Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Picea > Picea abies

Picea abies (Norway spruce; Common spruce)

Language: Chi; Cze; Dut; Fre; Ger; Hrv, Srp; Hun; Ita; Nor; Pol; Por; Rus; Slo; Spa; Swe

Wikipedia Abstract

Picea abies, the Norway spruce, is a species of spruce native to Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. It has branchlets that typically hang downwards, and the largest cones of any spruce, 9–17 cm (3 1⁄2–6 3⁄4 in) long. It is very closely related to the Siberian spruce (Picea obovata), which replaces it east of the Ural Mountains, and with which it hybridises freely. The Norway spruce is widely planted for its wood, and is the species used as the main Christmas tree in several cities around the world. It was the first gymnosperm to have its genome sequenced, and one clone has been measured as 9,550 years old.
View Wikipedia Record: Picea abies



Height [3]  98 feet (30 m)
Width [3]  33 feet (10 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-High
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Dense
Shade Percentage [1]  91 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  High
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 7 Low Temperature: 0 F° (-17.8 C°) → 10 F° (-12.2 C°)
Light Preference [6]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [6]  Mostly Acid
Soil Fertility [6]  Mostly Infertile
Soil Moisture [6]  Moist
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Dark Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Medium
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  3 months 10 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Slow
Janka Hardness [4]  420 lbf (191 kgf) Very Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [5]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  28 inches (71 cm)
Scent [3]  The bruised leaves emit a delicious musky smell;
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Medium
Seeds Per [2]  64000 / lb (141096 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Climbing
Specific Gravity [7]  0.39
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  The tree is a source of pitch (Burgundy pitch) and turpentine (Jura turpentine); Burgundy pitch is used as a varnish and in medicinal plasters; It is a strong adhesive; The turpentine is a waterproofer and wood preservative. They are obtained by incisions in the trunk, the resin is scraped out some months later; An essential oil from the leaves is used in perfumery; The seed contains 30% of a fatty oil, this is used in the production of a varnish; The bark contains some tannin; Both the bark and bark extract have been widely used in Europe as a source of tannin, the bark containing up to 13% tannin; Yields of tannin have been doubled by heating or steaming the bark as soon as possible after the tree has been felled; A fairly wind resistant tree and fast growing, it can be planted in shelterbelts to provide protection from the wind; The dwarf cultivar 'Inversa' can be grown as a ground cover plant in a sunny position; The cultivars 'Reflexa' and 'Procumbens' can also be used; They are best spaced about 1 metre apart each way; Wood - medium hard, fairly elastic, durable under water, light in weight and colour. Used for general carpentry, joinery, musical instruments etc. Valued for its use in the pulp industry to make paper;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Picea abies

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd/ Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains 67265 Wales, United Kingdom
