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Larix decidua (European larch; Common larch)

Language: Chi; Cze; Dut; Fre; Ger; Hrv, Srp; Hun; Ita; Nor; Pol; Por; Rus; Slo; Spa; Swe

Wikipedia Abstract

Larix decidua, common name European larch, is a species of larch native to the mountains of central Europe, in the Alps and Carpathian Mountains, with disjunct lowland populations in northern Poland and southern Lithuania.
View Wikipedia Record: Larix decidua

Infraspecies

Attributes

Height [3]  148 feet (45 m)
Width [3]  49 feet (15 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Shade Percentage [1]  91 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  High
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 6 Low Temperature: -10 F° (-23.3 C°) → 0 F° (-17.8 C°)
Light Preference [6]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [6]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [6]  Mostly Infertile
Soil Moisture [6]  Mostly Dry
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Flower Color [2]  Red
Foliage Color [2]  Yellow
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Fall Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  None
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  None
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  90 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Low
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Winter
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Winter
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Moderate
Janka Hardness [4]  740 lbf (336 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [5]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  3.3 feet (102 cm)
Scent [3]  The young shoots have a delicate mossy fragrance as the leaves unfold.
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Moderate
Seed Vigor [2]  Medium
Seeds Per [2]  76960 / lb (169668 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [7]  0.474
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  Large quantities of resin are obtained by tapping the trunk; Small holes are bored into the trunk, most resin being obtained from near the centre of the trunk; When properly made, the same borehole can be used for 20 - 30 years; The resin has a wide range of uses including wood preservatives, varnish, medicinal etc; It needs no preparation other than straining through a cloth to remove plant debris etc; The hole is made in the spring and the resin extracted in the autumn; Resin can be extracted from May to October; The yield is about 40 grams per tree; A fast-growing tree that establishes itself rapidly and is also said to improve the quality of the soil, the larch can be used as a pioneer species on cleared and exposed land in order to assist the establishment of other woodland trees; The bark contains tannin; This is much utilized in N. Europe; On a 10% moisture basis, the bark contains 11.6% tannin; Wood - durable, tough, elastic, easy to split, takes a good polish; Larch produces one of the toughest woods obtained from conifers and is also resistant to woodworm; It is widely used in construction, for railway sleepers, cabinet work etc;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Larix decidua

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bath and Bradford-on-Avon Bats 265 England, United Kingdom  
Beinn Eighe National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Craven Limestone Complex 13166 England, United Kingdom
Dartmoor 57244 England, United Kingdom
Dornoch Firth and Morrich More 21499 Scotland, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary 38085 Scotland, United Kingdom
Foresta di Legnoli 820 Italy  
Fort Necessity National Battlefield III 1019 Pennsylvania, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Ingleborough Complex 14256 England, United Kingdom
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Johnstown Flood National Memorial VI 175 Pennsylvania, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Lake District High Fells 66717 England, United Kingdom
Merrick Kells 21494 Scotland, United Kingdom
Migneint–Arenig–Dduallt 49343 Wales, United Kingdom
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay Pavements 6449 England, United Kingdom
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North Somerset and Mendip Bats 1387 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve IV 12219 Moscow, Russia
Rum 26775 Scotland, United Kingdom
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
Solent Maritime 27985 England, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Tulach Hill and Glen Fender Meadows 3912 Scotland, United Kingdom
Val Caffaro 3059 Italy  
Val Grigna 7099 Italy  
Wast Water 707 England, United Kingdom

