1.8 m)
Light Preference [2]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [2]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [2]  Rich
Soil Moisture [2]  Moist
Edible [1]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [1]  Hermaphrodite
Hazards [1]  Many members of this genus, including many of the sub-species in this species[65], contain furanocoumarins. These have carcinogenic, mutagenic and phototoxic properties. See below for more details.
Lifespan [1]  Biennial/Perennial
Pollinators [1]  Bees, Flies
Structure [3]  Herb
View Plants For A Future Record : Heracleum sphondylium subsp. granatense

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Beinn Eighe National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Braunton Burrows 3328 England, United Kingdom
Caenlochan 12860 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cairnsmore of Fleet, Silver Flowe, and Merrick Kells Biosphere Reserve 8794 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Eryri/ Snowdonia 48773 Wales, United Kingdom  
Essex Estuaries 114016 England, United Kingdom
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Ingleborough Complex 14256 England, United Kingdom
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Lake District High Fells 66717 England, United Kingdom
Lands End and Cape Bank 74557 England, United Kingdom  
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Lower Derwent Valley 2263 England, United Kingdom
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Migneint–Arenig–Dduallt 49343 Wales, United Kingdom
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Pipestone National Monument V 326 Minnesota, United States
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Shingle Islands 192 Scotland, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States

Ecosystems

Predators

Aglais urticae (Small Tortoiseshell)[4]
Agonopterix ciliella[5]
Agonopterix heracliana[5]
Agrypon flaveolatum[4]
Alloea contracta[4]
Allophorocera ferruginea[4]
Amblyteles armatorius[4]
Anaspis fasciata <Unverified Name>[4]
Anaspis melanopa <Unverified Name>[4]
Andrena chrysosceles[4]
Andrena cineraria (Grey Mining Bee)[4]
Andrena nitida[4]
Andrena proxima[4]
Andrena strohmella[4]
Anoplius nigerrimus[4]
Anuraphis subterranea[4]
Aphantopus hyperantus (Ringlet Butterfly)[4]
Aphis fabae (Bean aphid)[5]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[4]
Aplocnemus nigricornis <Unverified Name>[4]
Araschnia levana (Map Butterfly)[4]
Arge cyanocrocea <Unverified Name>[4]
Arge melanochroa <Unverified Name>[4]
Arge ochropus <Unverified Name>[4]
Arge ustulata <Unverified Name>[4]
Argogorytes mystaceus[4]
Aritranis director[4]
Athalia lugens <Unverified Name>[4]
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)[4]
Autographa jota (Plain Golden Y)[5]
Autographa pulchrina (Beautiful Golden Y)[5]
Azelus erythropalpus[4]
Baccha elongata[4]
Barycnemis bellator[4]
Barycnemis claviventris[4]
Barycnemis gravipes[4]
Barycnemis harpura[4]
Barylypa propugnator <Unverified Name>[4]
Bibio pomonae (Heather Fly )[4]
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)[4]
Bombus pratorum (Early-nesting Humble-bee)[4]
Bombus terrestris (Large Earth Humble-bee)[4]
Bracon epitriptus[4]
Bracon stabilis <Unverified Name>[4]
Bracon variator[4]
Brassicogethes aeneus[4]
Brassicogethes viridescens[4]
Calliphora vomitoria (Blue bottle fly)[4]
Callogaeana festiva[5]
Callosobruchus chinensis[5]
Campoletis latrator[4]
Campoplex faunus[4]