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Clyde Valley Woods 1074 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Craven Limestone Complex 13166 England, United Kingdom
Dammer Moor 420 Germany  
Dünen Dabendorf 47 Germany  
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fort Necessity National Battlefield III 1019 Pennsylvania, United States
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Große Hölle 46 Germany  
Hackpen Hill 89 England, United Kingdom  
Herbert Hoover National Historic Site   Iowa, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Johnstown Flood National Memorial VI 175 Pennsylvania, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Migneint–Arenig–Dduallt 49343 Wales, United Kingdom
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Mount Mitchell State Park   North Carolina, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Preschener Mühlbusch 56 Germany  
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve IV 12219 Moscow, Russia
Reuthener Moor 231 Germany  
River Tweed 9380 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Schwarzer Tanger 351 Germany  
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Suden bei Gorden 221 Germany  
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Thursley, Ash, Pirbright and Chobham 12696 England, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Val Caffaro 3059 Italy  
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Weinberge - Klüssenberge bei Perleberg 311 Germany  
Zerna 42 Germany  
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  



Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)[8]
Acleris abietana[9]
Acleris variana (Black-headed budworm)[9]
Adelges abietis (Aphid)[10]
Adelges cooleyi (Cooley spruce gall adelgid)[8]
Adelges laricis[10]
Adelges viridis[10]
Alcis jubata[10]
Alcis repandata (Mottled Beauty)[10]
Anthaxia quadripunctata[8]
Anthonomus britannus[10]
Anthonomus varians[10]
Aphanobasidium pseudotsugae[11]
Aphelia viburniana[9]
Aphrophora corticea[8]
Apodemus flavicollis (Yellow-necked mouse)[8]
Apodemus sylvaticus (Old World wood and field mouse)[8]
Aradus cinnamomeus <Unverified Name>[10]
Archips oporana[9]
Archips packardiana[9]
Archips pulchra[9]
Argyresthia certella[9]
Argyresthia glabratella[9]
Armillaria borealis[11]
Armillaria ostoyae[8]
Assara cedrella[9]
Assara pinivora[9]
Assara terebrella[9]
Athelia bombacina[11]
Atolmis rubricollis (Red-necked Footman Moth)[10]
Atractotomus magnicornis[8]
Atractotomus parvulus[10]
Baeospora myosura (Conifercone Cap)[8]
Balclutha punctata[8]
Barbara margarotana[9]
Batrachedra pinicolella[9]
Botanobia dubia <Unverified Name>[10]
Botanobia fascipes <Unverified Name>[10]
Bupalus piniaria[9]
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Carnation Tortrix)[10]
Calycina subtilis[11]
Camptozygum aequale[10]
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)[8]
Caripeta angustiorata (brown pine looper)[9]
Cecidomyia magna[10]
Cecidomyia pini[10]
Cephalcia arvensis <Unverified Name>[8]
Ceratosporella novae-zelandiae[11]
Certhia familiaris[8]
Chalara cylindrica[11]
Chionaspis pinifoliae (pine leaf scale)[12]
Chionodes electella[9]
Chloris chloris[8]
Choristoneura fumiferana (eastern spruce budworm)[9]
Cinara costata[10]
Cinara piceae[10]
Cinara piceicola[8]
Cinara pilicornis[10]
Cinara pruinosa[10]
Clinodiplosis cilicrus[8]
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Hawfinch)[8]
Coleotechnites martini[9]
Coleotechnites piceaella (Orange Spruce Needleminer)[9]
Colpoma crispum[11]
Cosmotriche lobulina[9]
Cryphalus abietis[10]
Cryphalus piceae[10]
Cryptophagus subdepressus <Unverified Name>[10]