Ecosystems

Predators

Adelges laricis[8]
Adelges viridis[8]
Anoplonyx destructor <Unverified Name>[8]
Anthaxia quadripunctata <Unverified Name>[9]
Aphelia viburniana[10]
Aradus cinnamomeus <Unverified Name>[8]
Aradus corticalis <Unverified Name>[8]
Archips oporana[10]
Argyresthia laevigatella[10]
Argyresthia laricella[10]
Argyrotaenia ljungiana[10]
Atolmis rubricollis (Red-necked Footman Moth)[8]
Bibio johannis[8]
Bibio nigriventris[8]
Biston betularia (peppered moth)[10]
Boidinia peroxydata[11]
Bupalus piniaria[10]
Calliprason pallidus[12]
Cephalcia lariciphila <Unverified Name>[8]
Ceramica pisi <Unverified Name>[8]
Cinara cuneomaculata[8]
Cinara kochiana[8]
Cinara laricis (larch aphid)[8]
Clepsis senecionana (Rustic Tortrix)[10]
Clinodiplosis cilicrus[8]
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Hawfinch)[9]
Coleophora laricella (larch casebearer)[10]
Coleophora obducta[10]
Coleophora sibiricella[10]
Coniophora arida[11]
Corticaria linearis <Unverified Name>[8]
Cydia illutana[8]
Dasineura kellneri[8]
Dasineura laricis <Unverified Name>[8]
Declana floccosa (Forest Semilooper)[10]
Declana hermione[10]
Declana junctilinea[10]
Deileptenia ribeata (Satin Beauty Moth)[8]
Dendrophagus crenatus <Unverified Name>[8]
Dioryctria abietella[8]
Ditula angustiorana (Red-barred Tortrix)[10]
Dryocoetes autographus[8]
Dryophilus pusillus <Unverified Name>[8]
Earomyia viridana[8]
Ectropis crepuscularia (small engrailed)[8]
Eilema lurideola (Common Footman Moth)[8]
Eilema sororcula (Orange Footman)[8]
Epirrita autumnata <Unverified Name>[8]
Epirrita filigrammaria <Unverified Name>[8]
Ernobius mollis (Pine bark anobiid)[8]
Euophryum confine <Unverified Name>[8]
Eupithecia indigata (Ochreous Pug Moth)[10]
Eupithecia lariciata (Larch Pug)[10]
Eupithecia nanata (Narrow-winged Pug)[10]
Eupithecia tantillaria (Dwarf Pug)[8]
Gastrodes grossipes grossipes[8]
Hapleginella laevifrons[8]
Harmologa oblongana[12]
Hierodoris illita <Unverified Name>[12]
Hylaea fasciaria (Barred Red Moth)[8]
Hypomecis punctinalis <Unverified Name>[8]
Ips cembrae[8]
Laspeyria flexula (Beautiful Hook-tip)[8]
Loxia curvirostra (Red Crossbill)[9]
Lozotaenia forsterana[10]
Lycoriella solani <Unverified Name>[8]
Magdalis duplicata[8]
Megastigmus pictus <Unverified Name>[8]
Melanchra persicariae (Dot Moth)[8]
Odontopera bidentata (Scalloped Hazel)[10]
Oecophora bractella[8]
Pachynematus imperfectus <Unverified Name>[8]
Pandemis cinnamomeana[10]
Panolis flammea (Pine Beauty)[10]
Pissodes castaneus[8]
Prionophus reticularis <Unverified Name>[12]
Pristiphora erichsonii (larch sawfly)[8]
Pristiphora glauca <Unverified Name>[8]
Pristiphora laricis <Unverified Name>[8]
Pristiphora wesmaeli <Unverified Name>[8]
Pseudocoremia fenerata[10]
Pseudocoremia suavis (Common Forest Looper)[10]
Ptycholoma lecheana[10]
Ptycholomoides aeriferana[10]
Pyrgotis plagiatana[10]
Pyronota festiva[12]
Semiothisa liturata[8]
Semiothisa oweni[10]
Semiothisa sexmaculata[10]
Sirex cyaneus (blue horntail)[8]
Sirex juvencus <Unverified Name>[8]
Sitona lineatus (Striped Pea Weevil)[8]
Sphinx pinastri (Pine Hawkmoth)[10]
Spilonota laricana <Unverified Name>[8]
Spilonota ocellana (Eyespotted bud moth)[10]
Stolotermes ruficeps[12]
Strobilomyia infrequens[8]
Strobilomyia melania[8]
Strophosomus capitatus[8]
Syndemis musculana[10]
Tetropium castaneum[8]
Tetropium gabrieli[8]
Thera britannica (Spruce Carpet Moth)[8]
Tortrix flavescens[10]
Trisetacus laricis <Unverified Name>[8]
Trisetacus pini <Unverified Name>[8]
Urocerus gigas <Unverified Name>[8]
Valsa abietis[11]
Xeris spectrum <Unverified Name>[8]
Zale helata (Brown-spotted Zale)[10]
Zeiraphera diniana[10]

Providers

Mutual (symbiont) 
Amanita porphyria (Grey Veiled Amanita)[9]
Amanita submembranacea[9]
Cortinarius camphoratus (Goatcheese Webcap)[9]
Macrolepiota procera (parasol mushroom)[9]
Scleroderma citrinum (Common Earthball)[9]
Suillus grevillei (Larch Bolete)[9]
Xerocomellus chrysenteron (Red Cracking Bolete)[9]

Consumers

Mutual (symbiont) 
Agaricus capensis (Fly Agaric)[9]
Cortinarius camphoratus (Goatcheese Webcap)[9]
Gomphidius maculatus[11]
Lactarius rufus (Rufous Milkcap)[9]
Macrolepiota procera (parasol mushroom)[9]
Paxillus involutus (Brown Rollrim)[9]
Scleroderma citrinum (Common Earthball)[9]
Suillus cavipes (Hollow Bolete)[11]
Suillus grevillei (Larch Bolete)[9]
Suillus tridentinus[11]
Suillus viscidus (Sticky Bolete)[11]
Tricholoma virgatum (Ashen Knight)[9]
Tylopilus sordidus (Cep)[9]
Parasitized by 
Armillaria ostoyae (Dark Honey Fungus)[9]
Heterobasidion annosum (Root Rot)[9]
Laetiporus sulphureus (Chicken of the Woods)[11]
Melampsora laricis-populina[11]
Melampsora populnea[11]
Phaeolus schweinitzii (Dyer’s Mazegill)[9]

Distribution

Europe: Alps, Carpathians, Slovenian Mts., S Poland. TDWG: 11 AUT-AU AUT-LI CZE-CZ CZE-SK GER POL SWI 12 FRA-FR 13 ITA-IT ROM YUG-SL 14 UKR-MO UKR-UK; Europe: Alps, Carpathians, Slovenian Mts., S. Poland TDWG: 11 AUT-AU AUT-LI CZE-CZ CZE-SK GER POL SWI 12 FRA-FR 13 ITA-IT ROM YUG-SL 14 UKR-MO UKR-UK;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
6ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
7Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
8Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
9Ecology of Commanster
10HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
11Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
12New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Chippewa Nature Center
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access