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Pinus contorta (Lodgepole pine; Tamarack pine; Bolander beach pine; beach pine; Sierra lodgepole pine; Shore pine)

Language: Cze; Fre; Ger; Hrv, Srp; Hun; Ita; Nor; Swe

Wikipedia Abstract

Pinus contorta, with the common names lodgepole pine and shore pine, and also known as twisted pine, and contorta pine, is a common tree in western North America. It is common near the ocean shore and in dry montane forests to the subalpine, but is rare in lowland rain forests. Like all pines (member species of the genus Pinus), it is an evergreen conifer.
View Wikipedia Record: Pinus contorta

Infraspecies

Attributes

Height [3]  49 feet (15 m)
Width [3]  26 feet (8 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Dense
Shade Percentage [1]  83 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 1 Low Temperature: -60 F° (-51.1 C°) → -50 F° (-45.6 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 7 Low Temperature: 0 F° (-17.8 C°) → 10 F° (-12.2 C°)
Light Preference [6]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [6]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [6]  Infertile
Soil Moisture [6]  Moist
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Summer
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  3 months 10 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Hazards [3]  The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people;
Janka Hardness [4]  480 lbf (218 kgf) Very Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [5]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  20 inches (51 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Rapid
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  94000 / lb (207234 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [7]  0.41
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles; The roots have been braided by the N. American Indians to make a rope; The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat; A pitch obtained from this tree is used for waterproofing canoes, baskets, shoes etc and as a glue; It has also been used to preserve wood, baskets etc; The pitch is not a commercially important crop; Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile; The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood; In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields; Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin; Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc; Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc; Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. Wood - straight but coarse-grained, light, hard, strong, brittle; It varies from light and soft to hard and heavy; Easily worked, it is used for general construction, posts, poles, pulp etc; It makes a good fuel, burning well even when green because it is rich in pitch;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus contorta

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Avon Gorge Woodlands 376 England, United Kingdom
Ben Alder and Aonach Beag 16453 Scotland, United Kingdom
Ben Nevis 23023 Scotland, United Kingdom
Ben Wyvis 13313 Scotland, United Kingdom
Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd/ Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains 67265 Wales, United Kingdom
Black Wood of Rannoch 2720 Scotland, United Kingdom
Breckland 18652 England, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carlton Ridge Research Natural Area Ia 949 Montana, United States  
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Coram Biosphere Reserve 7460 Montana, United States
Cwm Doethie – Mynydd Mallaen 10186 Wales, United Kingdom
Dornoch Firth and Morrich More 21499 Scotland, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Elenydd 21274 Wales, United Kingdom
Eryri/ Snowdonia 48773 Wales, United Kingdom  
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glen Coe 7329 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Hill of Towanreef 4660 Scotland, United Kingdom
Inverpolly 29349 Scotland, United Kingdom
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs 5883 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Migneint–Arenig–Dduallt 49343 Wales, United Kingdom
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Nez Perce National Historical Park V 2076 Idaho, United States
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
River Moriston 481 Scotland, United Kingdom
Rum 26775 Scotland, United Kingdom
San Juan Island National Historical Park III 1674 Washington, United States
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Sunart 25320 Scotland, United Kingdom
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tulach Hill and Glen Fender Meadows 3912 Scotland, United Kingdom
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States