Ctenopseustis obliquana[9]
Cydia duplicana[9]
Cydia illutana[9]
Cydia pactolana (Spruce Bark Tortrix)[9]
Cydia strobilella <Unverified Name>[8]
Cydia youngana[9]
Cymolomia hartigiana[9]
Cytotriplospora pini[11]
Dactylaria lepida[11]
Dasineura abietiperda[10]
Dasychira plagiata (Northern Pine Tussock)[9]
Deileptenia ribeata (Satin Beauty Moth)[8]
Dendrocopos major (Great Spotted Woodpecker)[8]
Dendroctonus micans (European spruce beetle)[8]
Dendrolimus pini (Pine-tree Lappet)[9]
Dichelia histrionana[9]
Dichomeris latipennella[9]
Dioryctria abietella[9]
Dioryctria schuetzeella <Unverified Name>[8]
Dioryctria sylvestrella[9]
Dryocoetes autographus[10]
Dryophilus pusillus <Unverified Name>[10]
Dynaspidiotus abietis (hemlock scale)[10]
Earomyia schistopyga[10]
Eilema sororcula (Orange Footman)[10]
Elaphria versicolor (Variegated Midget)[9]
Elatobium abietinum (Spruce aphid)[10]
Endothenia albolineana[9]
Epermenia albapunctella[9]
Epinotia cineracea[9]
Epinotia meritana (White-Fir Needle Miner)[9]
Epinotia nanana[9]
Epinotia normanana[9]
Epinotia pygmaeana (Pygmy Needle Tortricid)[9]
Epinotia subsequana[9]
Epinotia tedella[9]
Eremotes ater[10]
Ernobius angusticollis <Unverified Name>[10]
Ernobius mollis (Pine bark anobiid)[10]
Eucosma gloriola[9]
Eucosma pylonitis[9]
Eupithecia abietaria (Cloaked Pug Moth)[9]
Eupithecia conterminata[9]
Eupithecia indigata (Ochreous Pug Moth)[10]
Eupithecia lanceata[9]
Eupithecia lariciata (Larch Pug)[10]
Eupithecia nanata (Narrow-winged Pug)[9]
Eupithecia tantillaria (Dwarf Pug)[9]
Exoteleia pinifoliella (Pine needle miner)[9]
Fomitopsis pinicola[8]
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)[8]
Fusicoccum pini[11]
Ganoderma lucidum[11]
Gastrodes abietum (Spruce Cone Bug)[8]
Gastrodes grossipes grossipes[10]
Gilpinia hercyniae (European spruce sawfly)[10]
Gilpinia polytoma <Unverified Name>[8]
Glis glis (fat dormouse)[13]
Gloiothele lactescens[8]
Gravitarmata amethystana[9]
Hadrobregmus magnus <Unverified Name>[14]
Hapleginella laevifrons[10]
Heliococcus bohemicus (Bohemian mealybug)[12]
Heliostibes atychioides[9]
Heterobasidion annosum[8]
Hydriomena divisaria[9]
Hylaea fasciaria (Barred Red Moth)[9]
Hylastes angustatus[10]
Hylastes brunneus[10]
Hylastes cunicularius[10]
Hylobius abietis (pine weevil)[10]
Hyloicus pinastri <Unverified Name>[10]
Hylurgops palliatus[10]
Hyphoderma cremeoalbum[11]
Hyphodontia barba-jovis[11]
Hypochnicium lyndoniae[11]
Hypochnicium pruinosum[11]
Ips acuminatus[10]
Ips sexdentatus[10]
Ips typographus (Engraver Beetle)[8]
Kaltenbachiola strobi[10]
Laspeyria flexula (Beautiful Hook-tip)[10]
Leucocoprinus birnbaumii[11]
Leucostoma kunzei[11]
Linaria cannabina (Common Linnet)[8]
Lirula macrospora[11]
Lophocampa argentata (silverspotted tiger moth)[9]
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)[8]
Loxia curvirostra (Red Crossbill)[8]
Lozotaenia coniferana[9]
Luellia cystidiata[11]
Lycoriella solani <Unverified Name>[10]
Lymantria monacha (Black Arches, Nun Moth)[9]
Macaria liturata <Unverified Name>[8]
Macaria signaria <Unverified Name>[10]
Magdalis duplicata[10]
Magdalis phlegmatica[10]
Magdalis violacea[10]
Malacodea regelaria[9]
Megastigmus atedius[10]
Melandrya barbata <Unverified Name>[10]
Melanophila acuminata[10]
Monochamus sartor[11]
Mycena capillaripes (Pinkedge Bonnet)[8]
Mycena laevigata <Unverified Name>[8]
Mycena stipata[8]
Neonectria fuckeliana[11]
Nepytia canosaria (false hemlock looper)[9]
Odontopera bidentata (Scalloped Hazel)[9]
Oecophora bractella[10]
Orthotomicus erosus[10]
Orthotomicus suturalis[10]
Oudemansiella melanotricha[8]