Campoplex molestus[4]
Cantharis nigra <Unverified Name>[4]
Cataplectica farreni[5]
Cavariella pastinacae[5]
Cavariella theobaldi[5]
Cerapteryx graminis (antler moth)[5]
Chalcosyrphus nemorum[4]
Cheilosia barbata[4]
Cheilosia illustrata[4]
Cheilosia variabilis[4]
Chiasmia clathrata <Unverified Name>[4]
Chloromyia formosa (Green Soldier Fly)[4]
Chlorops hypostigma[4]
Chrysanthia geniculata <Unverified Name>[4]
Chrysogaster solstitialis[4]
Chrysolina oricalcia <Unverified Name>[5]
Chrysotoxum bicinctum[4]
Chrysotoxum cautum[4]
Chyliza vittata[4]
Cidnopus pilosus <Unverified Name>[4]
Clytus arietis (wasp beetle)[4]
Cnephasia asseclana (Flax Tortrix Moth)[5]
Cnephasia incertana (Light Grey Tortrix Moth)[5]
Cnephasia stephensiana (Grey Tortrix Moth)[5]
Coenomyia ferruginea[4]
Colletes daviesanus (Davies' Colletes)[4]
Conops flavipes[4]
Contarinia heraclei[5]
Contarinia nicolayi[5]
Cotesia salebrosa[4]
Cotesia tibialis[4]
Cratyna nobilis[4]
Crossocerus elongatulus[4]
Cryptaciura rotundiventris <Unverified Name>[5]
Ctenicera pectinicornis <Unverified Name>[4]
Ctenichneumon panzeri[4]
Cychramus luteus <Unverified Name>[4]
Cydia aurana[5]
Cydia gallicana[5]
Cylindromyia auriceps[4]
Cynomya mortuorum (Bluebottle Blow Fly )[4]
Dasypolia templi (Brindled Ochre)[5]
Dasysyrphus tricinctus[4]
Dasysyrphus venustus[4]
Depressaria discipunctella[5]
Depressaria pastinacella[5]
Depressaria sordidatella[5]
Diadegma claripenne[4]
Dichrorampha petiverella[4]
Dilophus febrilis (Fever Fly)[4]
Dinera ferina[4]
Diospilus oleraceus[4]
Diplazon laetatorius[4]
Dolerus haematodes <Unverified Name>[4]
Dolichopus claviger[4]
Dolichopus ungulatus[4]
Dolichovespula saxonica (Saxon Wasp)[4]
Dusona anceps[4]
Dysaphis lauberti[5]
Dysaphis newskyi[5]
Dyspersa apicalis[5]
Dyspetes luteomarginatus[4]
Ectaetia clavipes[4]
Ectemnius borealis[4]
Ectemnius continuus[4]
Ectemnius dives[4]
Eilema griseola (Dingy Footman Moth)[4]
Empis livida[4]
Empis stercorea[4]
Empis tessellata (Dance Fly)[4]
Endasys brevis[4]
Endasys senilis[4]
Epermenia chaerophyllella <Unverified Name>[5]
Epinotia cruciana[4]
Epistrophe grossulariae[4]
Episyrphus balteatus (Marmelade Fly)[4]
Eridolius dorsator[4]
Eriothrix rufomaculatus[4]
Eriozona syrphoides[4]
Eristalis abusiva <Unverified Name>[4]
Eristalis arbustorum[4]
Eristalis interrupta[4]
Eristalis lineata[4]
Eristalis pertinax[4]
Eristalis rupium[4]
Eristalis similis <Unverified Name>[4]
Eristalis tenax (drone fly)[4]
Erysiphe heraclei[4]
Eubazus tibialis[4]
Euleia heraclei[5]
Eupeodes latifasciatus[4]
Eupeodes luniger[4]
Eupithecia tripunctaria (whitespotted pug)[5]
Eupithecia trisignaria[5]
Eupithecia virgaureata (Golden-rod Pug)[5]
Eupithecia vulgata (Common Pug Moth)[5]
Euryproctus mundus[4]
Euxoa nigricans (Garden Dart)[5]
Exetastes atrator[4]
Exetastes fornicator[4]
Figites anthomyiarum <Unverified Name>[4]
Gasteruption assectator <Unverified Name>[4]
Gasteruption jaculator <Unverified Name>[4]
Glyphicnemis profligator[4]
Gorytes quadrifasciatus[4]
Graphomya maculata[4]
Graphosoma lineatum <Unverified Name>[4]
Gymnosoma rotundatum[4]
Hadrodactylus fugax[4]
Hadrodactylus paludicola[4]
Hadrodactylus tiphae[4]
Halictus tumulorum[4]
Harpalus affinis[4]
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm)[4]
Helophilus pendulus (Striped Hover Fly)[4]
Helophilus trivittatus (Sun Fly)[4]
Hemicrepidius niger <Unverified Name>[4]
Hemiteles similis[4]
Hilara interstincta <Unverified Name>[4]
Hoplia argentea[4]
Hoplitis leucomelana[4]
