Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Abies > Abies fraseri
 

Abies fraseri (Fraser fir; Southern fir; Southern balsam fir; She-balsam; Fraser's fir; Fraser balsam fir)

Synonyms: Abies americana; Abies balsamea subsp. fraseri; Abies balsamea var. fraseri; Abies humilis; Picea balsamea var. fraseri; Picea fraseri; Pinus balsamea var. fraseri; Pinus fraseri
Language: Fre; Ger; Hun; Ita

Wikipedia Abstract

The Fraser fir, Abies fraseri, is a species of fir native to the Appalachian Mountains of the Southeastern United States.Abies fraseri is closely related to Balsam fir (Abies balsamea), of which it has occasionally been treated as a subspecies (as A. balsamea subsp. fraseri (Pursh) E.Murray) or a variety (as A. balsamea var. fraseri (Pursh) Spach).
View Wikipedia Record: Abies fraseri

Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Abies fraseri

Attributes

Height [3]  49 feet (15 m)
Width [1]  17 feet (5.3 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Moderate
Shade Percentage [1]  91 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 7 Low Temperature: 0 F° (-17.8 C°) → 10 F° (-12.2 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Mostly Shady
Soil Acidity [2]  Very Acid
Soil Fertility [2]  Infertile
Water Use [1]  Low
Flower Color [2]  Purple
Foliage Color [2]  Dark Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  90 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Moderate
Hazards [3]  The oleoresin (Canada balsam) can cause dermatitis in some people;
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  6 inches (15 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Medium
Seeds Per [2]  60800 / lb (134041 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [4]  0.38
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  Wood - light, soft, coarse grained, not strong; It is occasionally manufactured into lumber; The following uses are for the closely related A. balsamea. Since this species also has blisters of resin in the bark[81], the uses quite probably also apply here. The balsamic resin 'Balm of Gilead';. Another report says that it is a turpentine; It is used medicinally, also in the manufacture of glues, candles and as a cement for microscopes and slides - it has a high refractive index resembling that of glass; The average yield is about 8 - 10 oz per tree; The resin is also a fixative in soaps and perfumery; Leaves are a stuffing material for pillows etc - they impart a pleasant scent[46, 61] and also repel moths[169]
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Abies fraseri

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   North Carolina, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Mount Mitchell State Park   North Carolina, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  

Predators

Chionaspis heterophyllae (pine scale)[5]
Chionaspis pinifoliae (pine leaf scale)[5]
Dasychira manto[6]
Dioryctria abietella[7]
Dioryctria abietivorella[6]
Fiorinia externa (elongate hemlock scale)[5]
Prociphilus fraxini[8]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Chrysobothris pusilla[7]
Pyrularia pubera (buffalo nut)[7]

Range Map

U.S.A.: W. North Carolina, E. Tennessee, SW. Virginia (Appalachian Mts.) TDWG: 78 NCA TEN VRG; USA: W North Carolina, E Tennessee, SW Virginia (Appalachian Mts.). TDWG: 78 NCA TEN VRG;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database. 2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture 3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License 4Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service 5Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009 6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández 7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 8Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access