Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Pinus > Pinus radiata

Pinus radiata (Monterey pine; Radiata pine; Insignis pine)

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Wikipedia Abstract

Pinus radiata, family Pinaceae, the Monterey pine, insignis pine or radiata pine, is a species of pine native to the Central Coast of California and Mexico (Guadalupe Island and Cedros island). Pinus radiata is a versatile, fast-growing, medium-density softwood, suitable for a wide range of uses. Its silviculture is highly developed, and is built on a firm foundation of over a century of research, observation and practice. Radiata pine is often considered a model for growers of other plantation species. It is the most widely planted pine in the world, valued for rapid growth and desirable lumber and pulp qualities.
View Wikipedia Record: Pinus radiata


Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Pinus radiata


Height [3]  213 feet (65 m)
Width [3]  33 feet (10 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Dense
Shade Percentage [1]  83 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 11 Low Temperature: 40 F° (4.4 C°) → 50 F° (10 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [2]  Very Acid
Soil Fertility [2]  Intermediate
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Bloom Period [2]  Late Winter
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  None
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  10 months
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Hazards [3]  The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people;
Janka Hardness [4]  750 lbf (340 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  30 inches (76 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Moderate
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  13280 / lb (29277 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [5]  0.53
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  Very tolerant of maritime exposure and salt-laden winds, it is also very fast growing. Increases in height of between 1 and 2.5 metres per year have been recorded even in exposed positions, it makes an excellent shelterbelt tree; A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles; The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat; Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile; The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood; In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields; Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin; Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc; Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc; Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. Wood - tough and hard; It is light, soft, brittle, close-grained and not strong according to another report; It is widely grown for lumber in warm temperate zones;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus radiata

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Archipelago de Colon Biosphere Reserve 34336011 Galapagos Islands, Ecuador  
Braunton Burrows 3328 England, United Kingdom
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Dartmoor 57244 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Lundy 7573 England, United Kingdom  
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
North Pembrokeshire Woodlands/ Coedydd Gogledd Sir Benfro 780 Wales, United Kingdom  
North Somerset and Mendip Bats 1387 England, United Kingdom
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve V 1777 Spain  
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Solent Maritime 27985 England, United Kingdom
Start Point to Plymouth Sound & Eddystone 84204 England, United Kingdom  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  