Emblem of

Alberta

Predators

Acleris caledoniana[8]
Acleris hyemana[8]
Acleris variana (Black-headed budworm)[8]
Amorbia humerosana[8]
Aradus cinnamomeus <Unverified Name>[9]
Archips packardiana[8]
Argyrotaenia occultana[8]
Argyrotaenia pinatubana[8]
Argyrotaenia tabulana[8]
Blastesthia posticana[9]
Blastesthia turionella (Pine Bud Moth)[8]
Bupalus piniaria[8]
Campaea perlata (light emerald)[8]
Caripeta aequaliaria[8]
Caripeta angustiorata (brown pine looper)[8]
Caripeta divisata (gray spruce looper)[8]
Cedestis gysseleniella <Unverified Name>[9]
Choristoneura lambertiana (Sugar Pine Tortrix)[8]
Choristoneura occidentalis[8]
Choristoneura pinus (Jack Pine Budworm)[8]
Cinara pinea[9]
Cinara pineti[9]
Cinara pini[9]
Clavigesta purdeyi (Pine leaf-mining Moth)[8]
Coleotechnites ardas[8]
Coleotechnites atrupictella[8]
Coleotechnites biopes[8]
Coleotechnites canusella[8]
Coleotechnites florae[8]
Coleotechnites milleri (Lodgepole Needleminer)[8]
Coleotechnites starki[8]
Coloradia pandora (Pandora moth)[8]
Crumenulopsis sororia[10]
Cydia inopiosa[8]
Dacryobolus sudans[10]
Dasychira grisefacta (Grizzled Tussock)[8]
Dasychira plagiata (Northern Pine Tussock)[8]
Declana floccosa (Forest Semilooper)[11]
Dendragapus obscurus fuliginosus (Sooty Grouse)[12]
Dioryctria abietivorella[8]
Dioryctria contortella[8]
Dioryctria zimmermani[8]
Diprion pini <Unverified Name>[9]
Dolichomia thymetusalis[8]
Enypia griseata[8]
Enypia packardata[8]
Enypia venata[8]
Epinotia aridos[8]
Epinotia caprana[8]
Euchlaena tigrinaria (Mottled Euchlaena)[8]
Eucosma bobana[8]
Eucosma rescissoriana[8]
Eucosma ridingsana[8]
Eufidonia notataria (Powder Moth)[8]
Eulachnus rileyi[9]
Eupithecia albicapitata[8]
Eupithecia annulata[8]
Eupithecia filmata[8]
Eupithecia harrisonata[8]
Eupithecia indigata (Ochreous Pug Moth)[9]
Eupithecia longipalpata[8]
Eupithecia ornata[8]
Eupithecia palpata (Small Pine Looper)[8]
Eupithecia pseudotsugata[8]
Eupithecia satyrata (Satyr Pug Moth)[9]
Exoteleia pinifoliella (Pine needle miner)[8]
Falcipennis canadensis (Spruce Grouse)[10]
Gabriola dyari[8]
Glena nigricaria[8]
Hydriomena furcata (July Highflyer)[9]
Hydriomena nevadae[8]
Hydriomena renunciata[8]
Hydriomena speciosata[8]
Hylobius abietis (pine weevil)[9]
Hypagyrtis piniata (pine measuringworm)[8]
Incisalia eryphon[8]
Ips typographus (Engraver Beetle)[9]
Leptoglossus occidentalis (western conifer-seed bug)[13]
Lithophane innominata (Nameless Pinion)[8]
Lophocampa argentata (silverspotted tiger moth)[8]
Lophocampa roseata[8]
Lophodermium conigenum[10]
Lymantria monacha (Black Arches, Nun Moth)[10]
Matsucoccus bisetosus[14]
Melanchra pulverulenta[8]
Melanolophia imitata (Western Carpet)[8]
Melanophila acuminata[9]
Metanema inatomaria (Pale Metanema)[8]
Neoalcis californiaria (Brown-lined Looper)[8]
Neodiprion sertifer (European pine sawfly)[9]
Neophasia menapia (Pine butterfly)[8]
Nepytia phantasmaria (phantom hemlock looper)[8]
Nepytia umbrosaria[8]
Ocnerostoma piniariella[8]
Oemona hirta[11]
Panolis flammea (Pine Beauty)[8]
Panthea acronyctoides (Black Zigzag)[8]
Panthea furcilla (Tufted White Pine Caterpillar)[8]
Panthea portlandia[10]
Papestra quadrata[8]
Paralobesia piceana[8]
Pero behrensaria[8]
Pezicula livida[10]
Philedonides lunana (Walker’s Lanark Tortrix)[8]
Pineus pini (Eurasian pine adelgid)[9]
Pissodes validirostris[9]
Polix coloradella[8]
Prionophus reticularis <Unverified Name>[11]
Pseudocoremia fenerata[11]
Pseudocoremia suavis (Common Forest Looper)[11]
Puto pricei (Price mealybug)[14]
Retinia resinella (Pine Resin-gall Moth)[8]
Rhyaciona buoliana <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhyaciona logaea <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhyacionia buoliana (European pine-shoot moth)[8]
Rhyacionia duplana (Summer shoot moth)[8]
Rhyacionia montana[8]
Rhyacionia pasadenana[8]
Sabulodes edwardsata[8]
Semiothisa adonis[8]
Semiothisa banksianae[8]
Semiothisa bicolorata[8]
Semiothisa bisignata (redheaded inchworm)[8]
Sirococcus conigenus[10]
Stenoporpia pulmonaria[8]
Stenoporpia separataria[8]
Synaxis pallulata[8]
Syngrapha epigaea (Pirate Looper Moth)[8]
Syngrapha selecta (Chosen Looper Moth)[8]
Tamiasciurus douglasii (Douglas's squirrel)[15]
Tomicus piniperda (common pine shoot beetle)[9]
Troposporella monospora[10]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[10]
Xestia mustelina[8]
Xestia praevia[8]
Zale duplicata (Pine False Looper Zale)[8]
Zeiraphera diniana[8]
Zelleria haimbachi (Pine Needle Sheathminer)[8]

Consumers

Mutual (symbiont) 
Cortinarius malicorius[10]
Parasitized by 
Arceuthobium americanum (American dwarf mistletoe)[10]
Arceuthobium campylopodum (western dwarf mistletoe)[10]
Buprestis aurulenta (golden buprestid)[10]
Chrysophana placida[10]

Range Map

Western North America, from Yukon to Baja California and S Colorado. TDWG: 70 ASK NWT-MK YUK 71 ABT BRC 73 74 SDA 76 79 MXN-BC; Western North America, from Yukon to Baja California and S Colorado.. TDWG: 70 ASK NWT-MK YUK 71 ABT BRC 73 74 SDA 76 79 MXN-BC;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database. 2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture 3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License 4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts 5PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004) 6ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999) 7Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service 8HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández 9Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants 10Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 11New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database 12FOOD HABITS IN RELATION TO THE ECOLOGY AND POPULATION DYNAMICS OF BLUE GROUSE, RICHARD DENNIS KING, Masters Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1964 13Negron, Jose F. 1995. Cone and Seed Insects Associated with Piñon Pine. In: Shaw, Douglas W.; Aldon, Earl F.; LoSapio, Carol, technical coordinators. Desired future conditions for piñon- juniper ecosystems: Proceedings of the symposium; 1994 August 8-12; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-258. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 97-106. 14Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009 15Tamiasciurus douglasii, Michael A. Steele, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 630, pp. 1-8 (1999)
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
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