Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Pinus > Pinus rigida

Pinus rigida (Hard pine; pitch pine)

Synonyms: Pinus taeda var. rigida
Language: Cze; Dut; Fre; Ger; Hrv, Srp; Hun; Ita

Wikipedia Abstract

Pinus rigida, the pitch pine, is a small-to-medium-sized (6–30 m (20–98 ft)) pine, native to eastern North America. This species occasionally hybridizes with other pine species such as loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata), and pond pine (Pinus serotina); the last is treated as a subspecies of pitch pine by some botanists.
View Wikipedia Record: Pinus rigida


Height [2]  49 feet (15 m)
Width [2]  23 feet (7 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Shade Percentage [1]  83 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 7 Low Temperature: 0 F° (-17.8 C°) → 10 F° (-12.2 C°)
Water Use [1]  Moderate to Low
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Monoecious
Hazards [2]  The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people;
Janka Hardness [3]  620 lbf (281 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [2]  Evergreen
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Specific Gravity [4]  0.52
Structure [2]  Tree
Usage [2]  A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles; The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat; Smoke from the burning leaves has been used to get rid of fleas; The tree is a good source of resin but it is not exploited commercially; Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile; The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood; In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields; Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin; Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc; Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc; Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. The knots contain so much resin that they resist rot. They burn well and have been gathered and placed at the ends of sticks to make torches; Wood - coarse-grained, light, soft, brittle, not strong, very durable, resinous; It weighs 32lb per cubic foot; Mainly used for charcoal and fuel, it is occasionally sawn into lumber;
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus rigida

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Bluestone National Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 3517 West Virginia, United States
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   North Carolina, United States
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Fort Necessity National Battlefield III 1019 Pennsylvania, United States
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Gauley River National Recreation Area V 10157 West Virginia, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
National Capital Parks - Central National Park   District of Columbia, United States
National Capital Region - East National Park   District of Columbia, United States
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
Rock Creek Park   District of Columbia, United States
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  


Anacamptodes vellivolata[5]
Chionaspis heterophyllae (pine scale)[6]
Chionaspis pinifoliae (pine leaf scale)[6]
Citheronia sepulcralis (Pine-devil Moth)[5]
Dioryctria disclusa[5]
Dynaspidiotus californicus <Unverified Name>[6]
Eucosma gloriola[5]
Exoteleia pinifoliella (Pine needle miner)[5]
Incisalia niphon (Eastern Pine Elfin)[5]
Lambdina pellucidaria (eastern pinelooper)[5]
Lapara bombycoides (Northern Pine Sphinx)[5]
Matsucoccus gallicolus[6]
Pococera robustella (Pine Webworm)[5]
Rhyaciona buoliana <Unverified Name>[7]
Rhyacionia aktita[5]
Rhyacionia buoliana (European pine-shoot moth)[5]
Rhyacionia frustrana (Nantucket pine tip moth)[5]
Rhyacionia rigidana[5]
Tolype laricis[5]
Toumeyella pini (striped pine scale)[6]
Zale helata (Brown-spotted Zale)[5]
Zale obliqua (Oblique Zale)[5]
Zale submediana (Gray Spring Zale)[5]


Parasitized by 
Buprestis lineata[8]
Chalcophora virginiensis[8]
Chrysobothris cribraria[8]
Chrysobothris pusilla[8]

Range Map

Extreme SE Canada (Ontario); NE and E U.S.A. west to Kentucky and Ohio, south to South Carolina. TDWG: 72 ONT QUE 75 CNT MAI MAS NWH NWJ NWY OHI PEN RHO VER WVA 78 GEO KTY NCA SCA VRG TEN; Extreme SE Canada (Ontario, Quebec); NE and E USA westwards to Kentucky and Ohio, southwards to South Carolina.. TDWG: 72 ONT QUE 75 CNT MAI MAS NWH NWJ NWY OHI PEN RHO VER WVA 78 GEO KTY NCA SCA VRG TEN;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
4Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
5HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
6Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
7Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access