Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Pinus > Pinus ponderosa

Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa pine; Western Yellow pine)

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Wikipedia Abstract

Pinus ponderosa, commonly known as the ponderosa pine, bull pine, blackjack pine, or western yellow-pine, is a very large pine tree species of variable habitat native to the western United States and Canada. It is the most widely distributed pine species in North America.
View Wikipedia Record: Pinus ponderosa



Height [3]  82 feet (25 m)
Width [3]  23 feet (7 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Dense
Shade Percentage [1]  83 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 7 Low Temperature: 0 F° (-17.8 C°) → 10 F° (-12.2 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Full Sun
Soil Acidity [2]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [2]  Infertile
Water Use [1]  Low
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  High
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  High
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  5 months
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Moderate
Hazards [3]  The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people;
Janka Hardness [4]  460 lbf (209 kgf) Very Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  20 inches (51 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  12000 / lb (26455 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Rounded
Specific Gravity [5]  0.4
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles; A yellow dye can be made from the pollen; A blue dye can be made from the roots; The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat; The branches are used as a strewing herb; A decoction of the plant tops has been used as a conditioning wash to give a person a fair and smooth skin; A fairly wind-tolerant tree, it can be used in shelterbelt plantings; This tree is a source of resin, though it is not exploited commercially; Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile; The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood; In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields; Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin; Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc; Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc; Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative, adhesive etc; It burns well and so has been used to make torches; The root fibres have been used in making baskets; Material for insulation and a tinder are also obtained from the tree; The cones make a quick fire, whilst the scales from the trunk bark burn easily, give off no smoke and cool quickly; Wood - light, strong, fine-grained and pleasantly aromatic, the wood can vary from soft to hard; An important lumber tree, it is used for making furniture, boxes, toys etc; For reasons that are unclear, some tree stumps contain high concentrations of pitch - this makes them very rot-resistant and inflammable and therefore useful for fence posts and kindling;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus ponderosa

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carlton Ridge Research Natural Area Ia 949 Montana, United States  
Cedar Breaks National Monument III 6111 Utah, United States
Coram Biosphere Reserve 7460 Montana, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Desert Biosphere Reserve 68236 Utah, United States
Devils Tower National Monument V 1361 Wyoming, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Natural Bridges National Monument III 7412 Utah, United States
Nez Perce National Historical Park V 2076 Idaho, United States
Oregon Caves National Monument V 456 Oregon, United States
San Dimas Biosphere Reserve 17161 California, United States  
Scotts Bluff National Monument V 3185 Nebraska, United States
Spivey Pond Management Area 54 California, United States      
Table Mountain   California, United States      
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Emblem of



Anagotus helmsi[6]
Antilocapra americana (pronghorn)[7]
Aphelocoma californica (Western Scrub-Jay)[8]
Aphelocoma ultramarina (Ultramarine Jay)[8]
Argyrotaenia pinatubana[9]
Argyrotaenia tabulana[9]
Aspidaspis florenciae (florence scale)[10]
Bupalus piniaria[9]
Callospermophilus lateralis (golden-mantled ground squirrel)[11]
Caripeta aequaliaria[9]
Chionodes periculella[9]
Chionodes retiniella[9]
Choristoneura lambertiana (Sugar Pine Tortrix)[9]
Choristoneura occidentalis[9]
Cinara pini[12]
Citheronia sepulcralis (Pine-devil Moth)[9]
Coleotechnites atrupictella[9]
Coleotechnites condignella[9]
Coleotechnites moreonella (Ponderosa Pine Needleminer)[9]
Coleotechnites pinella[9]
Coleotechnites ponderosae[9]
Coloradia doris[9]
Coloradia pandora (Pandora moth)[9]
Conotrachelus neomexicanus[13]
Corticivora clarki[9]
Cyanocitta stelleri (Steller's Jay)[8]
Cydia injectiva[9]
Cydia miscitata[9]
Cydia toreuta (Eastern Pine Seedworm Moth)[9]
Declana floccosa (Forest Semilooper)[6]
Diaspidiotus coniferarum (conifer scale)[10]
Dioryctria auranticella[9]
Dioryctria cambiicola[9]
Dioryctria okanaganella[9]
Dioryctria pentictonella[9]
Dioryctria ponderosae[9]
Dioryctria rossi[9]
Dioryctria tumicolella[9]
Dioryctria zimmermani[9]
Dynaspidiotus californicus <Unverified Name>[10]
Enypia griseata[9]
Ernobius montanus[13]
Ernobius punctulatus[13]
Eucosma bobana[9]
Eucosma ponderosa[9]
Eucosma ridingsana[9]
Eucosma sonomana (Western Pineshoot Borer)[9]
Eupithecia ornata[9]
Eupithecia palpata (Small Pine Looper)[9]
Eupithecia pseudotsugata[9]
Euxoa auripennis[9]
Exoteleia anomala[9]
Exoteleia pinifoliella (Pine needle miner)[9]
Filatima natalis[9]
Gabriola dyari[9]
Givira lotta[9]
Glena nigricaria[9]
Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus (Pinyon Jay)[8]
Hapleginella conicola[13]
Hesperiphona vespertina (Evening Grosbeak)[14]
Hypagyrtis piniata (pine measuringworm)[9]
Incisalia eryphon[9]
Insignorthezia pinicola[10]
Lentoporia carbonica[14]
Leucaspis pini (Austrian pine scale)[10]
Lithophane lepida[9]
Lophocampa argentata (silverspotted tiger moth)[9]
Lophocampa ingens[9]
Loxia curvirostra (Red Crossbill)[14]
Matsucoccus apachecae[10]
Matsucoccus bisetosus[10]
Matsucoccus californicus[10]
Matsucoccus degeneratus[10]
Matsucoccus fasciculensis[10]
Matsucoccus gallicolus[10]
Matsucoccus secretus[10]
Matsucoccus vexillorum[10]
Melanolophia imitata (Western Carpet)[9]
Melanophila acuminata[12]
Nemoria viridicaria[9]
Neoalcis californiaria (Brown-lined Looper)[9]
Neophasia menapia (Pine butterfly)[9]
Neophasia terlooii (Chiricahua Pine White)[14]
Neotoma cinerea (bushy-tailed woodrat)[15]
Nepytia freemani (Western False Hemlock Looper)[14]
Nucifraga columbiana (Clark's Nutcracker)[8]
Ocnerostoma piniariella[9]
Oreamnos americanus (mountain goat)[16]
Pero behrensaria[9]
Peromyscus boylii (brush mouse)[17]
Phenacoccus helianthi (sunflower mealybug)[10]
Phymatus cucullatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Physokermes concolor (fir bud scale)[10]
Platypus apicalis[6]
Prionophus reticularis <Unverified Name>[6]
Psepholax sulcatus[6]
Pseudocoremia suavis (Common Forest Looper)[6]
Puto cupressi (California nutmeg mealybug)[10]
Puto laticribellum (pine bark mealybug)[10]
Rhyaciona buoliana <Unverified Name>[12]
Rhyacionia buoliana (European pine-shoot moth)[9]
Rhyacionia busckana[9]
Rhyacionia fumosana[9]
Rhyacionia jenningsi[9]
Rhyacionia multilineata[9]
Rhyacionia neomexicana[9]
Rhyacionia subcervinana[9]
Sabulodes edwardsata[9]
Sciurus arizonensis (Arizona gray squirrel)[18]
Sciurus griseus (western gray squirrel)[19]
Semiothisa adonis[9]
Stenoporpia pulmonaria[9]
Stenoporpia separataria[9]
Tamias amoenus (yellow-pine chipmunk)[20]
Tamias cinereicollis (gray-collared chipmunk)[21]
Tamias ruficaudus (red-tailed chipmunk)[22]
Tamias umbrinus (Uinta chipmunk)[23]
Tamiasciurus douglasii (Douglas's squirrel)[24]
Trisetacus pini <Unverified Name>[12]
Xylococculus macrocarpae[10]
Zelleria haimbachi (Pine Needle Sheathminer)[9]
Sciurus aberti (Abert's squirrel)[25]