Acraea bonasia[6]
Aglaosoma variegata[6]
Agrotis infusa (Bogong moth)[6]
Agrotis radians (Brown Cutworm)[6]
Amasa truncata <Unverified Name>[7]
Ambeodontus tristis (Two-toothed longicorn beetle)[7]
Ambrosiodmus compressus[7]
Anagotus helmsi[7]
Androporus discedens <Unverified Name>[7]
Anobium punctatum (furniture beetle)[7]
Anthela excellens[6]
Anthela nicothoe (Hairymary caterpillar)[6]
Anthela ocellata (Eyespot Anthelid)[6]
Aonidiella aurantii (California red scale)[8]
Arachnopeziza obtusipila[8]
Argyresthia pilatella[6]
Arhopalus ferus[7]
Ariathisa abyssinia[6]
Aroa melanoleuca[6]
Aspidiotus nerii (ivy scale)[9]
Basidiodendron pini[8]
Blosyropus spinosus[7]
Boarmia penthearia[6]
Bracharoa quadripunctata[6]
Bupalus piniaria[6]
Calliprason pallidus[7]
Camarosporium pini[8]
Capusa stenophara[6]
Catochria catocaloides[6]
Ceroplastes rubens (pink wax scale)[10]
Chelepteryx chalepteryx[6]
Chenuala heliaspis (Rose Anthelid)[6]
Chionaspis pinifoliae (pine leaf scale)[10]
Chlenias banksiaria[6]
Chlenias zonaea[6]
Chloroclystis filata (Filata Moth)[7]
Cistella acuum[8]
Cleora tulbaghata[6]
Coccus hesperidium <Unverified Name>[7]
Coloradia velda[6]
Coniochaeta malacotricha[8]
Copaxa cydippe[6]
Copaxa medea[6]
Coptomma lineatum[7]
Coptomma sulcatum[7]
Corvus albus (Pied Crow)[8]
Costelytra zealandica[7]
Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana pine mealybug)[10]
Crisius binotatus[7]
Ctenoplusia limbirena (Scar Bank Gem)[9]
Ctenopseustis obliquana[6]
Cyclaneusma minus[8]
Dasychira georgiana[6]
Declana floccosa (Forest Semilooper)[6]
Declana hermione[6]
Declana junctilinea[6]
Declana leptomera[6]
Dendrodochium citrinum[8]
Dioryctria nivaliensis[6]
Diplomitoporus flavescens[8]
Dynaspidiotus californicus <Unverified Name>[10]
Dysmicoccus aciculus (Comstock mealybug)[10]
Eccopsis wahlbergiana[6]
Ectropis ocellata[6]
Eiratus ornatus[7]
Epichorista galeata[6]
Epichoristodes acerbella[6]
Epinotia hopkinsana[6]
Epiphyas postvittana (Light brown apple moth)[7]
Erechthias fulguritella[6]
Ernobius mollis (Pine bark anobiid)[9]
Ernobius punctulatus[11]
Eucolaspis brunnea <Unverified Name>[7]
Eulachnus rileyi[9]
Euophryum rufum <Unverified Name>[7]
Eupithecia celatisigna[6]
Eutelia adulatrix[6]
Exidia saccharina[8]
Exidiopsis effusa[8]
Exoteleia burkei[6]
Fiorinia japonica (Japanese scale)[8]
Gellonia dejectaria <Unverified Name>[7]
Gloveria arizonensis (Tent caterpillar)[6]
Gonimbrasia belina (mopane worm)[6]
Gonimbrasia tyrrhea[6]
Gonometa podocarpi[6]
Gonometa postica[6]
Hadrobregmus australiensis <Unverified Name>[7]
Hadrobregmus magnus <Unverified Name>[7]
Harmologa oblongana[6]
Helicoverpa punctigera (Native Budworm)[6]
Heliostibes atychioides[6]
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Greenhouse thrip)[7]
Helmoreus sharpi <Unverified Name>[7]
Hemideina crassidens (tree weta)[7]
Hexatricha pulverulenta[7]
Hierodoris atychioides <Unverified Name>[7]
Hyalarcta huebneri[6]
Hyalarcta tenuis[6]
Hyaloscypha aureliella[8]
Hybolasius modestus[7]
Hybolasius vegetus[7]
Hylotrupes bajulus (old-house borer)[7]
Incisalia eryphon[6]
Isotenes miserana (Orange fruitborer)[6]
Kalotermes banksiae[7]
Kalotermes brouni[7]
Lachnellula subtilissima (Conifer Disco)[8]
Leanobium flavomaculatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Lechriolepis basirufa[6]
Leucaspis lowi (Hartig's pine scale)[10]
Leucaspis pusilla (pine scale)[10]
Lichenopeltella pinophylla[8]
Liothula omnivora[6]
Lophocampa argentata (silverspotted tiger moth)[6]
Lophodermium conigenum[8]
Merophyas divulsana (Lucerne leafroller)[6]
Metisa aethiops[6]
Microthyrium pinophyllum[8]
Mitrastethus baridioides[7]
Neonectria fuckeliana[8]
Nepytia umbrosaria[6]
Nesoptychias simpliceps <Unverified Name>[7]
