Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Pinus > Pinus edulis

Pinus edulis (Colorado pinyon; Two-needle pinyon pine; twoneedle pinyon; Pinyon pine; Pinyon; Rocky Mountain nut pine; Two-leaf pinyon)

Synonyms: Caryopitys edulis; Pinus cembroides subsp. edulis; Pinus cembroides var. edulis; Pinus monophylla var. edulis
Language: Chi; Fre; Hun; Rus; Spa

Wikipedia Abstract

Pinus edulis, the Colorado pinyon, two-needle pinyon, or piñon pine, is a pine in the pinyon pine group whose ancestor was a member of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora (a group of drought resistant trees) and is native to the United States.
View Wikipedia Record: Pinus edulis


Height [3]  49 feet (15 m)
Width [1]  30 feet (9.2 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Moderate
Shade Percentage [1]  83 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 5 Low Temperature: -20 F° (-28.9 C°) → -10 F° (-23.3 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Full Sun
Soil Acidity [2]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [2]  Intermediate
Water Use [1]  Low
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Bloom Period [2]  Early Summer
Drought Tolerance [2]  High
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  6 months 20 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Slow
Hazards [3]  The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people;
Janka Hardness [4]  860 lbf (390 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  20 inches (51 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Low
Seeds Per [2]  2333 / lb (5143 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Conical
Specific Gravity [5]  0.57
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles; The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat; This species yields a resin, but it is not commercially important. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile; The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood; In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields; Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin; Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc; Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc; Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. The gum (this almost certainly means the resin; It has also been used as a red paint on jars and bowls; For waterproofing containers, the gum was melted and poured inside the container. The container was then turned round to ensure the gum came into contact with all parts of the inside. More gum would then be applied to the outside; The resin has been used as a glue for fixing turquoise in jewellery; The gum has been used, with sumac leaves (Rhus spp) and yellow ochre to make a black dye and ink; The sumac leaves are boiled until there is a strong mixture. Whilst the sumac was boiling, the ochre was powdered and roasted. The gum was then added to the ochre and the whole roasted again. As the roasting proceeded, the gum melted and finally the mixture was reduced to a black powder. This was then cooled and thrown into the sumac mixture, forming a rich blue-black fluid that was essentially an ink; Wood - light, soft, not strong, brittle. Used for fuel, fencing etc; A charcoal made from the wood is used in smelting; The wood makes a good fuel, burning with few sparks being thrown out;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus edulis

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Cedar Breaks National Monument III 6111 Utah, United States
Chiricahua National Monument V 1421 Arizona, United States
Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument III 5997 Colorado, United States
Fort Bowie National Historic Site III 1004 Arizona, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Natural Bridges National Monument III 7412 Utah, United States
Petrified Forest National Park II 44522 Arizona, United States
Pipe Spring National Monument V 41 Arizona, United States
Walnut Canyon National Monument V 3386 Arizona, United States
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Emblem of

New Mexico


Aphelocoma californica (Western Scrub-Jay)[6]
Aphelocoma ultramarina (Mexican Jay)[6]
Chionodes periculella[7]
Coleotechnites edulicola[8]
Coloradia doris[8]
Coloradia velda[8]
Cyanocitta stelleri (Steller's Jay)[6]
Dasychira grisefacta (Grizzled Tussock)[8]
Desmococcus sedentarius[9]
Dioryctria albovittella[7]
Ernobius montanus[7]
Eucosma bobana[8]
Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)[7]
Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus (Pinyon Jay)[6]
Lophocampa ingens[8]
Matsucoccus eduli[9]
Matsucoccus monophyllae[9]
Neophasia menapia (Pine butterfly)[8]
Nucifraga columbiana (Clark's Nutcracker)[6]
Otospermophilus variegatus (rock squirrel)[10]
Patagioenas fasciata (Band-tailed Pigeon)[11]
Peromyscus boylii (brush mouse)[12]
Peromyscus truei (pinyon mouse)[12]
Physokermes coloradensis[9]
Pityococcus ferrisi[9]
Pityococcus rugulosus[9]
Sciurus aberti (Abert's squirrel)[13]
Stenoporpia pulmonaria[8]
Stramenaspis kelloggi (Kellogg scale)[9]
Tamias cinereicollis (gray-collared chipmunk)[14]
Tamias panamintinus (panamint chipmunk)[15]
Tamias rufus (Hopi chipmunk)[16]

Range Map

SW USA: Arizona, S California, Colorado, New Mexico, W Oklahoma, NW Texas, Utah, S Wyoming.. TDWG: 73 COL WYO 74 OKL 76 ARI CAL UTA 77 NWM TEX; SW. U.S.A., Arizona, S. California, Colorado, New Mexico, W. Oklahoma, NW. Texas, Utah, S. Wyoming TDWG: 73 COL WYO 74 OKL 76 ARI CAL UTA 77 NWM TEX;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6Balda, Russell P. and Kamil, Alan, Linking Life Zones, Life History Traits, Ecology, and Spatial Cognition in Four Allopatric Southwestern Seed Caching Corvids (2006). Papers in Behavior and Biological Sciences. Paper 36.
7Negron, Jose F. 1995. Cone and Seed Insects Associated with Piñon Pine. In: Shaw, Douglas W.; Aldon, Earl F.; LoSapio, Carol, technical coordinators. Desired future conditions for piñon- juniper ecosystems: Proceedings of the symposium; 1994 August 8-12; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-258. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 97-106.
8HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
9Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
10Spermophilus variegatus, Emily C. Oaks, Paul J. Young, Gordon L. Kirkland, Jr., and David F. Schmidt, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 272, pp. 1-8 (1987)
11Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
12Food Habits of Rodents Inhabiting Arid and Semi-arid Ecosystems of Central New Mexico, ANDREW G. HOPE AND ROBERT R. PARMENTER, Special Publication of the Museum of Southwestern Biology, NUMBER 9, pp. 1–75 (2007)
14Tamias cinereicollis, Clayton D. Hilton and Troy L. Best, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 436, pp. 1-5 (1993)
15Tamias panamintinus, Troy L. Best, Robin G. Clawson, and Joseph A. Clawson, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 468, pp. 1-7 (1994)
16Tamias rufus, Stephanie L. Burt and Troy L. Best, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 460, pp. 1-6 (1994)
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access