Hylaeus hyalinatus[4]
Hylemya variata[4]
Hyposoter discedens[4]
Hyposoter orbator[4]
Ichneumon confusor[4]
Ichneumon gracilentus[4]
Ichneumon minutorius[4]
Ichneumon sarcitorius[4]
Idiolispa analis[4]
Kiefferia pericarpiicola[5]
Lagarotis semicaligata[4]
Lasioglossum albipes[4]
Lasioglossum fratellum[4]
Lasioglossum fulvicorne[4]
Lasioglossum laevigatum[4]
Lasioglossum leucopus[4]
Lasioglossum leucozonium[4]
Lasioglossum sexnotatum[4]
Lasioglossum zonulum[4]
Lasiomma latipenne <Unverified Name>[4]
Lasioptera carophila[5]
Lejogaster metallina[4]
Lestica clypeata[4]
Leucospis dorsigera[4]
Leucozona laternaria[4]
Lindenius albilabris[4]
Lindenius panzeri[4]
Liophloeus tessulatus[5]
Liparus germanus[4]
Liriomyza lutea[5]
Lissonota accusator[4]
Lissonota coracina[4]
Lissonota nitida[4]
Lixus iridis[5]
Lucilia sericata (Green blowfly)[4]
Lysibia nanus <Unverified Name>[4]
Macquartia tenebricosa[4]
Macrolabis heraclei[5]
Macrophya montana <Unverified Name>[4]
Macrophya ribis <Unverified Name>[4]
Malachius bipustulatus <Unverified Name>[4]
Megamerina dolium[4]
Meigenia mutabilis[4]
Melanagromyza angeliciphaga[5]
Melanips opacus <Unverified Name>[4]
Melanostoma mellinum[4]
Melanotus villosus <Unverified Name>[4]
Meliscaeva auricollis[4]
Meliscaeva cinctella[4]
Mesembrina meridiana (Mid-day Fly)[4]
Mesochorus angustatus[4]
Mesochorus arenarius[4]
Mesocrina indagatrix[4]
Microgaster nigricans[4]
Microgaster rufipes[4]
Microplitis tuberculifer[4]
Molanna angustata[4]
Monoblastus brachyacanthus[4]
Mordella aculeata <Unverified Name>[4]
Morellia podagrica[4]
Musca autumnalis (face fly)[4]
Myathropa florea <Unverified Name>[4]
Myrmica rubra (Red Ant)[4]
Nemophora degeerella (Degeer's Longhorn Moth)[4]
Neoascia podagrica[4]
Neomyia cornicina[4]
Nephrotoma flavescens[4]
Oedemera virescens <Unverified Name>[4]
Olesicampe sericea[4]
Oligia fasciuncula (Middle-barred Minor Moth)[4]
Ophiomyia heracleivora[5]
Orsodacne cerasi <Unverified Name>[5]
Orthonevra nobilis[4]
Orthops basalis[4]
Orthops campestris[4]
Pachnephorus pilosus <Unverified Name>[4]
Pachyprotasis rapae <Unverified Name>[4]
Pachytodes cerambyciformis[4]
Palloptera trimacula[5]
Panorpa communis (common scorpionfly)[4]
Papilio machaon (Old World swallowtail)[5]
Paradelia intersecta[4]
Paramyzus heraclei[5]
Parasyrphus punctulatus[4]
Parasyrphus vittiger <Unverified Name>[4]
Pegomya versicolor[5]
Perilissus rufoniger[4]
Perispuda sulphurata[4]
Phaedon tumidulus <Unverified Name>[5]
Phaonia incana <Unverified Name>[4]
Phaulernis fulviguttella[5]
Phobetes atomator[4]
Phygadeuon fumator[4]
Phyllomya volvulus[4]
Physiphora alceae[4]
Phytoecia cylindrica[5]
Phytomyza heracleana[5]
Phytomyza pastinacae[5]
Phytomyza sphondyliivora[5]
Phytomyza spondylii[4]
Platycheirus albimanus <Unverified Name>[4]
Platycheirus clypeatus[4]
Platycheirus granditarsus <Unverified Name>[4]
Platylabus pumilio[4]
Polietes lardarius <Unverified Name>[4]
Pollenia rudis (cluster fly)[4]
Polyblastus varitarsus[4]
Polyblastus wahlbergi[4]
Polysphincta tuberosa[4]
Protapanteles marginatus[4]
Protocalliphora azurea[4]
Protophormia terraenovae (northern blowfly)[4]
Psila rosae <Unverified Name>[5]
Ramularia heraclei[4]
Rhagonycha fulva <Unverified Name>[4]
Rhagonycha gallica <Unverified Name>[4]
Rhagonycha lutea <Unverified Name>[4]
Rhamphomyia flava[4]
Rhamphomyia umbripennis[4]
Rhinotorus mesocastanus[4]
Rhogogaster chlorosoma <Unverified Name>[4]
Rhoptromeris heptoma <Unverified Name>[4]
Rhysipolis meditator[4]