Odontria sylvatica[7]
Oedicentra albipennis[6]
Oemona hirta[7]
Oligeria hemicalla[6]
Orbilia xanthostigma (Common Glasscup)[8]
Orgyia australis[6]
Orgyia hopkinsi[6]
Pachycotes peregrinus[7]
Pachymetana sanguicincta[6]
Pachypasa albofasciata[6]
Pachypasa pallens[6]
Pachypasa papyri[6]
Paedaretus hispidus[7]
Palaeosia bicosta (Two-Ribbed Arctiid)[6]
Panacela lewinae (Lewin's bag-shelter moth)[6]
Parlatoria pittospori (mauve pittosporum scale)[10]
Pasiphila inductata <Unverified Name>[7]
Phloeophagosoma dilutum[7]
Phymatus phymatodes <Unverified Name>[7]
Physokermes insignicola (Monterey pine scale)[10]
Pingasa abyssinaria[6]
Planotortrix excessana (Greenheaded leafroller)[6]
Planotortrix notophaea[7]
Platypus apicalis[7]
Plectophila discalis[6]
Poecliasthena pulchraria <Unverified Name>[7]
Pogonorhinus opacus[7]
Polymona rufifemur[6]
Prionophus reticularis <Unverified Name>[7]
Proeulia chrysopteris[6]
Proteuxoa comma[7]
Psepholax sulcatus[7]
Pseudococcus calceolariae (citrophilus mealybug)[10]
Pseudococcus epidendrus[10]
Pseudocoremia fenerata[6]
Pseudocoremia leucelaea[6]
Pseudocoremia productata[6]
Pseudocoremia suavis (Common Forest Looper)[6]
Puto cupressi (California nutmeg mealybug)[10]
Pyrgotis plagiatana[7]
Retinia resinella (Pine Resin-gall Moth)[6]
Rhopalomerus tenuicornis <Unverified Name>[7]
Rhyaciona buoliana <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhyacionia buoliana (European pine-shoot moth)[8]
Rhyacionia frustrana (Nantucket pine tip moth)[6]
Rhyacionia pasadenana[6]
Schausinna affinis[6]
Scioglyptis canescaria[6]
Shapius brouni <Unverified Name>[7]
Sirex cyaneus (blue horntail)[9]
Sirex juvencus <Unverified Name>[9]
Sirex noctilio[9]
Somatidia antarctica[7]
Stethaspis lineata[7]
Stolotermes inopinus[7]
Stolotermes ruficeps[7]
Stomiopeltis pinastri[8]
Stramenaspis kelloggi (Kellogg scale)[10]
Streblote butiti[6]
Streblote concolor[6]
Streblote diplocyma[6]
Streblote graberi[6]
Streblote vesta[6]
Strongylopterus hylobioides <Unverified Name>[7]
Torostoma apicale[7]
Tortricopsis semijunctella[6]
Tortrix capensana[6]
Tortrix flavescens[6]
Toumeyella pinicola (irregular pine scale)[10]
Trechispora clancularis[8]
Trigonocyttara clandestina[6]
Trisetacus pini <Unverified Name>[9]
Tubulicrinis accedens[8]
Tubulicrinis chaetophorus[8]
Tubulicrinis subulatus[8]
Ubaena dolabella[6]
Xanthisthisa tarsispina[6]
Xyleborinus saxeseni[7]
Xylotoles laetus[7]
Zermizinga indocilisaria (Lucerne looper)[6]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Hygrophorus hypothejus (Herald of Winter)[8]
Russula insignis[8]
Parasitized by 
Hemicriconemoides obtusus <Unverified Name>[12]
Laimaphelenchus australis <Unverified Name>[12]
Laimaphelenchus heidelbergi <Unverified Name>[12]
Porodaedalea pini[8]

Range Map

U.S.A.: California, Pacific coast in three localities from Monterey southward; Mexico: Baja California Norte (Cedros Island, Guadalupe Island). TDWG: 76 CAL 79 MXI-GU MXN-BC; USA: California, Pacific coast in three localities from Monterey southward; Mexico: Baja California Norte (Cedros Island, Guadalupe Island).. TDWG: 76 CAL 79 MXI-GU MXN-BC;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
7New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
10Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
11Negron, Jose F. 1995. Cone and Seed Insects Associated with Piñon Pine. In: Shaw, Douglas W.; Aldon, Earl F.; LoSapio, Carol, technical coordinators. Desired future conditions for piñon- juniper ecosystems: Proceedings of the symposium; 1994 August 8-12; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-258. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 97-106.
12Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access