Pachynematus montanus <Unverified Name>[10]
Pachynematus scutellatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Pachypappa tremulae[10]
Palthis angulalis (Dark-spotted Palthis)[9]
Pammene ochsenheimeriana[9]
Pammene shicotanica[9]
Panthea coenobita[9]
Peribatodes rhomboidaria (Willow Beauty)[10]
Peribatodes secundaria (Feathered Beauty)[9]
Periparus ater (Coal Tit)[8]
Phaeolus schweinitzii[8]
Phanerochaete sordida[11]
Phenacoccus piceae (spruce mealybug)[12]
Phlebia tremellosa (Jelly Rot)[11]
Phlebiella christiansenii[11]
Phlebiopsis gigantea[11]
Pholiota squarrosa[8]
Phomopsis velata[11]
Physokermes hemicryphus (small spruce-bud scale)[12]
Physokermes inopinatus (hungarian spruce scale)[12]
Physokermes picaefoliae <Unverified Name>[12]
Physokermes piceae[10]
Pikonema alaskensis (yellowheaded spruce sawfly)[11]
Pineus pineoides[10]
Pineus pini (Eurasian pine adelgid)[10]
Pineus similis[10]
Pissodes pini[10]
Pityogenes chalcographus[8]
Platypus apicalis[14]
Polydrusus impar[8]
Polydrusus marginatus[8]
Polygraphus poligraphus[10]
Pristiphora abietina <Unverified Name>[10]
Pristiphora ambigua <Unverified Name>[10]
Pristiphora compressa <Unverified Name>[8]
Pristiphora pseudodecipiens <Unverified Name>[10]
Pristiphora saxsenii <Unverified Name>[10]
Pristiphora subarctica <Unverified Name>[10]
Prociphilus pini[10]
Pulicalvaria piceaella <Unverified Name>[10]
Puto antennatus (conifer mealybug)[12]
Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Eurasian Bullfinch)[8]
Retinia monopunctata[9]
Rhagium bifasciatum (two-banded longhorn beetle)[8]
Rhizochaete radicata[11]
Rhizoecus falcifer (ground mealybug)[12]
Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii[11]
Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae staphyleae[10]
Rhyncolus truncorum[10]
Sacchiphantes abietis <Unverified Name>[8]
Sciurus vulgaris (Eurasian red squirrel)[8]
Semiothisa liturata[9]
Semiothisa signaria[9]
Sidera vulgaris[11]
Sirex cyaneus (blue horntail)[10]
Sirex juvencus <Unverified Name>[10]
Sirex noctilio[10]
Sistotrema citriforme[11]
Sitta europaea (Eurasian Nuthatch)[8]
Skeletocutis kuehneri[11]
Sparassis crispa (Wood Cauliflower)[8]
Sphinx pinastri (Pine Hawkmoth)[9]
Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker)[11]
Spinus spinus (Eurasian Siskin)[8]
Stenolechia trichaspis[9]
Stenoma tricapsis[9]
Stenurella melanura[8]
Stolotermes ruficeps[14]
Strobilurus esculentus (Sprucecone Cap)[8]
Strophosoma melanogrammum[8]
Tetrao urogallus (Western Capercaillie)[15]
Thera britannica (Spruce Carpet Moth)[9]
Thera obeliscata (Grey Pine Carpet Moth)[9]
Thera variata (Spruce Carpet)[9]
Tolype laricis[9]
Tomicus minor[10]
Tomicus piniperda (common pine shoot beetle)[10]
Tryblidiopsis pinastri[11]
Trypodendron lineatum (striped ambrosia beetle)[11]
Tubulicrinis sororius[11]
Tylospora fibrillosa[11]
Urocerus augur <Unverified Name>[10]
Urocerus fantoma <Unverified Name>[10]
Urocerus gigas <Unverified Name>[10]
Valsa abietis[11]
Xenasmatella vaga[11]
Xeris spectrum <Unverified Name>[10]
Xylechinus pilosus[10]
Xyloterus lineatum <Unverified Name>[10]
Zeiraphera diniana[9]
Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana (Spruce bud moth)[9]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Agaricus capensis (Fly Agaric)[8]
Amanita citrina (Olive Brittlegill)[8]
Amanita pantherina (Panther Amanita)[8]
Amanita phalloides (Deathcap)[8]
Amanita porphyria (Grey Veiled Amanita)[8]
Amanita rubescens[8]
Amanita submembranacea[8]
Ampulloclitocybe clavipes (Club Foot)[8]
Boletus subtomentosus (Suede Bolete)[8]
Caloboletus frustosus (Bitter Beech Bolete)[8]