Sarcophaga carnaria (Camouflaged Flesh Fly)[4]
Sarothrus tibialis <Unverified Name>[4]
Scaeva pyrastri[4]
Scathophaga stercoraria (Common Yellow Dung Fly)[4]
Schrankia taenialis (White-line Snout)[5]
Sciara flavimana[4]
Sciara hemerobioides[4]
Seioptera vibrans[4]
Selandria serva <Unverified Name>[4]
Sepsis flavimana[4]
Sepsis fulgens[4]
Sericomyia silentis[4]
Shawiana catenator <Unverified Name>[4]
Siona lineata (Black-veined Moth)[4]
Siphona cristata[4]
Sitochroa palealis[5]
Sphaerophoria interrupta[4]
Sphaerophoria scripta[4]
Spilothyrateles nuptatorius[4]
Stenomacrus holmgreni[4]
Stenomalina micans[4]
Stenopterus rufus[4]
Stenurella melanura[4]
Stenurella nigra[4]
Symmorphus gracilis[4]
Sympherta antilope[4]
Sympherta obligator[4]
Synacra holconota <Unverified Name>[4]
Syritta pipiens (thick-legged hoverfly)[4]
Temnosira saltuum <Unverified Name>[4]
Temnostoma bombylans[4]
Tenthredo arcuata <Unverified Name>[4]
Tenthredo brevicornis <Unverified Name>[4]
Tenthredo campestris <Unverified Name>[4]
Tenthredo distinguenda <Unverified Name>[4]
Tenthredo livida <Unverified Name>[4]
Tenthredo mesomela <Unverified Name>[4]
Tenthredo neobesa <Unverified Name>[4]
Tenthredo notha <Unverified Name>[4]
Tenthredo schaefferi <Unverified Name>[4]
Tenthredo scrophulariae <Unverified Name>[4]
Tenthredo temula <Unverified Name>[4]
Tenthredo vespa <Unverified Name>[4]
Tenthredopsis scutellaris <Unverified Name>[4]
Tenthredopsis sordida <Unverified Name>[4]
Thricops nigrifrons[4]
Thrips vulgatissimus[5]
Tiphia femorata <Unverified Name>[4]
Tipula pustulata[4]
Tipula stigmatella[4]
Torymus flavipes[4]
Trematopygus vellicans[4]
Trichius fasciatus (Bee Chafer)[4]
Trichodes apiarius <Unverified Name>[4]
Tricholauxania praeusta[4]
Triptognathus atripes[4]
Trybliographa rapae <Unverified Name>[4]
Tryphon atriceps[4]
Tryphon bidentulus[4]
Tryphon brunniventris[4]
Tryphon obtusator[4]
Tryphon rutilator[4]
Tryphon signator[4]
Tryphon trochanteratus[4]
Vespula germanica (European wasp)[4]
Vespula vulgaris (English wasp)[4]
Volucella bombylans[4]
Volucella pellucens (White-banded Drone Fly)[4]
Vulgichneumon saturatorius[4]
Wagneria costata[4]
Xanthandrus comtus[4]
Xenolytus bitinctus[4]
Xiphulcus floricolator[4]
Yponomeuta padella (Common Hawthorn Ermel Moth)[4]
Zaphne ambigua[4]

Providers

Pollinated by 
Aglais urticae (Small Tortoiseshell)[4]
Amblyteles armatorius[4]
Anaspis fasciata <Unverified Name>[4]
Anaspis melanopa <Unverified Name>[4]
Andrena chrysosceles[4]
Andrena cineraria (Grey Mining Bee)[4]
Andrena nitida[4]
Andrena proxima[4]
Andrena strohmella[4]
Anoplius nigerrimus[4]
Aphantopus hyperantus (Ringlet Butterfly)[4]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[4]
Aplocnemus nigricornis <Unverified Name>[4]
Araschnia levana (Map Butterfly)[4]
Arge melanochroa <Unverified Name>[4]
Argogorytes mystaceus[4]
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)[4]
Baccha elongata[4]
Bibio pomonae (Heather Fly )[4]
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)[4]
Bombus pratorum (Early-nesting Humble-bee)[4]
Bombus terrestris (Large Earth Humble-bee)[4]
Bracon epitriptus[4]
Brassicogethes viridescens[4]
Calliphora vomitoria (Blue bottle fly)[4]
Cantharis nigra <Unverified Name>[4]
Chalcosyrphus nemorum[4]
Cheilosia barbata[4]
Cheilosia illustrata[4]
Cheilosia variabilis[4]
Chiasmia clathrata <Unverified Name>[4]
Chloromyia formosa (Green Soldier Fly)[4]
Chlorops hypostigma[4]
Chrysanthia geniculata <Unverified Name>[4]
