Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Pinus > Pinus flexilis

Pinus flexilis (Rocky Mountain White pine; Limber pine; Limbertwig)

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Wikipedia Abstract

Pinus flexilis, the limber pine, is a species of pine tree-the family Pinaceae that occurs in the mountains of the Western United States, Mexico, and Canada. It is also called Rocky Mountain white pine. A limber pine in Eagle Cap Wilderness, Oregon has been documented as over 2000 years old, and another one was confirmed at 1140 years old. Another candidate for the oldest limber pine was identified in 2006 near the Alta Ski Area in Utah; called "Twister", the tree was confirmed to be at least 1700 years old and thought to be even older.
View Wikipedia Record: Pinus flexilis



Height [3]  82 feet (25 m)
Width [1]  30 feet (9.2 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Moderate
Shade Percentage [1]  83 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 7 Low Temperature: 0 F° (-17.8 C°) → 10 F° (-12.2 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Full Sun
Soil Acidity [2]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [2]  Infertile
Water Use [1]  Low
Flower Color [2]  Green
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Bloom Period [2]  Summer
Drought Tolerance [2]  High
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  90 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Slow
Hazards [3]  The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people;
Janka Hardness [4]  430 lbf (195 kgf) Very Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  20 inches (51 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Low
Seeds Per [2]  4400 / lb (9700 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [5]  0.42
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles; The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat; A fairly wind resistant tree, it can be grown as part of a shelterbelt planting; Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile; The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood; In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields; Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin; Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc; Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc; Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. Wood - light, soft, close-grained. It is occasionally made into lumber and is also used for general carpentry;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus flexilis

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Cedar Breaks National Monument III 6111 Utah, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Philip L. Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Center 6101 California, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada


Argyresthia flexilis[6]
Caripeta angustiorata (brown pine looper)[6]
Chionaspis pinifoliae (pine leaf scale)[7]
Choristoneura lambertiana (Sugar Pine Tortrix)[6]
Choristoneura occidentalis[6]
Coleotechnites lewisi[6]
Cyanocitta stelleri (Steller's Jay)[8]
Dioryctria abietivorella[6]
Eucosma bobana[6]
Incisalia eryphon[6]
Matsucoccus paucicicatrices[7]
Neotoma cinerea (bushy-tailed woodrat)[9]
Nucifraga columbiana (Clark's Nutcracker)[8]
Panthea furcilla (Tufted White Pine Caterpillar)[6]
Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak)[10]
Pityococcus ferrisi[7]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[10]
Zenophleps lignicolorata[6]

Range Map

W North America: Rocky Mountains from Alberta and British Columbia to New Mexico and Texas and some isolated localities to the east, mountains of SE California, Nevada, N Arizona, Utah and extending into northern Mexico in scattered localities in Chihuahua, Coahuila and Nuevo León. TDWG: 71 ABT BRC 73 COL IDA MNT WYO 74 SDA 76 ARI CAL NEV UTA 77 NWM TEX 79 MXE-CO MXE-CU MXE-NL MXN-SO; W North America: Rocky Mountains from Alberta and British Columbia to New Mexico and Texas and some isolated localities to the east, mountains of SE California, Nevada, N Arizona, Utah; and extending into northern Mexico in scattered localities in Chihuahua, NE Sonora, Coahuila and Nuevo León.. TDWG: 71 ABT BRC 73 COL IDA MNT WYO 74 SDA 76 ARI CAL NEV UTA 77 NWM TEX 79 MXE-CO MXE-CU MXE-NL MXN-SO;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
7Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
8Balda, Russell P. and Kamil, Alan, Linking Life Zones, Life History Traits, Ecology, and Spatial Cognition in Four Allopatric Southwestern Seed Caching Corvids (2006). Papers in Behavior and Biological Sciences. Paper 36.
9Neotoma cinerea, Felisa A. Smith, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 564, pp. 1-8 (1997)
10Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access