Cantharellus cibarius (Chanterelle)[8]
Chalciporus piperatus (Peppery Bolete)[8]
Chlorophyllum rachodes (Shaggy Parasol)[8]
Clitocybe diatreta (Leather-coloured Clitocybe)[8]
Clitopilus prunulus (The Miller)[8]
Cortinarius anomalus (Variable Webcap)[8]
Cortinarius bataillei[8]
Cortinarius bulbosus[8]
Cortinarius camphoratus (Goatcheese Webcap)[8]
Cortinarius cinnamomeus (Cinnamon Webcap)[8]
Cortinarius evernius[8]
Cortinarius flexipes (Pelargonium Webcap)[8]
Cortinarius fulvescens[8]
Cortinarius malachius[8]
Cortinarius renidens[8]
Cortinarius rubellus (Deadly Webcap)[8]
Cortinarius salor[8]
Cortinarius semisanguineus (Surprise Webcap)[8]
Cortinarius sommerfeltii[8]
Cortinarius spilomeus (Freckled Webcap)[8]
Cortinarius traganus (Gassy Webcap)[8]
Cortinarius transiens[8]
Cortinarius variicolor[8]
Gomphidius glutinosus (Slimy Spike)[8]
Hebeloma candidipes[8]
Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Poisonpie)[8]
Hebeloma incarnatulum[8]
Hebeloma mesophaeum (Veiled Poison Pie)[8]
Hydnum albidum (Wood Hedgehog)[8]
Hydnum rufescens (Terracotta Hedgehog)[8]
Hygrophorus agathosmus (Almond Woodwax)[8]
Hygrophorus olivaceoalbus[8]
Hygrophorus pustulatus[8]
Imleria badia (Bay Bolete)[8]
Inocybe cervicolor[8]
Inocybe grammata[8]
Inocybe mixtilis[8]
Inocybe napipes (Bulbous Fibrecap)[8]
Inocybe sindonia[8]
Inocybe umbratica[8]
Laccaria bicolor (Bicoloured Deceiver)[8]
Laccaria laccata (Deceiver)[8]
Lactarius camphoratus (Curry Milkcap)[8]
Lactarius cookei[8]
Lactarius deterrimus (False Saffron Milkcap)[8]
Lactarius flexuosus[8]
Lactarius fuliginosus (Sooty Milkcap)[8]
Lactarius glyciosmus (Coconut Milkcap)[8]
Lactarius helvus (Fenugreek Milkcap)[8]
Lactarius hepaticus (Liver Milkcap)[8]
Lactarius hysginus[8]
Lactarius lignyotus[8]
Lactarius mammosus[8]
Lactarius rufus (Rufous Milkcap)[8]
Lactarius sphagneti[8]
Lactarius tabidus (Birch Milkcap)[8]
Lactarius trivialis[8]
Lactarius turpis (Ugly Milkcap)[8]
Lactarius volemus[8]
Lycoperdon perlatum (Common Puffball)[8]
Paxillus involutus (Brown Rollrim)[8]
Phallus impudicus (common stinkhorn)[8]
Porphyrellus sordidus (Cep)[8]
Rodwaya infundibuliformis[8]
Russula adusta (Blackening Brittlegill)[8]
Russula aeruginea (Green Brittlegill)[8]
Russula atrorubens[8]
Russula aurora (Rosy Brittlegill)[8]
Russula azurea[8]
Russula badia (Burning Brittlegill)[8]
Russula betularum (Birch Brittlegill)[8]
Russula consobrina[8]
Russula cuprea[8]
Russula decolorans (Copper Brittlegill)[8]
Russula emetica (Sickener)[8]
Russula foetens (Stinking Brittlegill)[8]
Russula fragilis[8]
Russula melitodes (Entire Russula)[8]
Russula mustelina (Russet Brittlegill)[8]
Russula ochroleuca (Ochre Brittlegill)[8]
Russula paludosa[8]
Russula puellaris (Yellowing Brittlegill)[8]
Russula queletii (Fruity Brittlegill)[8]
Russula rhodopus[8]
Russula taeniospora[8]
Russula turci[8]
Russula vesca (The Flirt)[8]
Russula vinosa (Darkening Brittlegill)[8]
Russula xerampelina (Crab Brittlegill)[8]
Thelephora terrestris (Earthfan)[8]
Tricholoma fulvum (Birch Knight)[8]
Tricholoma portentosum[8]
Tricholoma saponaceum (soap-scented toadstool)[8]
Tricholoma sejunctum (Deceiving Knight)[8]
Tricholoma terreum (Grey Knight)[8]
Tricholoma vaccinum (Scaly Knight)[8]
Tricholoma virgatum (Ashen Knight)[8]
Tylopilus felleus (Bitter Bolete)[8]
Xerocomellus chrysenteron (Red Cracking Bolete)[8]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Caloboletus calopus (bitter beech bolete)[11]
Cantharellus cibarius (Chanterelle)[8]
Chlorophyllum rachodes (Shaggy Parasol)[8]
Clitopilus prunulus (The Miller)[8]
Cortinarius callisteus[11]
Cortinarius cinnamomeoluteus[11]