Chrysogaster solstitialis[4]
Chrysotoxum bicinctum[4]
Chrysotoxum cautum[4]
Chyliza vittata[4]
Clytus arietis (wasp beetle)[4]
Coenomyia ferruginea[4]
Colletes daviesanus (Davies' Colletes)[4]
Conops flavipes[4]
Cratyna nobilis[4]
Dasysyrphus tricinctus[4]
Dasysyrphus venustus[4]
Dilophus febrilis (Fever Fly)[4]
Dolichopus claviger[4]
Dolichopus ungulatus[4]
Ectaetia clavipes[4]
Eilema griseola (Dingy Footman Moth)[4]
Epistrophe grossulariae[4]
Episyrphus balteatus (Marmelade Fly)[4]
Eriozona syrphoides[4]
Eristalis abusiva <Unverified Name>[4]
Eristalis arbustorum[4]
Eristalis interrupta[4]
Eristalis lineata[4]
Eristalis pertinax[4]
Eristalis rupium[4]
Eristalis similis <Unverified Name>[4]
Eristalis tenax (drone fly)[4]
Eupeodes latifasciatus[4]
Eupeodes luniger[4]
Figites anthomyiarum <Unverified Name>[4]
Gasteruption jaculator <Unverified Name>[4]
Graphomya maculata[4]
Gymnosoma rotundatum[4]
Halictus tumulorum[4]
Helophilus pendulus (Striped Hover Fly)[4]
Helophilus trivittatus (Sun Fly)[4]
Hemicrepidius niger <Unverified Name>[4]
Hoplitis leucomelana[4]
Hylaeus hyalinatus[4]
Lasioglossum albipes[4]
Lasioglossum fratellum[4]
Lasioglossum fulvicorne[4]
Lasioglossum laevigatum[4]
Lasioglossum leucopus[4]
Lasioglossum leucozonium[4]
Lasioglossum sexnotatum[4]
Lasioglossum zonulum[4]
Lasiomma latipenne <Unverified Name>[4]
Lejogaster metallina[4]
Leucospis dorsigera[4]
Leucozona laternaria[4]
Malachius bipustulatus <Unverified Name>[4]
Megamerina dolium[4]
Melanostoma mellinum[4]
Meliscaeva auricollis[4]
Meliscaeva cinctella[4]
Molanna angustata[4]
Mordella aculeata <Unverified Name>[4]
Myathropa florea <Unverified Name>[4]
Myrmica rubra (Red Ant)[4]
Nemophora degeerella (Degeer's Longhorn Moth)[4]
Neoascia podagrica[4]
Oedemera virescens <Unverified Name>[4]
Oligia fasciuncula (Middle-barred Minor Moth)[4]
Orthonevra nobilis[4]
Pachnephorus pilosus <Unverified Name>[4]
Panorpa communis (common scorpionfly)[4]
Parasyrphus punctulatus[4]
Parasyrphus vittiger <Unverified Name>[4]
Physiphora alceae[4]
Platycheirus albimanus <Unverified Name>[4]
Platycheirus clypeatus[4]
Platycheirus granditarsus <Unverified Name>[4]
Rhamphomyia flava[4]
Sarcophaga carnaria (Camouflaged Flesh Fly)[4]
Scaeva pyrastri[4]
Scathophaga stercoraria (Common Yellow Dung Fly)[4]
Seioptera vibrans[4]
Sepsis flavimana[4]
Sepsis fulgens[4]
Sericomyia silentis[4]
Siona lineata (Black-veined Moth)[4]
Sphaerophoria interrupta[4]
Sphaerophoria scripta[4]
Stenomalina micans[4]
Symmorphus gracilis[4]
Synacra holconota <Unverified Name>[4]
Syritta pipiens (thick-legged hoverfly)[4]
Temnosira saltuum <Unverified Name>[4]
Temnostoma bombylans[4]
Tenthredo mesomela <Unverified Name>[4]
Tiphia femorata <Unverified Name>[4]
Tipula stigmatella[4]
Torymus flavipes[4]
Trichius fasciatus (Bee Chafer)[4]
Trichodes apiarius <Unverified Name>[4]
Tricholauxania praeusta[4]
Volucella bombylans[4]
Volucella pellucens (White-banded Drone Fly)[4]
Xanthandrus comtus[4]
Yponomeuta padella (Common Hawthorn Ermel Moth)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Cheilosia illustrata[4]
Erysiphe heraclei[4]
Phytomyza spondylii[4]
Ramularia heraclei[4]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Distribution

North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
2ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
3Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
4Ecology of Commanster
5Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access