Parasitized by 
Arceuthobium campylopodum (western dwarf mistletoe)[14]
Chrysophana placida[14]
Cronartium pini[14]
Melanophila acuminata[14]
Parataenia chrysochlora (golden buprestid)[14]
Shelter for 
Sciurus aberti (Abert's squirrel)[25]

Range Map

W North America, from S British Columbia to just south of the Mexico-U.S.A. border. TDWG: 71 BRC 73 COL IDA MNT ORE WAS WYO 74 NDA NEB OKL SDA 76 ARI CAL NEV UTA 77 NWM TEX 79 MXE-CO MXN-SO; W North America, from S British Columbia to just south of the Mexico-USA border.. TDWG: 71 BRC 73 COL IDA MNT ORE WAS WYO 74 NDA NEB OKL SDA 76 ARI CAL NEV UTA 77 NWM TEX 79 MXE-CO MXN-SO;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
7Evaluating Diet Composition of Pronghorn in Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota, CHRISTOPHER N. JACQUES, JARET D. SIEVERS, JONATHAN A. JENKS, CHAD L. SEXTON, and DANIEL E. RODDY, The Prairie Naturalist 38(4): December 2006, pp. 239-250
8Balda, Russell P. and Kamil, Alan, Linking Life Zones, Life History Traits, Ecology, and Spatial Cognition in Four Allopatric Southwestern Seed Caching Corvids (2006). Papers in Behavior and Biological Sciences. Paper 36.
9HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
10Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
11Spermophilus lateralis, Molly A. Bartels and Doug P. Thompson, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 440, pp. 1-8 (1993)
12Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
13Negron, Jose F. 1995. Cone and Seed Insects Associated with Piñon Pine. In: Shaw, Douglas W.; Aldon, Earl F.; LoSapio, Carol, technical coordinators. Desired future conditions for piñon- juniper ecosystems: Proceedings of the symposium; 1994 August 8-12; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-258. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 97-106.
14Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
15Neotoma cinerea, Felisa A. Smith, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 564, pp. 1-8 (1997)
16Oreamnos americanus, Chester B. Rideout and Robert S. Hoffman, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 63, pp. 1-6 (1975)
17Peromyscus boylii (Rodentia: Cricetidae), MATINA C. KALCOUNIS-RUEPPELL AND TRACEY R. SPOON, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 838:1–14 (2009)
18Sciurus arizonensis, Troy L. Best and Suzanne Riedel, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 496, pp. 1-5 (1995)
19Sciurus griseus, Leslie N. Carraway and B. J. Verts, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 474, pp. 1-7 (1994)
20Tamias amoenus, Dallas A. Sutton, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 390, pp. 1-8 (1992)
21Tamias cinereicollis, Clayton D. Hilton and Troy L. Best, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 436, pp. 1-5 (1993)
22Tamias ruficaudus, Troy L. Best, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 452, pp. 1-7 (1993)
23Tamias umbrinus (Rodentia: Sciuridae), JANET K. BRAUN, AUBREY A. JOHNSON, AND MICHAEL A. MARES, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 43(889):216–227 (2011)
24Tamiasciurus douglasii, Michael A. Steele, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 630, pp. 1-8 (1999)
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