Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Pinus montezumae > Pinus montezumae var. montezumae

Pinus montezumae var. montezumae (Lowland fir; Giant fir; grand fir; Yellow fir; Lowland white fir)

Synonyms: Pinus antoineana; Pinus aztecaensis; Pinus boothiana; Pinus boucheiana; Pinus bullata; Pinus carrierei; Pinus coarctata; Pinus cornea; Pinus decaisneana; Pinus doelleriana; Pinus elegans; Pinus endlicheriana var. richardiana; Pinus exserta; Pinus grandis; Pinus grandis var. carrierei; Pinus grandis var. doelleriana; Pinus grandis var. haageana; Pinus grandis var. planchonii; Pinus grandis var. thelemannii; Pinus haageana; Pinus hendersonii; Pinus horizontalis; Pinus inflexa; Pinus jostii; Pinus keteleerii; Pinus monstrosa; Pinus monstrosa var. hendersonii; Pinus monstrosa var. nesselrodiana; Pinus montezumae f. macrocarpa; Pinus montezumae var. lindleyi; Pinus montezumae var. mezambrana; Pinus nesselrodiana; Pinus occidentalis; Pinus ortgiesiana; Pinus paxtonii; Pinus pescatorei; Pinus planchonii; Pinus protuberans var. exserta; Pinus pseudostrobus; Pinus richardiana; Pinus rinzii; Pinus robusta var. inflexa; Pinus rohanii; Pinus rubescens; Pinus rumeliana; Pinus russelliana; Pinus san-rafaeliana; Pinus soulangeana; Pinus spinosa; Pinus tenangaensis; Pinus tenangaensis var. longifolia; Pinus tenangaensis var. ortgiesiana; Pinus thelemannii; Pinus thibaudiana; Pinus troubezkoiana; Pinus valida; Pinus vangeertii; Pinus vanhouttei; Pinus zacatlanae
Language: Chi; Cze; Dut; Fre; Ger; Hrv, Srp; Hun; Ita; Nor; Rus; Spa


Height [2]  246 feet (75 m)
Width [2]  26 feet (8 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium
Shade Percentage [1]  91 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 6 Low Temperature: -10 F° (-23.3 C°) → 0 F° (-17.8 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Water Use [1]  Low
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Monoecious
Janka Hardness [3]  490 lbf (222 kgf) Very Soft
Leaf Type [2]  Evergreen
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Scent [2]  The crushed leaves have a fruity orange-flavoured aroma. The growing plant exudes a pungent, balsamic fragrance.
Specific Gravity [4]  0.37
Structure [2]  Tree
Usage [2]  The aromatic leaves are used as a moth repellent; The boughs have been used in the home as an incense; A pink dye can be obtained from the bark; The dried and hardened pitch can be chewed as a tooth cleanser; A powder made from the dried and crushed leaves was used as a baby powder by the N. American Indians; The bark can be used as a waterproof covering material for buildings and canoes; Wood - light, soft, coarse grained, not strong, not very durable. Used for interior work, cases, etc; Of little value as a lumber, it is used mainly for pulp and fuel;
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus montezumae var. montezumae

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Coram Biosphere Reserve 7460 Montana, United States
Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve V   Washington, United States
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
San Juan Island National Historical Park III 1674 Washington, United States


Abgrallaspis ithacae (hemlock scale)[5]
Acleris abietana[6]
Acleris variana (Black-headed budworm)[6]
Adelges piceae (balsam woolly adelgid)[7]
Aseptis binotata (Rusty Shoulder Knot Moth)[6]
Barbara colfaxiana[6]
Blastobasis lignea[7]
Brachmia blandella <Unverified Name>[7]
Caripeta divisata (gray spruce looper)[6]
Chionaspis pinifoliae (pine leaf scale)[5]
Choristoneura fumiferana (eastern spruce budworm)[6]
Choristoneura occidentalis[6]
Choristoneura viridis[6]
Cinara confinis[7]
Coleotechnites atrupictella[6]
Coleotechnites granti[6]
Dasychira grisefacta (Grizzled Tussock)[6]
Dioryctria abietella[7]
Eacles imperialis (Imperial moth)[6]
Enypia griseata[6]
Enypia packardata[6]
Enypia venata[6]
Epinotia subsequana[6]
Eupithecia annulata[6]
Eupithecia harrisonata[6]
Eupithecia longipalpata[6]
Eupithecia luteata[6]
Eupithecia olivacea[6]
Eupithecia palpata (Small Pine Looper)[6]
Eupithecia tantillaria (Dwarf Pug)[7]
Eupithecia transcanadata[6]
Eupithecia unicolor[6]
Eupithecia usurpata[6]
Gabriola dyari[6]
Hapleginella laevifrons[7]
Hofmannophila pseudospretella (Brown house moth)[6]
Hydriomena irata[6]
Hydriomena speciosata[6]
Hylastes cunicularius[7]
Leptoglossus occidentalis (western conifer-seed bug)[8]
Lophocampa argentata (silverspotted tiger moth)[6]
Marmara oregonensis[6]
Megastigmus pinus[7]
Megastigmus spermotrophus[7]
Megastigmus suspectus[7]
Melanolophia imitata (Western Carpet)[6]
Melanophila acuminata[7]
Mindarus abietinus[7]
Neoalcis californiaria (Brown-lined Looper)[6]
Neophasia menapia (Pine butterfly)[6]
Nepytia phantasmaria (phantom hemlock looper)[6]
Nepytia umbrosaria[6]
Operophtera occidentalis[6]
Pammene ochsenheimeriana[6]
Peridroma saucia (variegated cutworm)[6]
Pero behrensaria[6]
Pero morrisonaria (Morrison's Pero)[6]
Promylea lunigerella[6]
Spiramater lutra[6]
Stramenaspis kelloggi (Kellogg scale)[5]
Synaxis pallulata[6]
Syngrapha alias (Hooked Silver Y)[6]
Syngrapha celsa (Western Conifer Looper)[6]
Syngrapha rectangula (Salt and Pepper Looper)[6]
Syngrapha selecta (Chosen Looper Moth)[6]
Tamiasciurus douglasii (Douglas's squirrel)[9]
Thallophaga hyperborea (Northern Thallophaga)[6]
Urocerus gigas <Unverified Name>[7]
Xestia mustelina[6]
Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana (Spruce bud moth)[6]
Arborimus pomo (Sonoma tree vole)[10]


Shelter for 
Arborimus pomo (Sonoma tree vole)[10]

Range Map

SW Canada, NW USA: south to N California. TDWG: 71 BRC 73 IDA MNT ORE WAS 76 CAL; SW. Canada, NW. U.S.A.: south to N. California TDWG: 71 BRC 73 IDA MNT ORE WAS 76 CAL;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
4Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
5Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
7Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
8Negron, Jose F. 1995. Cone and Seed Insects Associated with Piñon Pine. In: Shaw, Douglas W.; Aldon, Earl F.; LoSapio, Carol, technical coordinators. Desired future conditions for piñon- juniper ecosystems: Proceedings of the symposium; 1994 August 8-12; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-258. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 97-106.
9Tamiasciurus douglasii, Michael A. Steele, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 630, pp. 1-8 (1999)
10Arborimus pomo, Michael D. Adam and John P. Hayes, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 593, pp. 1-5 (1998)
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Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access