Cortinarius cinnamomeus (Cinnamon Webcap)[11]
Cortinarius collinitus[11]
Cortinarius imbutus[11]
Cortinarius malicorius[11]
Cortinarius sanguineus (Bloodred Webcap)[11]
Cortinarius semisanguineus (Surprise Webcap)[11]
Gomphidius glutinosus (Slimy Spike)[8]
Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Poisonpie)[8]
Hydnum albidum (Wood Hedgehog)[8]
Hygrophorus olivaceoalbus[8]
Inocybe napipes (Bulbous Fibrecap)[8]
Laccaria bicolor (Bicoloured Deceiver)[8]
Laccaria laccata (Deceiver)[8]
Lactarius rufus (Rufous Milkcap)[8]
Lycoperdon perlatum (Common Puffball)[8]
Paxillus involutus (Brown Rollrim)[8]
Phallus impudicus (common stinkhorn)[8]
Russula nauseosa[11]
Russula queletii (Fruity Brittlegill)[11]
Sebacina incrustans (Enveloping Crust)[11]
Thelephora terrestris (Earthfan)[8]
Tricholoma terreum (Grey Knight)[8]
Tylopilus felleus (Bitter Bolete)[8]
Parasitized by 
Adelges cooleyi[8]
Armillaria ostoyae (Dark Honey Fungus)[8]
Chrysomyxa abietis[11]
Chrysomyxa rhododendri[11]
Fomitopsis pinicola (Red Banded Polypore)[8]
Ganoderma lucidum[11]
Heterobasidion annosum (Root Rot)[8]
Mycena laevigata <Unverified Name>[8]
Phaeolus schweinitzii (Dyer’s Mazegill)[8]
Phialea strobilina[11]
Pholiota squarrosa (Shaggy Scalycap)[8]
Pucciniastrum areolatum[11]
Sacchiphantes abietis <Unverified Name>[8]
Sparassis crispa[8]
Shelter for 
Acanthis flammea[8]
Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)[8]
Accipiter nisus (Eurasian Sparrowhawk)[8]
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)[8]
Buteo buteo (Common Buzzard)[8]
Certhia familiaris (Eurasian Treecreeper)[8]
Chloris chloris (European Greenfinch)[8]
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)[8]
Corvus corone (Carrion Crow)[8]
Fringilla coelebs[8]
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)[8]
Lanius excubitor (Northern Shrike)[8]
Loxia curvirostra[8]
Nucifraga caryocatactes (Spotted Nutcracker)[8]
Pyrrhula pyrrhula[8]
Regulus ignicapilla (Common Firecrest)[8]
Regulus regulus (Goldcrest)[8]
Spinus spinus[8]
Sylvia curruca (Lesser Whitethroat)[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


Central (on mountains), N and E Europe, eastward to the Ural Mts., where the species merges with P. obovata. TDWG: 10 FIN NOR SWE 11 AUT-AU AUT-LI CZE-CZ CZE-SK GER HUN POL SWI 12 FRA-FR 13 ALB BUL GRC ITA-IT ROM TUE YUG-BH YUG-CR YUG-KO YUG-MA YUG-MN YUG-SE YUG-SL 14 BLR BLT-ES BLT-LA BLT-LI RUG RUE RUN RUW UKR-MO UKR-UK; Central (on mountains), North and East Europe, eastward to the Ural Mts., where the species merges with P. obovata TDWG: 10 FIN NOR SWE 11 AUT-AU AUT-LI CZE-CZ CZE-SK GER HUN POL SWI 12 FRA-FR 13 ALB BUL GRC ITA-IT ROM TUE YUG-BH YUG-CR YUG-KO YUG-MA YUG-MN YUG-SE YUG-SL 14 BLR BLT-ES BLT-LA BLT-LI RUG RUE RUN RUW UKR-MO UKR-UK;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
6ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
7Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
8Ecology of Commanster
9HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
10Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
11Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
12Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
13Influences of the feeding ecology on body mass and possible implications for reproduction in the edible dormouse (Glis glis), Joanna Fietz, M. Pflug, W. Schlund, F. Tataruch, J Comp Physiol B (2005) 175: 45–55
14New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
15del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Chippewa Nature Center
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access